|Abstract: Behavior Analysis is a fast growing field not only in the US, where it originated, but also around the world. Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) has become a widely accepted certification body both within the US and in many other countries. This not only creates opportunities for Board Certified Behavior Analysts to find employment in various parts of the world, but also for professional organizations from around the world to standardize basic requirements for individuals who practice behavior analysis. The increasing acceptance of BACB certification abroad is reflected in the growing number of BCBAs practicing outside of the US as well as in the fact that the BCBA exam is now offered in an increasing number of languages. The profession of Behavior Analyst in various countries is shaped by variables like local laws, licensure or certification processes, and funding sources. This paper focuses on Behavior Analysis in Poland: It presents a brief history of the field and discusses country-specific variables that shape the profession and possible future directions.|
Smoking is a behavioral pattern that negatively affects the smoker's health. Consequently, the effectiveness of programs to reduce smoking became the focus of scientific investigation. Along the decades, behavioral analytic studies have investigated variables related to smoking reduction. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of behavioral experimental studies over the 1960's to the 2010's decades. Two groups of descriptors were combined for article search. Group 1's descriptors were: smoking, tobacco abuse, tobacco dependence and smokers. Group 2's were: behavior analysis, habit change, behavior change, behavioral therapy and contingency management. Experimental studies whose main gold was to reduce smoking were analyzed. The search was conducted in scientific databases (Apa, Pubmed and Psyinfo). 240 articles were found and 35 were selected for analysis, which consisted in the identification of: dependent variables, independent variables, target population and experimental design. Overall results demonstrated that throughout the 60's and 70's, aversive smoking control was widely used. In the following decades, such control suffered a steep decline. From the 80's onward, the monetary reinforcement contingent to abstinence was the main target variable. The role of aversive control on behavior and the feasibility of using large-scale monetary reinforcements are discussed.