|Recent Research on the Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Behavior and the Impact of Various Levels of Treatment Integrity on Response Interruption and Redirection Outcomes|
|Saturday, May 26, 2018|
|11:00 AM–12:50 PM |
|Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom H|
|Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: Catia Cividini-Motta (University of South Florida)|
|Discussant: Christopher A. Tullis (Georgia State University)|
|CE Instructor: Christopher A. Tullis, Ph.D.|
This symposium will include three presentations evaluating the effects of various interventions on problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement and a presentation summarizing research on the efficacy of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) implemented at various levels of treatment integrity. The first study evaluated whether a multiple schedule in which a bracelet worn by the participant signaled the availability of praise for appropriate walking and the delivery of reprimands for toe walking was effective in decreasing toe walking. The second study investigated the effects of RIRD and response cost (RC) alone as well as a treatment package consisting of both RIRD plus RC on the level of stereotypy. The third study examined the processes, extinction, punishment, or both, responsible for the effectiveness of RIRD. And the final study summarized research evaluating the extent that treatment integrity impacts RIRD treatment outcome in the clinical setting. These presentations will be reviewed by a discussant.
|Instruction Level: Basic|
|Keyword(s): automatic reinforcement, RIRD, stereotypy, toe walking|
|Target Audience: |
BCBA and BCBA-D
|Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will learn about the effects of various interventions on levels of automatically reinforcement behavior 2. Attendees will learn about the impact of treatment integrity errors on the efficacy of response interruption and redirection 3. Attendees will learn about factors to be considered in selecting interventions for automatically reinforced behavior|
The Use of a Multiple Schedule to Decrease Toe Walking in a Child With Autism
|ANSLEY CATHERINE HODGES (Florida Institute of Technology), Hallie Marie Ertel (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)|
We evaluated a multiple schedule in which a bracelet worn by the participant signaled the availability of praise for appropriate walking and the delivery of reprimands for toe walking in a young boy with autism. We first conducted a pre-treatment screening analysis to verify that toe walking was sensitive to automatic reinforcement. Next, we conducted a treatment evaluation using the multiple schedule. In the absence of the bracelet, no programmed consequences were delivered for toe walking. Once toe walking decreased to criterion levels with the bracelet on, we increased the amount of time the participant wore the bracelet. We also assessed generalization and maintenance of the effects. The multiple schedule was effective; toe walking decreased to near zero levels. In addition, the effects of the procedure generalized to community settings and maintained at all follow-up assessment dates. The participant's mother also effectively implemented the procedure. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
Further Evaluation of Treatments for Vocal Stereotypy: Respond Interruption Redirection and Response Cost
|KIERSTY MCNAMARA (Univeristy Of South Florida ), Catia Cividini-Motta (University of South Florida)|
The purpose of this study was to expand on previous research by evaluating the effects of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) and response cost (RC) alone in reducing vocal stereotypy and to evaluate whether a treatment package consisting of RIRD plus RC leads to greater suppression of stereotypy. Preference, reinforcer, and competing items assessments were conducted to identify items for the response cost condition. In addition results of a functional analysis indicated that stereotypy was automatically reinforced. During the treatment phase we evaluated the effects of RIRD, RC, and RIRD plus RC on stereotypy using a multielement design. We observed high levels of vocal stereotypy during both baseline and toy baseline conditions. All three treatments led to a substantial decrease in stereotypy for all participants however for one participant stereotypy continued to occur during the treatment intervals of the RC condition. We discuss limitations of the current study and areas for future research.
A Component Analysis of Response Interruption and Redirection for Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
|KATHERINE PENA (University of South Florida), Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida)|
Response Interruption and Redirection (RIRD) is an effective intervention for reducing vocal stereotypy, an often automatically maintained form of problem behavior that is otherwise difficult to treat. Previous research has suggested that RIRD works through a combination of extinction, punishment, or both. We attempted to examine processes responsible for RIRD's effectiveness by evaluating an analog to interruption consisting of contingent and noncontingent presentation of neutral sounds to suppress vocal stereotypy in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and comparing those effects to RIRD. Neutral sounds were identified through the use of a preference assessment of various sounds. RIRD was effective in all of the participants, but noncontingent presentation of neutral sounds and contingent presentations of neutral sounds ranged from ineffective to not as effective as RIRD. Manipulating the amount of time with a sound playing did not have an effect on vocal stereotypy either. These results expand on previous research that call into question extinction-like explanations for the effectiveness of RIRD.
Response Interruption and Redirection Treatment Integrity Considerations
|CANDICE COLON-KWEDOR (Behavioral Concepts Inc.), Kimberly Gauthier (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)|
Response Interruption and Redirection (RIRD) has been shown to effectively decrease automatically maintained behavior. However, its application outside of an experimental setting constitutes an emerging literature base. Research evaluating the extent that treatment integrity impacts RIRD treatment outcome in the clinical setting will be reviewed and compared. In study 1, treatment integrity observations on the consistency and accuracy of treatment implementation were collected in a classroom setting with three participants diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Results showed that treatment integrity varied across participants and across staff members. Inconsistent implementation was the most common error. However, when RIRD was implemented the components were carried out as prescribed with high accuracy. When an analysis of consistency errors was conducted in a controlled setting, RIRD was generally effective at 50% consistency following previous exposure to 100% consistency. Study 2, further investigated this phenomenon by comparing treatment effects when degraded treatment consistency was not preceded by exposure to 100% consistency. Results varied across participants, but generally more rapid suppression occurred during the 100% condition. An evaluation of these results is discussed in terms of treatment integrity considerations when implementing RIRD in a clinical setting.