Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

Event Details

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Symposium #324
Toilet Training: Advancements in Measurement and Stakeholder Implementation
Sunday, May 26, 2024
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center, 100 Level, 113 A
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lisa Guerrero (Little Leaves)
Discussant: Brandon C. Perez (Northern Illinois University)

Toilet training is an understudied yet highly valued and implemented practice in clinical and home settings. Contemporary, component-lean procedures have been effective in establishing urinary continence and corresponded with favorable changes in bowel movement continence, self-initiations, and challenging behavior. Several factors may affect the relative effectiveness of toilet training procedures such as the setting, stakeholders, and intervention components. Additionally, expanding our levels of analyses would further our understanding of urinary continence patterns that may inform individualized toilet training plan recommendations. The purpose of the current symposium is to discuss recent advancements in toilet training measurement and stakeholder implementation. The purpose of the first study was to analyze urine output volume and expedite the schedule thinning process while establishing urinary continence with children receiving early intervention services. The purpose of the second study was to use a component analysis to determine effective toilet training procedures implemented by caregivers with children with and without autism in the home. We discuss our current findings and future areas of research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): toilet training, toileting continence, toileting measurement, urinary continence
An Extension of Toilet Training Measurement and Schedule Thinning Procedures
NATALIE ODIO (Little Leaves Behavioral Services), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
Abstract: Toileting independence is a pressing area of social and developmental importance. Component-lean toilet training procedures have been effective in establishing urinary continence among young children with autism. Contemporary research highlights procedures used to establish toileting continence and evaluates acquisition by monitoring the percentage of toileting successes. The current study extended toilet training measurement by analyzing the volume of urinary accidents and frequency of urinations and expediting the sit schedule thinning process. Our participants included children with autism receiving early intensive behavioral intervention services. All participants exhibited small- and large-volume accidents during acquisition and the sit schedule thinning process. Some participants exhibited differences in their urine output (number of urinations) between baseline and treatment, which resulted in individualized component analyses to re-establish baseline levels of urine output before resuming toileting continence as the primary goal. Finally, our preliminary results suggest that sit schedule thinning may only be necessary for a subset of children after establishing urinary continence at a dense sit schedule. We discuss our findings and areas for future research.
Toilet Training: A Fluid Process? An Examination of Components of Caregiver-Implemented Toilet Training
SHANNON ARTHUR (Dragonfly Behavioral Solutions)
Abstract: Toilet training is a process that should take place in every home, for every child. It is a critical skill that when acquired, allows children to access less restrictive school and community settings. However, this process can cause stress for families when things don’t go as planned. These stressors can be exacerbated for families of people on the autism spectrum. Often times the implementation of toilet training is put on clinicians working with those with ASD. There has been limited research in recent years on the most effective procedures for toilet training for caregivers. The purpose of the current study was to extend the current research by examining the effectiveness of the components across both a typically developing population as well as those on the autism spectrum. In addition to extending across populations, the primary interventionists in the current study were the participant’s caregivers in their home. Preliminary results indicate that both a package treatment and systematic implementation of components are effective for toilet training across populations.



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