Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #96G
CSS Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 25, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Daniel Santos Da Silva (Utah State University )
Diversity submission 60. Evaluating Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)-Related Bias Evidenced by Child Welfare Professionals: Application of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE SERENO (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Saundra Bishop (BASICS ABA Therapy)
Abstract:

Child welfare professionals are tasked with protecting and supporting children and families experiencing abuse. Problematic biases related to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) impact this work to deleterious effect. The literature evinces malleability of IPV-related biases. This research is limited by reliance on self-report measures, which are suspectable to response manipulation and may not reliably capture more inceptive responding. We measured IPV-related bias evidenced by child welfare professionals using a multi-method protocol. Participants completed a topic-specific version of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP-IPV), a validated explicit measure, and an IRAP-IPV analog. We administered measures before and after exposing participants to a brief mindfulness intervention. At baseline, the IRAP-IPV reflected moderate pro-healthy parent bias and neutral anti-abused parent bias. Post intervention, the experimental group showed moderate pro-healthy and neutral anti-abused parent biases. The control group showed weak pro-healthy and neutral pro-abused parent bias. Implicit and explicit measures diverged across Abused Parent sub-scales. We discuss findings in terms of interactions between pre-experimental history, contextual variables related to child welfare and IPV, and characteristics of the measurement tools. Our results enhance a functional-contextual understanding of IPV-related biases within child welfare.

 
61. Industrial Hindrance to Moral Failing: Shifting Drug Addiction Narratives
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
HELEN ALEXANDER (Berry College), Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Discussant: Kwadwo O. Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University)
Abstract: The United States has undergone a significant societal transformation, shifting from perceiving substances as hindrances to industrial productivity to morally demonizing drug users, often neglecting the underlying causes of addiction (Fong, 2023). In this paper, we utilize the intersection of cultural materialism and radical behaviorism to explore the foundational factors driving this transformation. We emphasize the impact of historical events, policies, and the pharmaceutical industry’s influence on this societal shift (Fong, 2023). Moreover, we challenge sensationalized drug portrayals, highlighting the pivotal role of environmental conditions and societal structures in shaping addictive behaviors (Hart, 2013). By dissecting the intricate interplay between societal structures, economic disparities, and substance abuse, this paper emphasizes the urgency to address these underlying factors, advocating for an end to the stigmatization and marginalization of individuals. By redirecting the focus from moral blame to systemic issues, society can pave the way for holistic solutions that empower individuals and foster social equity.
 
62. The Contingencies and Metacontingencies of American and Norwegian Prisons
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
LAURA VINING (Berry College), Thom Ratkos (Berry College)
Discussant: Saundra Bishop (BASICS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: The United States contains roughly 5% of the world population, but around 20% of the world’s prison population. We investigated the individual (operant) and societal (metacontingencies or superstructure) factors that contribute to this astonishing statistic. To attempt to better understand why this is, we compared the American correctional system to Norway’s correctional system. Norway has a very low recidivism rate and its rehabilitative model of correction is very different than the retributive model in the United States. We can use a radical behaviorist lens to see why prisons-as-punishment is not an effective behavior change technique, and a cultural materialist lens to understand why systems persist that do not actually make society safer. Contrary to the American system, Norway uses prisons to create a system of learning opportunities for those who have committed crimes, while reinforcing behaviors that will create more successful communities. Norway also has many welfare systems that allow for safe and comfortable prisons beyond those available in the US. Therefore, there is an imposed ceiling on prison reform that cannot exceed the services available outside the prison walls, lest they be used as an escape from the coercive structures present in American society.
 
Diversity submission 63. Stability and Correspondence of Measures for Identifying Racial Bias: A Study Using Repeated Measures
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
DENISE APARECIDA PASSARELLI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Tahcita Medrado Mizael (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Kwadwo O. Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University)
Abstract:

Researchers have employed explicit and implicit evaluative measures to detect anti-Black bias and assess the effectiveness of interventions. However, within the context of behavior analysis, few studies have focused on identifying and intervening in racial prejudice. Furthermore, no studies have utilized repeated implicit behavioral measures to confirm the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study aims to identify implicit and explicit anti-Black racial prejudice in a sample of children and examine the stability of these measures over three repeated trials. Thirty-four children (mean age = 8.60 years, 24 female) evaluated images of Black and White faces using a five-point Likert scale. The Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST), an implicit measure, assessed how fluently participants categorized Black and White faces with positive and negative images. Results indicated the absence of explicit racial bias in the examined sample. However, findings regarding implicit bias revealed a slight anti-Black bias. Concerning the repetition of measures, there were no significant differences in group performance on the implicit and explicit measures across the three repetitions. These findings suggest the absence of mere exposure effects, supporting the feasibility of utilizing these measures repetitively.

 
64. Using CLEAN (Checklist of Living Environments to Assess Neglect) and a Behavioral Intervention to Assess and Increase Cleanliness and Tidiness in the Homes of Two Families in Iceland
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Perla Young (University of Iceland), ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Saundra Bishop (BASICS ABA Therapy)
Abstract:

The most common type of child maltreatment is neglect. Children who are neglected are at a health and developmental risk, therefore they are in great need of help and protection. It is no less important to assist parents to acquire the skills that will make it possible for them to care for their children appropriately and provide a home and environment that will allow them to grow and develop normally. The aim of this study was to use the CLEAN checklist (Greene, 2017; Watson-Perczel et. al, 1988) developed in Project 12-Ways (Lutzker et. al, 1984; Lutzker & Rice, 1984; Lutzker, 1990) with two families receiving services from Child Protection in Reykjavík. This was only the second time that the list was used in Iceland. A behavioral intervention was used to help both participant families to make progress in cleanliness and tidiness as measured by the CLEAN list. The intervention included modelling, clear instructions, goal setting and assignment of tasks, performance feedback, and positive reinforcement for progress and achievement of goals. The intervention effects were evaluated with a multiple baseline across areas in the home with each participant. Unprecedented progress was made with both participants. Social validity scores were high.

 
65. Exploring Macrobehavior Experimentally: Reinforcement of Being Part of the Majority or Being Part of the Minority in an Experimental Group
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
HENRIQUE ANGELO (Mackenzie Presbyterian University), Maria Amalia Andery (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo)
Discussant: Kwadwo O. Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University)
Abstract:

Macrobehavior is the topographical similarities of behaviors by many people within a group. The present study investigated the effects of feedback on a task as a reinforcement for being part of the minority or being part of the majority in a single-subject design. Forty undergraduates were divided in 5-person to analyze the prevalence of black or white in images, but all the images had the same proportion of black and white. An ABACA design was programed for four groups and an ACABA design for the other four, in which A is a baseline, B is reinforcement for the minority (the experimenter announced the same color announced by those who announce colors opposite to the majority) and C is reinforcement for the majority (the correct answer announced was the same of the majority). Only one group showed more frequency consensus when the reinforcement was contingent to being part of the majority and no consensus within a group were observed in higher frequency for all conditions, but analyzing individual performance, in general, most participants were more part of the majority then part of minority.

 
Diversity submission 66. Reducing Racial Bias Using a Conflicting Relations Paradigm: A Systematic Replication of Mizael et al. (2016)
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
DENISE APARECIDA PASSARELLI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Tahcita Medrado Mizael (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Saundra Bishop (BASICS ABA Therapy)
Abstract:

A study conducted by Mizael et al. (2016) successfully reduced negative evaluations of Black faces and minimized the valence differences between ratings of Black and White faces by establishing equivalent relations that conflicted with racial bias. We replicated this procedure in a Repeated Measures design, and included the Doll Test and an Implicit Test to investigate generalization. Nine children who demonstrated negative evaluations of Black faces were trained to relate a positive symbol (A1) to an abstract stimulus (B1), and B1 with images of Black faces (C1). Racial bias measures were repeated twice a week and 15 days after the intervention. Eight participants formed an equivalence relation between Black faces and the positive symbol that maintained two weeks after intervention. Before the intervention, there was a significant difference between the evaluations of White and Black faces; after the intervention, there was no significant difference. Two out of three participants with implicit racial bias showed reduced bias post-intervention, and one of the four participants with racial bias in the doll test displayed intervention generalization. Overall, our findings replicated the results of Mizael et al. (2016). However, the lack of correspondence between the selection and generalization measures posed challenges in understanding the generalizability of the intervention. Further research is necessary to explore the potential for broader generalization and address the limitations of our study.

 
 

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