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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Paper Session #234
Clinical Interventions in Treatment
Sunday, May 27, 2018
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Manchester Grand Hyatt, Seaport Ballroom B
Area: PRA
Chair: Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services)
 
A Comparison of Procedures for Evaluating Generalization Following Matrix Training
Domain: Applied Research
Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services), Victoria Sadler (Beacon ABA Services), ROBERT K. ROSS (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Matrix training has been used to promote generalized responding in the demonstration of targeted object, action, language routines (Goldstein & Mousetis, 1989; Dauphin, Kinney, & Stromer, 2004) by presenting the learner with stimuli in pairs and then assessing generalization across novel combinations of the same stimuli. Although this procedure is effective in determining emergence of untrained relations given the presentation of pairs, it deviates from a typical play scenario in which all materials are available at once. The present study was conducted to design a method of evaluating to a practical degree, generalization demonstrated in matrix training. Using a 3x3 matrix, two participants were taught to perform motor actions and vocalizations with three pairs of toys with video modeling. Following acquisition of trained targets, participants were exposed to two generalization tests repeatedly. In one test, materials were presented to the participant in pairs as they typically are in matrix training. In the other test, all materials were presented to the participant at one time. Both participants demonstrated more motor actions and vocalizations across learned and unlearned targets when objects were presented in pairs as compared to being presented will all materials at once.
 
Teaching Appropriate Play Routines Through Video Modeling as a Treatment of Vocal and Motor Stereotypy
Domain: Applied Research
PAULO GUILHARDI (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services), Joseph Robitaille (Beacon ABA Services), Jennifer Smith (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Restrictive and repetitive behaviors, often referred to stereotypy, are one component of the diagnostic criteria observed on children with autism, as it is widely known to impacts the teaching and development of communication, socialization, play, and adaptive behaviors. Among the most common treatment procedures is the response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure that involves the addition of topographically incompatible response requirement that results in a reduction in rates of stereotypy. The goal of the present research was to develop an alternative to this punishment procedure that focus on the acquisition of appropriate routines that do not include repetitive patterns and that promote generalization. One participant was taught three new 1-min play routines using different play materials using video modeling procedures using a multiple baseline across activities experimental design. Following acquisition of the appropriate target skills, stereotypy was measured during the 1-min and an additional 9-min of access to those activities. Results showed that acquisition of appropriate play skills reduced the rates of stereotypy and that its effects extended beyond the 1-min directly trained. Procedures that teaching appropriate routines and that generalize without the use of punishment should be considered as an alternative to RIRD.
 
Evaluation of Collateral Effects on Social Interactions on a Self-Monitoring and Reinforcement Procedure to Decrease Motor Stereotypy in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
LISA TERESHKO (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services), Nicole Martocchio (Beacon ABA Services )
Abstract: Repetitive and stereotypic motor movements or vocal behavior are one of diagnostic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Motor stereotypy can interfere with the acquisition and demonstration of many adaptive skills. Additionally, the occurrence of repetitive motor behavior in young children with ASD may socially stigmatize individuals and limit the development and maintenance of peer relationships. The current study evaluated the effects of a differential reinforcement procedure used to establish control over motor stereotypy. Control over motor stereotypy was established in the training condition (while wearing the bracelet), and its use was then expanded to non-training settings. In the second experimental phase, the child was taught a multi-step self-monitoring program using the bracelet procedure. The data indicate that the procedure was effective in decreasing the occurrence of motor stereotypy across all evaluated settings for longer durations. During the course of the intervention social interactions made by the child increased over baseline levels. Although motor stereotypy was not completely eliminated by the procedure, the reduction was significant as was the increase in social interactions. The findings are discussed in terms of social validity and establishment and transfer of stimulus control.
 
The Use of iPads to Improve Leisure Skills of Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability
Domain: Applied Research
KAORI G. NEPO (Chimes; Temple University), Matthew Tincani (Temple University), Saul Axelrod (Temple University), Ken Thurman (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University - Emeritus)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interactions and presence of repetitive behaviors and restrictive interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These characteristics can affect their daily functions and pose problems in obtaining and maintaining stable employment (Shattuck, et al., 2012; Taylor and Seltzer, 2012). This tendency increases for individuals with a comorbid diagnosis such as Intellectual Disability (ID). In addition, their limited or lack of ability to engage in leisure activities can affect a quality of life (Garcia-Villmaisar, & Dattilo, 2010; Patterson, & Pegg, 2009). Given a handful of studies focused on this important skills, especially for adults with ASD and ID, the present study examined the efficacy of a most-to-least prompting procedure on independent leisure engagement of six adults with ASD and ID using iPads. Additionally, this study investigated the impact of a visual schedule on the participants’ independent transitioning between leisure activities on the iPads. Further, a survey was conducted to explore social validity of the interventions, including social perceptions of the use of these commonly available devices and the stigma associated with these devices.
 

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