|Toolbox for Success: An Evaluation of Instructional Strategies for Employment and Daily Living Skills|
|Saturday, May 26, 2018|
|5:00 PM–5:50 PM |
|Manchester Grand Hyatt, Harbor Ballroom AB|
|Area: DDA/PRA; Domain: Translational|
|Chair: Erin Lynn Sorenson (Western Michigan University)|
|CE Instructor: Jessica Ann Korneder, Ph.D.|
Young adults and adolescents with developmental disabilities are particularly vulnerable to the negative impact of deficits in functional and daily living skills. These skills are essential to an improved quality of life, greater independence, and integration into the community (Gardner & Wolfe, 2015). In addition, many young adults find themselves unprepared to transition into competitive employment after formal education (Hartman, 2009). Several instructional strategies have been utilized for teaching these transition-related skills, including self-monitoring (Rusch & Dattilo, 2012), Behavioral Skills Training (BST; Kelly, Wildman, & Berler, 1980), and video-based procedures such as video modeling and video prompting (Seaman & Malone, 2016; Gardner & Wolfe, 2015). This presentation will examine two research studies and a program evaluation focused on the utility of these instructional tools for teaching daily living, pre-employment, and job-related social skills for young adults and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Varied changes in performance levels will be discussed in relation to each of these strategies with the inclusion of a variety of training features.
|Instruction Level: Basic|
|Keyword(s): daily living, pre-employment, social skills, video-based instruction|
|Target Audience: |
|Press Play! The Effects of Video Prompting and Frequency Building to Teach Daily Living Skills|
|JENNIFER WERTALIK (Armstrong State University)|
|Abstract: The striking increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has contributed to a growing awareness of the needs of adolescents and adults (Ratto & Mesibov, 2015), with acquisition of independent living skills constituting a primary concern for parents and families (Heiman, 2002). However, many individuals with ASD exit high school lacking the ability to care for their daily needs (Gray et al., 2015). The present study used an adapted alternating treatments design to evaluate and compare the effects of video prompting (VP) and video prompting plus frequency building (VP + FB) to teach daily living skills to three adolescents with ASD. Results demonstrated all three students made substantial improvements over their baseline performance using VP and VP + FB. Furthermore, a strong intervention effect emerged for VP and VP + FB conditions when compared to the control task. However, in terms of one intervention proving superior to the other (e.g., VP to VP + FB), the data offer a mixed interpretation with VP + FB affecting change better for two of the three students. The frequency building component in the VP + FB had strong, consistent gains for all students in terms of retention.|
An Applied Behavior Analysis Approach to Teaching Pre-Employment Skills
|JESSICA ANN KORNEDER (Oakland University), Kristin Rohrbeck (Oakland University)|
An estimated 50,000 adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) turn eighteen annually in the United States, but are unprepared to engage in typical independent adult lifestyles when they graduate, including maintaining employment (Roux, Shattuck, Cooper, Anderson, Wagner, & Narendorf, 2013). Problems in the workplace can be present due to the significant social and perceptual deficits including problems understanding social cues, understanding emotions, inflexibility with change, and difficulty adapting to new tasks and routines (Muller, Schuler, Burton, & Yates, 2003). The current program evaluation is aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive employment skills training program for fifteen adults with high-functioning ASD. Teaching strategies evaluated include self-monitoring, behavioral skills training, video modeling and feedback. Adults with ASD were evaluated by momentary time sampling, percentage of opportunities, and self-monitoring. Soft skills monitored include staying engaged, following directions, self-advocating, respectfulness, independence, peer interactions, assertiveness, and risk-taking. This program evaluation assessed participant growth in self-regulation techniques and increases in socially appropriate behaviors to increase successful pre-employment skills. Results indicated that risk-taking and taking a leadership role are pre-employment skills that need more intervention than other soft skills such as direction-taking and staying engaged.
You're Hired! Examining the Effects of First-Person Point-of-View Video Models as an Instructional Tool for Job-Related Social Skills
|KAYLA JENSSEN (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Kimberly Peck (Western Michigan University), Sean Field (Western Michigan University)|
Despite a growing emphasis on autism-related services, many young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are underemployed and unprepared for employment (Hartman, 2009). Social skill deficits are reported as the reason for 90% of employment loss (Murray & Doren, 2013), and nine of 10 reasons applicants are rejected during a job interview (Elsknin & Elsknin, 1991). One instructional method that has been used to teach social skills is video modeling. Past research on first-person point-of-view (FPPOV) video modeling (shown from the perspective of the performer) has demonstrated changes in behavior only when FPPOV video models are combined with additional intervention. This presentation will focus on a study conducted to examine the effectiveness of FPPOV video models as a stand-alone instructional tool for job-related social skills for four young adults diagnosed with ASD, ages 18 to 26. Results suggest that FPPOV video models alone were not effective for teaching job-related social skills until embedded in the Behavioral Skills Training (BST) package or after the addition of enhanced video features. This presentation serves as an extension of the video modeling literature and will present additional avenues for continued research on behavior-based instructional tools for job-related social skills.