Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #292K
AUT Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 26, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
125. A Re-Focus on Quality of Life: A Call to Action
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JESSICA MAE ZAWACKI (ABA Centers of America), Philip McCallion (Temple University)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Part of the human condition is to create or achieve a life of quality. The concept began to significantly impact research and service delivery in the field of autism and intellectual disabilities within the early 2000s. Although the QoL domains are universal (Schlock et al 2005), the indicators are uniquely sensitive to the individual translating to a multi-layered construct including considerations of age, gender, culture, disability, values, and context (Amor et al., 2021). Therefore, in order to properly support these varying needs, behavior analysis must align the way in which outcomes are measured in a more holistic, person-centered approach. In order to deliver meaningful services to our clients, we must approach service provision as an ongoing, collaborative approach. One way to successfully integrate the perspectives of various team members is through a structured focus group. This allows open and free exchange of items, goals, and perceived barriers to success and an overall quality of life.
 
126. Teaching Water Safety Skills to Children With Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELE LEE PULLEN (University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Marie Kirkpatrick (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Water safety skills are vital for the safety and well-being of all individuals, but especially for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research regarding on-deck water safety behaviors and water safety skills for individuals with ASD levels 2 and 3 is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of behavior analytic strategies in teaching water safety skills to children diagnosed with ASD level 2 and 3. The study included three boys ages 4-6 years old diagnosed with ASD level 2. A multiple-probe design across three participants was utilized in which participants did not enter intervention until their baseline data were stable and the participant before had stable intervention data. Each participant engaged in 100% of the measured water safety behaviors by the end of the study. The results suggest that this intervention may increase safe on-deck behavior in a community pool setting. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are discussed.
 
127. A Comparison of Extended Alone Assessments With and Without Items Present
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTY LOUIS (Georgia State University), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Medicine), Lauren Layman (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Medicine), Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center; Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: An extended alone or ignore assessment during a functional analysis is one approach to identifying targeted behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement that involves conducting consecutive sessions in which the child is observed in an austere environment without a therapist or caregiver present to determine if the behavior persists in this setting (Querim et al., 2013). Despite the effectiveness of extended alone/ignore sessions in ruling out whether behavior are maintained by automatic reinforcement, there is no research to date as to the likelihood that toys and other items in the room might compete and it is reasonable to assume that adding more stimulation to the environment would improve the social validity of the assessment. The current study compared the concordance between findings from extended alone assessments with and without items (e.g., toys/activities, baited items). Findings from both an intensive outpatient and outpatient setting revealed that the presence of items in extended alone assessments did not impact ruling out an automatic function. However, the presence of items appeared to identify item-directed disruptive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement that would not have been identified in extended alone assessments without items. Future directions as it pertains to extended alone/ignore assessments and social validity will be discussed.
 
128. A Systematic Literature Review of Mand Training Using Alternative and Augmentative Communication in Individuals Diagnosed With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB DELSIGNORE (Endicott College; Butterfly Effects), Sarah Veazey Kristiansen (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), Roxanne Gayle (Trumpet Behavioral Health, Endicott College, Pepperdine University)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. It is estimated that approximately one third to as many as one half of all people diagnosed with autism have limited functional speech skills (Mirenda, 2003). A popular method to teach individuals with limited speech skills involves alternative and augmentative communication (AAC; Gilroy et al., 2018). Alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) systems are an effective method of communicating for individuals with limited communication abilities. Three systems were analyzed in this literature review, including the picture exchange communication system (PECS), speech-generating devices (SGDs), and manual signs (MS). Articles were analyzed and quantified across seven dimensions: (1) participants, (2) design, (3) setting, (4) AAC type, (5) dependent variable(s), (6) results, and (7) preference for AAC. Results indicate that AAC is an effective method of teaching individuals with ASD and communication disorders to mand. Results also indicate that subjects in the study prefer SGD over other AAC systems.
 
129. A Comprehensive Assessment of Preferred Categories of Stimuli to Expand a Client's Repertoire of Reinforcers
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ARIELLE ROSE MARSHALL (Rutgers Graduate School of Applied Psychology), Tia Horn (Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ), Samantha Van Dean (Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ), Jenna Budge (Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Debra Paone (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Staff working with individuals diagnosed with autism or other developmental disabilities may experience challenges identifying a variety of items that may be used to reinforce appropriate behavior. In the present study, a comprehensive preference assessment was used to identify potential reinforcers for an adult participant for whom edible items were typically used to reinforce appropriate behavior. A paired choice preference assessment was conducted using items from four categories, gross motor, tactile, visual, and auditory-visual. Paired choice preference assessments were first conducted within each category. The top three items from each category were then included in an across category paired choice preference assessment. The results of this assessment showed that two of the top three items were from the same category (tactile). The reinforcing efficacy of the top three items was measured using a rapid reinforcer assessment. The results of the assessment show that all three items functioned as reinforcers for the participant. The extent to which other novel items, with similar characteristics, would function as reinforcers was measured. The study provides a procedure to identify categories of items that may function as reinforcers for individuals with a limited repertoire of preferred items.
 
130. An Examination of the Relationship Between Values-Based Living and Quality of Life in Caregivers of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELISA DENNIS (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Jenna Budge (Rutgers University), Debra Paone (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Previous research has shown that caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder have scored lower on measures of quality of life in comparison to caregivers with typically developing children or children with other disabilities. Quality of life has been correlated with the extent to which an individual lives in accordance with their values. This pilot study examines the relationship between quality of life and values-based living in caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. To measure the relationship between caregivers' quality of life and the extent to which they live consistent with their values, two surveys were administered, The Valued Living Questionnaire (Wilson, Sandoz, Kitchens, & Roberts, 2010) and the CarerQOL (Brouwer et al., 2006). Preliminary data show a moderate to strong relationship between the extent to which caregivers are living consistent with their values and their reported quality of life. A strong relationship between values-based living and overall reported happiness was found in the initial data. These findings emphasize the importance of working with families to best match their children’s treatment goals to the family’s values. The continuing need for values-based work with caregivers of individuals with autism is discussed.
 
131. Synthesized Contingency Assessments: Error Prevalence, Iatrogenic Effects, and Treatment Outcomes Relative to Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LIAM MCCABE (Rutgers University-Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services), Brian D. Greer (Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH–RUCARES); Rutgers Brain Health Institute; Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Casey Irwin Helvey (Rutgers University (RUCARES)), Adam M. Briggs (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Tiger and Effertz (2021) explored the sensitivity, specificity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity of functional behavior assessments conducted using isolated or synthesized contingencies. However, their conclusions were informed by a narrative survey of the literature available at the time. The present study examines some of these and related topics using a more quantitative approach, and it incorporates studies completed since the publication of Tiger and Effertz. In Study 1, we calculated true positive and false positive rates for all available data for which the same individual experienced a functional analysis and at least one synthesized contingency assessment. We visually analyzed these calculations using receiver-operating-characteristic plots. In Study 2, we quantified how often a new function of target responding (i.e., a possible iatrogenic effect) emerged following a recent history of synthesized contingencies. In Study 3, we evaluated the efficacy of treatments informed by isolated and synthesized contingencies. Implications of these findings for practice are discussed.
 
132. The Effect of Self-Management Strategies on the Acquisition of Expressive Language Skills in a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BINYAMIN BIRKAN (Biruni University), Ali İrfan ÇAKA (Binyamin Birkan Academy)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: In this study, the effect of self-management strategies on the acquisition of expressive language skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder was evaluated through use of a multiple probe design across behaviors. For this purpose, an 8-year-old female student with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Answering general knowledge questions was selected for the expressive language skills acquisition. In the intervention of the study, it was observed that the participant realized the expressive language skills outcomes at a level that met the predetermined criteria and was able to generalize them to different conditions. In addition, it was observed that the participant maintained the gains obtained in the probes taken in the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after the intervention ended. The findings obtained in the study concluded that self-management strategies have an effect in the targeted direction in teaching expressive language skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Inter-observer intervention data were collected at each stage of the study. Agreement data for all sessions ranged from 80-100%.
 
133. Utilizing the Enhanced Choice Model Within a Classroom Setting to Decrease Severe Behavior and the Use of Physical Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE CONTE (The Summit Center Enhanced Unit), Lauren Cerisano (The Summit Academy)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Historically, in classroom settings, physical interventions have been used to maintain the safety of staff and students when severe target behaviors occur. The Enhanced Choice Model is an evidence-based, trauma-informed procedure that has been proven to empower students, encourage communication and decrease severe behavior. The most notable component of the Enhanced Choice Model is the non-contingent access to three options: (1) participate in treatment involving differential reinforcement, (2) “Hang-Out” with non-contingent access to moderately preferred items that have shown to have a calming effect, or (3) leave the classroom space altogether. The current study adapted The Enhanced Choice Model for a 6:1:3 classroom setting, implemented with the intent of decreasing severe target behaviors and the use of physical interventions with 2 students. Following implementation, data indicates both students presented a decrease in severe target behaviors as well as the need for physical interventions. Both students have successfully faded into the classroom schedule and academic programming and are exceeding both educational and behavioral expectations.
 
134. Treatment for Improving Sleep-Conducive Behavior: A Component Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON CAMPBELL (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Emily Stevens (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Between 50%–80% of children with autism have been reported to experience difficulties sleeping (Kotagal & Broomal, 2012), resulting in shorter sleep durations than recommended (Hirshkowitz et al., 2015; Paruthi et al., 2016). A lack of sleep has been associated with increases in challenging behavior during the daytime (Cohen et al., 2018; Mazurek & Sohl, 2016; O'Reilly, 1995), increases in reports of parental stress (Meltzer & Mindell, 2007), and decreases in efficacy of feeding treatments (Reed, 2005). The purpose of the current study was to conduct a component analysis of interventions to determine which were most effective in decreasing the latency to sleep onset in individuals with autism. Components included a bedtime routine, white-noise sound machine, delayed reinforcement with contingency review, and bedtime fading. These components were systematically introduced until sleep-onset latency was reduced to criterion levels, and the effective intervention was replicated using a reversal design. The main dependent variable was sleep-conducive behavior. Reliability was measured as the correspondence between Fitbit sleep data and live data. Results indicated that delayed reinforcement with a contingency review was required for latency to sleep-conducive behavior onset to meet criterion levels for two of three participants.
 
135. Effects of Peer Presence on Latency to Transition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN ELLSWORTH (Salve Regina University; Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jacqueline Wilson (Salve Regina Uinversity), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders may engage in challenging behavior to escape or avoid aversive conditions. Some clients may engage in these responses differentially, contingent on certain individuals in their environment such as staff or peers. Identifying escape or avoidance responses in the presence of potentially aversive peers may have important clinical utility; therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a putatively aversive peer’s presence on a participant’s latency to transition from a preferred to an unpreferred setting. A pairwise multielement design was used to compare the participant’s latency to transition in peer-present and peer-absent conditions. Results showed consistently shorter latencies to transition in peer-present conditions compared to peer-absent conditions, and interobserver agreement was measured at 100% for 100% of sessions. Differentiation in latency to transition with and without the peer suggests that the participant’s peer may be aversive; these findings hold implications for clinical decision-making regarding further assessment and treatment.
 
136. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Stress Among Parents of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER S. LAURIELLO (Lehigh University), Kristi Morin (Lehigh University), Alyssa Blasko (Lehigh University), Serish Shikarpurya (University of Maryland), Elise Settanni (Lehigh University), Ee Rea Hong (Beakseok University)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Parents of children with autism commonly report heightened stress levels compared to parents of typically developing children. Caregiver strain is a major contributor to this stress and may be influenced by psychological factors such as experience, age, social support, severity of their child’s symptoms, and their level of coping skills. Interventions based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) and psychology have been implemented to reduce parental stress and enhance overall quality of life. Although previous reviews of the literature have summarized the substantial stress associated with parenting a child with autism, they have not sufficiently identified effective interventions to reduce parental stress. This meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of interventions at reducing stress in parents of a child with autism by analyzing the results of 59 dissertations and peer-reviewed group-design studies. The overall mean effect size was moderate, suggesting that the included interventions had a positive effect. A meta-regression analysis will be conducted to evaluate whether intervention characteristics or methodological quality moderate this effect. Limitations and implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
 
137. Training Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to Implement Trial Based Functional Analyses With Behavioral Skills Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JACOB OLIVEIRA (Salve Regina University), Hannah Christine Grey (Salve Regina University, Autism Care Partners), Stephanie Hope Jones (Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Previous research has identified that most Board-Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) do not use experimental functional analyses (EFAs) to determine function of target behavior. Lack of training and amount of time necessary to complete EFAs may contribute to this issue. Trial based functional analyses (TBFAs) may be less time-intensive to conduct and have successfully been taught using behavioral skills training (BST). However, there has been limited data on the generalization of TBFA implementation outside of the experimental context. Thus, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of BST with programmed implementation challenges on fidelity of TBFA implementation. We recruited BCBAs who had not received training in TBFAs from local autism organizations. Our results currently suggest that BST with embedded implementation challenges results in successful generalization of high fidelity TBFA implementation. IOA data was taken for 100% of sessions and was 100% across all sessions. Confederate behavior was conducted with 91.67% fidelity during baseline and 100% fidelity during post BST.
 
138. A Review of Behavior-Analytic Articles That Cite a Paper That Claims Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Causes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BIANCÉ JASMINE FERRUCCI (Salve Regina University ), Dana B. Morris (Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University), Nicole Marie Nenninger (Salve Regina University), Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), Chloe A Calkins (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: The continued impact of the misinformation about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) generated by Wakefield (1998) exemplifies the lasting effects of unsubstantiated claims made in research. Tracking and attending to the validity of research –especially non-behavior-analytic research – can be difficult. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the ways in which Kupferstein (2018) – a paper that claims that ABA causes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with ASD – has been cited in behavior-analytic literature. A literature review was conducted on articles published in behavior-analytic journals that cited Kupferstein. 50% of articles cited Kupferstein as a legitimate study to support concerns about ABA. 10% of articles cited Kupferstein as a source of concern related to ABA, but referenced issues with the study. 20% of articles cited Kupferstein as a problematic, anti-ABA source. The remaining 20% of articles cited Kupferstein when referring to a perspective about ABA. Interrater reliability data was collected for coded variables with an exact agreement of 80%.
 
139. A Change Would Do Your Data Good: An Analysis of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Programmatic Changes
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ADRIANA (ADIE) ANDERSON (Easterseals Southern California/Endicott College/), Meghan Herron (Easterseals Southern California), Amin Duff Lotfizadeh (Easterseals Southern California/CSUN)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Using on-going visual analysis of data to evaluate client progress is a tenant of applied behavior analysis ([ABA] Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2022). While there has been a growing interest in understanding how behavior analysts conduct a visual analysis of the data (Vanselow et al., 2011) and, impact programmatic decision-making (Kipfmiller et al., 2019), there is still little consensus across the field of what some consider variable data and in turn warrants a change. This variability is of concern when considering the BACB (2022) 2.18 ethics code, which outlines that “... If data indicate that desired outcomes are not being realized, they actively assess the situation and take appropriate corrective action” (p. 12). Due to the variability across behavior analytic professionals, one might assume that the “corrective actions,” are not consistently implemented. To evaluate this assumption, the researchers conducted a post hoc review of treatment plans submitted to an ABA agency by 14 different providers over a two-month period. Data will be presented on the goals that meet inclusion criteria and the results across four measurement criteria including, if a programming change was warranted, and if so if a change was made, proposed, or no change). Data analysis is currently in progress, and therefore submitted data is only of one clients report
 
140. Effectiveness of Token Economy and Rules in Sustaining Behaviors: 7-Day Gap Between Initial Token and Backup Reinforcer
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GAIA PILOTTO (Data Driven ABA), Nicola Cefalo (Data Driven ABA), Michael Nicolosi (Data Driven ABA), Satia Riva (Data Driven ABA), Francesca Siciliano (Data Driven ABA)
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: The optimization of behavioral interventions often hinges on the strategic timing of reinforcements. This investigation assessed the maintenance of target behaviors within a token economy system featuring a significant delay (7 days) between the earning of the initial token and the subsequent delivery of the backup reinforcer, coupled with a rule-based intervention. It seems that our study's subject, the examination of a token-exchange schedule that spans more than a single day, has not been previously explored in the literature. The participant is a 15-year-old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The intervention used a token system in which specific behaviors earned tokens, redeemable for various chosen reinforcers with the presentation of a menu shown by the caregiver, with a daily rule that strengthened the link between token accumulation and subsequent reinforcement. A multiple baseline design across behaviors, embedded with a reversal design, was used to evaluate the effect on the behavior. The data show that the intervention increased the rate of the behaviors, indicating that clearly articulated rules may effectively bridge the gap caused by delayed reinforcement. These findings offer promise for enhancing long-term behavior change in educational and clinical settings.
 
141. Preference Stability, Displacement and Satiation in Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARK WARREN (New Story Schools)
Discussant: Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics)
Abstract: Previous research has evaluated preference stability among different classes of stimuli as it relates to children with autism. In the past, research has indicated that edible stimuli may be more stable than leisure stimuli when performing multiple round preference assessments. Other research has indicated that edible stimuli tends to displace non-edible stimuli when both are made available, especially among people with autism or various developmental disabilities. In our study we more closely examine the relationship between preference stability and displacement among different stimulus classes (edible, leisure, combined) when conducting consecutive round multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments. The research design is a replication of previous research in the area with extension. We also examined how stability, displacement and satiation were effected by time of day and non-selection among school age students with autism in the private day school setting. In this way we can better understand how these students make their decisions and which factors may affect those choices.
 
142. Literacy for Children With Autism: A Bibliometric Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LUCELMO LACERDA LACERDA DE BRITO (Luna ABA), Aida Teresa dos Santos Brito (LUNA ABA), Vinícius Lacerda Gomes Soares (Universidade Anhembi Morumbi, São José dos Campos (UAM - SJC))
Discussant: Megan Ritchey Mayo
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) poses a significant obstacle to achieving effective school inclusion, prompting a focused exploration into the literacy processes of individuals within this population. This investigation delved into Brazilian empirical research spanning the years 2008 to 2022, utilizing the Brazilian CAPES Dissertations and Theses Database as the primary source, through a bibliometric literature review. We found 25 studies meeting inclusion criteria, predominantly authored by psychologists, with UFSCar emerging as a notable contributor, as an institution. Despite the existing concentration, a positive trajectory is discernible in the trend curve, indicating a recent upsurge in research endeavors. This trend offers promise for the future development of educational technologies and strategies rooted in scientific research. By expanding the knowledge base on the literacy experiences of individuals with ASD, these findings contribute to a more informed and targeted approach in fostering inclusive educational environments, highlighting the potential for transformative advancements in teaching methodologies.
 
143. Comparing Symbol Exchange Interventions for Teaching Mands to Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER FORBES (West Virginia University), Jason Travers (Temple University), Kathleen Tuck (University of Kansas), Jenee Vickers Johnson (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Children with autism and other developmental disabilities who have limited speech are commonly taught to mand by exchanging picture symbols. Competent and meaningful exchange-based manding relies on conditional discrimination that involves selecting the symbol that corresponds to the desired reinforcer. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular symbol exchange intervention that teaches conditional discrimination (phase IIIb) after simple discrimination (phases I-IIIa). However, it is unclear whether the simple discrimination phases are necessary, and delaying conditional discrimination may negatively impact skill acquisition. We used an adapted alternating treatments design to investigate whether an abbreviated symbol exchange (ASE) intervention was quicker than PECS phases I-IIIb for teaching conditionally discriminated mands. Participants were four preschool-aged children with autism or other developmental disability who had no functional speech. ASE applied conditional discrimination procedures from the start of instruction, whereas PECS progressed customarily from simple-to-conditional discrimination procedures. Generalization probes were conducted and used to detect untaught conditionally discriminated mands (i.e., generalized identity matching). Results indicated ASE was more efficient than PECS for teaching conditionally discriminated mands to three of four participants and produced untaught conditionally discriminated mands for two participants. One participant did not acquire conditionally discriminated mands from ASE or PECS.
 
144. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Access to Rigid Interests
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA WARD (Salve Regina University), Margaret Donovan (Salve Regina University), Jesse Perrin (Pathways), Emma Grauerholz-Fisher (Salve Regina University), Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Restrictive and repetitive behaviors are one of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. These behaviors include restricted interests. When these interests are denied or blocked, some individuals may engage in challenging behavior to gain access to these interests. The purpose of this research project was to evaluate whether a 10-year-old child with autism’s challenging behavior of property destruction was maintained by access to the rigid interest, and to determine if teaching the client to mand for access to his rigid interest (a number line, 1-10, in numerical order) would mitigate problem behavior. The results demonstrated that the client's problem behavior was maintained by access to his rigid interest, and that when a functional communication response (FCR) was available, the FCR was always selected instead of challenging behavior. Consistent with previous research, results suggest that teaching a functional communicative response was an effective way to mitigate challenging behavior maintained by access to restricted interests.
 
145. An Evaluation of Urine Alarms in Intensive Toilet Training Programs
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENEE VICKERS JOHNSON (University of Missouri-Kansas City), Heather Forbes (West Virginia University ), Jason Travers (Temple University), Kathleen Tuck (University of Kansas ), Pamela L. Neidert (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Urine-detecting alarms are prevalent in toilet training intervention research and clinical practice for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, but the effects of and theoretical account for urine alarms remain unclear. Urine alarms may function as punishing or reinforcing contingencies, or may merely alert trainers to accidents and improve treatment integrity. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the rate of accidents and the rate of in-toilet urinations during three conditions: intensive toilet training, intensive toilet training with an audible alarm, and intensive toilet training with an inaudible alarm. Participants were three young boys with autism. Results showed undifferentiated responding across conditions for all participants, with two of three participants appearing to acquire toileting skills during the comparison phase. We discuss the role of behavior irreversibility in light of our findings and associated study limitations. Future directions for research with urine alarms and implications for professional practice are discussed.
 
146. A Review and Examination of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children With Autism on Parent Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER ANDERSON (University of Nebraska Omaha; University Nebraska Medical Center), Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha), Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Marisol Loza hernandez (University of Nebraska Medical Center: Munroe-Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present difficulties with social interactions and compliance that can impact parent-child relationships. As such, parents can play a valuable role in supporting skill development, generalization, and maintenance because they can provide additional opportunities to practice and reinforce targeted skills. Current evidence supports the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for child outcomes. We conducted a literature review in PSYCH INFO of PCIT from 2017 to 2023 for parents of children with ASD. Results indicated that 18 initial studies met inclusionary criteria. Of those studies, 39%, 56%, and 83% reported the Behavior Assessment System for Children Parenting Relationship Questionnaire (BASC), Parent Stress Index (PSI), and Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), respectively. The present investigation also evaluated the impact of modified PCIT training on caregivers of children with autism (or at risk for autism) on multiple outcome measures including the BASC-3 PRQ, PSI, and ECBI. The poster will discuss the impact of PCIT (and modified PCIT) on caregiver outcomes, provide avenues for future research, and discuss clinical considerations.
 
147. The Effect of Scripts in Improving Conversational Skills of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Emine Gurel (Eskisehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi), DERYA GENÇ GENÇ TOSUN (ESKİSEHİR OSANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of scripts in improving conversational skill about photographs to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In addition, the participants' level of skill maintenance and generalization to different people were also examined. The study was conducted with three individuals, two boys and one girl with ASD, aged between 7-9 years. Each participant's topic of conversation was selected from the activities of their interest. It was aimed for the participants to talk by taking turns with scripts consisting of 4-5 words. Audio scripts were used in the study. The scripts and photographs were presented via iPhone. In this research, the multiple probe design across participants, one of the single subject designs, was used. Also, the interobserver reliability and treatment integrity data were collected at each stage of the research. The efficacy findings show that scripts were effective in improving conversational skills about photographs to three individuals with ASD. In addition, participants maintained and generalized these skills to different individuals. Social validity findings showed that the opinions of special education teachers’ were all positive. Scripts were effective in improving the conversational skills of individuals with ASD. Further research may examine the effect of scripts on teaching different communication skills to individuals with ASD in natural contexts.
 
148. The Use of Contact Desensitization as a Trauma-Informed Intervention to Treat Bathroom Distress and Avoidance Behaviors in an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Public School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STACEY LIND (Interactive Kids), Steve Trout (Interactive Kids), Rachel Soler (Interactive Kids)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Traumatic experiences can significantly inhibit an individual's participation in essential daily living skills. There is a growing emphasis on the importance of providing trauma-informed care and intervention procedures in the field of applied behavior analysis (Rajaraman et al., 2022). However, limited studies exist that demonstrate the use of trauma-informed intervention procedures using empirically supported behavioral principles and procedures. The following case study sought to evaluate the use of a trauma-informed care intervention procedure that expanded on previous literature describing the use of contact desensitization (Erfanian & Miltenberger, 1990; Ricciardi et al., 2006; Tyner et al., 2016), which was comprised of graduated exposure and shaping of approach responses through positive reinforcement, as an intervention to treat bathroom distress and avoidance behaviors in an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a public school setting. Preliminary results suggest that implementation of these treatment procedures can be effective in addressing distress and avoidance behaviors using a trauma-informed approach in practice. The need for additional research that utilizes visual stimuli as designated markers to shape approach responses is discussed.
 
149. Duration Shaping and Generalization Strategies to Teach Appropriate Behavior During a Haircut for a Learner With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Jessica Lamb (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Bryan Rickoski (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Christopher Bari (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), EMILY E. GALLANT (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: While a wide diversity of personal appearance choices are broadly acceptable to the general community, regular haircuts are a typical grooming need for most individuals. Parents reported that Spencer, an 11-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder, was unable to receive haircuts due to disruptive behaviors (e.g., pushing away hair stylists/hair tools, attempting to elope) that reliably escalated to higher-intensity topographies (e.g., aggression) when attempts persisted. To address this, we implemented a clinical intervention package combining duration shaping, programming common stimuli, and a behavioral contract. Initially, instructors simulated a haircut for 20 s; duration was systematically increased in 12 steps until Spencer remained appropriate for the 15-min target duration. Maintenance data reflect durability of appropriate responding over time in the absence of teaching trials, and generalization assessment data ultimately demonstrate successful achievement of the terminal goal. We attribute this outcome to (a) the specific common stimuli programmed (e.g., haircutting cape, simulated scissor cutting, simulated electric clipper use), (b) mediation of generalization via the behavioral contract, and (c) the incrementally small, though numerous, duration shaping steps. Though intervention procedures may appear straightforward, their outcomes are additionally notable as they represent recovery of a previously-acquired repertoire following regression over the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
150. Teaching Tacts of Tactile Stimuli to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN RUFFO (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: There is limited research on teaching non-visual tacts (e.g., auditory, olfactory, tactile) to children with autism spectrum disorder, and no current research on tact training for tactile stimuli. In the current study, four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were taught to tact tactile stimuli in a compound condition (i.e., tactile stimuli presented with visual cues) in a multiple probe design across stimuli sets. Throughout teaching in the compound condition, we conducted isolated probes (i.e., tactile stimuli presented without visual cues). Results showed that the compound training condition was effective in teaching tacts of tactile stimuli to the two participants who have completed the study thus far. In addition, for both participants, generalization occurred in the isolated context in the absence of any programmed prompting. Teaching for two additional participants is on-going. This study emphasizes the need to implement training procedures for tacts of tactile stimuli and stimuli of other modalities to children with autism.
 
Diversity submission 151. Evaluating Culturally Adapted Caregiver-Mediated Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY PRIMERO DEMAYO (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Caregiver-mediated interventions may be a feasible option for caregivers who may not have access to health care professionals and evidence-based interventions. They harness many benefits, including reduced stress, an improved parent-child relationship, and increased skills to better support their children. This systematic review analyzed 24 studies that evaluated the effects of culturally adapted caregiver-implemented interventions for children with ASD. Overall, there were many types of caregiver-mediated interventions that yielded mostly positive effects on both caregiver and child outcomes. All studies reported using at least one cultural adaptation to the intervention such as using the participant’s preferred language, incorporating local terminology to teach a skill, or utilizing culturally adapted assessment scales. However, there were inconsistent dependent variables measured across all studies, standardized measures were not always adapted for the population, and treatment fidelity was not always used. The review discusses the findings, limitations, and implications for practice and research in this area.
 
152. Increasing Oral Hygiene Care for Children With Feeding Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jamisyn Derks (University of South Florida, Florida Autism Center), NICOLE PERRINO (University of Florida, Florida Autism Center), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida), Angie Van Arsdale (University of Florida), Ronald J. Clark (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Children with feeding disorders often have food selectivity or fail to eat enough food, which may lead to malnutrition, failure to thrive, and a need for supplemental feeding (i.e., gastrostomy; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). These children tend to display generalized oral motor aversions paired with complex medical histories that may increase their exposure to aversive procedures in or around the mouth (i.e., naso-gastric tube placements). These procedures may also contribute to a child’s mealtime refusal and self-care refusal behaviors (e.g., handwashing, nail clipping, toothbrushing; Peterson et. al., 2023). Compared to typically developing children, those with special needs are at an increased risk for poor dental health, impacting their overall quality of life (e.g., eating, sleep, pain; Foster & Fitzgerald, 2015; Norwood et al., 2013). The purpose of this study is to increase oral hygiene care for children with feeding disorders admitted to an intensive, pediatric day treatment feeding program. This study utilizes escape baseline procedures to assess at what point during a toothbrushing task the child will engage in escape-maintained behavior. Following baseline, each toothbrushing intervention is developed using the same reinforcement contingencies implemented during their feeding sessions (e.g., NCR or DRA). Generalization is assessed across their admission.
 
153. Interpersonal Distance as Social Consequences in Adults With Typical Development: A Gaze-Contingent Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CANLING AN (University of Tsukuba), Soichiro Matsuda (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Regulating interpersonal distance is an important beginning of social interaction. Several clinical analyses have found that individuals with ASD have problems with interpersonal distance preference or control. However, experimental studies of interpersonal distance preferences in individuals with ASD or tendencies have yielded contradictory results. Contradictions may arise because different studies have manipulated different contingency processes (e.g., stimulus control, reinforcement). The present study investigated the reinforcement value of approaching or distant face stimuli on the gaze behavior of adults with typical development by gaze contingency. Typically developing Japanese university students were selected for the experiment, and each participant was subjected to one (approach or distance) interpersonal distance change condition. At the end of the experiment, their AQ (Autism Spectrum Quotient) was measured. The experimental procedure was divided into 5 steps, in the baseline phase participants viewed both faces freely, in the training 1 phase after gazing at the faces for 300 ms, an animation of the faces approaching (or distant) would be played, and the test 1 phase will same as baseline. The above process was repeated for training 2 and test 2. Preliminary analyses indicated that participants preferred to fixate on faces away from their own.
 
154. Use of Wearable Device to Encourage Social Interaction in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Yueyi Cui (University of Tsukuba), Taku Hachisu (University of Tsukuba), SOICHIRO MATSUDA (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: This research examined the effects of sensory feedback devices on physical interaction in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and typically developing children. The study comprised two experiments utilizing wearable devices that provide visual and vibration feedback, aiming to enhance social communication and interaction. Experiment 1 involved a typically developing child and investigated the influence of a sensory feedback device during playtime. The findings indicated a significant increase in physical interaction when sensory feedback was provided. Experiment 2 extended the study to three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, revealing diverse responses to sensory feedback. The results showed an overall increase in physical interaction, yet the extent and consistency varied among participants. The study demonstrated that while both typically developing and Autism Spectrum Disorder children benefited from the use of these devices, the effectiveness and sustainability of the interventions were influenced by individual sensory preferences and Autism Spectrum Disorder's unique characteristics. Thus, interventions should be flexible and adaptable, potentially incorporating a broader range of sensory inputs to maintain engagement and address diverse needs. It emphasizes the need for continuous assessment and adjustment of technological tools to ensure their efficacy and relevance in interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 
155. Interventions to Reduce Safeguarding-Related Behaviours That Challenge in Children With Learning Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEREDITH WIGHTMAN (Jigsaw CABAS School), chloe rosina mason (Jigsaw CABAS School), Carol Comber (Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Young people with a severe learning disability can have a limited understanding of safety and may emit behaviours that challenge, which can put them at greater risk of harm. This paper summarises two case studies conducted in a specialist school for autistic children and young adults with an additional learning disability, to reduce different safeguarding-related behaviours that challenge. The first case study explores the effects of three interventions on the behaviour of pulling peers’ trousers down emitted by an 8-year-old girl. Neither differential reinforcement of other behaviour or a home-school behavioural contract reduced the target behaviour. However, vicarious reinforcement & extinction resulted in a reduction to zero levels. The second case study looked at the frequency of three target behaviours emitted by an 8-year-old boy across a two-year period. Strategic capitulation was implemented in year two which resulted in a significant reduction in behaviours that challenge towards others, as well as overall reductions in contextually inappropriate disrobing, and contextually inappropriate intentional urination.
 
156. Exposure-Based Online Intervention and Parent Training for a Child With Selective Mutism and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Report
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MASAHIKO INOUE (Tottori Universisty), Tomohisa Yamanaka (Tottori University), Ryuki Kadekaru (Tottori University)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Exposure-based practices are effective for treating selective mutism, but challenges arise when a child refuses to visit clinical facilities. In this situation, it is important to support parents of SM children. However, geographic barriers limit the support options available to them. This patient report details exposure-based practices and intervention of online technology in four phases for a girl with selective mutism and autism spectrum disorders. Our intervention results are a steady decrease in her nervousness level and improved speech, facial expressions, and body motion in a video conference. The child eventually agreed to come to the clinical facility and could communicate non-verbally with the first author. The parent training enhanced the mother's understanding of selective mutism and improved her involvement and parenting stress. Additionally, teaching parent how to support her child with selective mutism helped prevent mothers from engaging in unplanned behaviors during the intervention. This patient report practice could be a valuable option for parents of children with selective mutism since it enables intervention from wherever they reside, as long as they have an internet connection.
 
157. Evaluating the Effects of Sit Schedules on Toileting Events During Pediatric Feeding Program Admission
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FAITH RAULERSON, BCABA (Florida Autism Center), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Pediatric day-treatment feeding programs aim to promote substantial and rapid changes in oral intake, which may impact toileting patterns and continence (Sharp et al., 2020). Prior research has evaluated the isolated effects of sit schedules to establish urinary continence in a preschool (Greer et al., 2016). However, a similar evaluation has not occurred in a pediatric day-treatment feeding program. We used a reversal design to compare the effects of a sit schedule and no sit schedule on the percentage of in-toilet urinations and frequency of self-initiations among two children on the autism spectrum with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and diaper or pull-up dependency enrolled in a day-treatment feeding program. Overall, in-toilet urinations and self-initiations increased with a sit schedule and decreased without a sit schedule while the participants remained in diapers or pull-ups. Participants progressed to underwear if they met criteria within their program admission. Therefore, a one-component change established and maintained urinary continence and self-initiations emerged during a day-treatment feeding program admission.
 
158. Interactive Computerized Expressive Grammar Instruction: Pilot Study of the Verb Tense Module of the SentenceWeaver
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Katharine Beals (Temple University), CHRISTINA M. VORNDRAN (Drexel University)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: Approximately one-third of the autism population has difficulties with expressive grammar, including verb tense; this can limit expressive communication to simple, here-and-now statements. The standard in-person therapies lack curricula for systematic verb tense practice. Computerized instruction, a preferred learning mode for autistic students, is well-suited to individualized, systematic instruction in rule-based systems like grammar. The SentenceWeaver (SW), a grammar-based software program used in several Philadelphia autistic support classrooms, includes a comprehensive and systematic curriculum. We present preliminary data from two remote school-aged users with autism in a pilot study of the SW verb tense module. This module elicits tenses by combining action pictures with time captions, moving systematically from present, past, and future tenses, culminating in tense-wide discrimination training. One participant has completed the program and made significant within-program progress from pretest to posttest, with generalization to novel sentences. We expect the other participant, who is also demonstrating progress, to complete the module and posttest by April. Our preliminary results show computerized grammar instruction to be a promising intervention for teaching expressive verb tense in autism.
 
159. The Advantages of Ignore Pairwise Functional Analyses in Delineating the Subtypes of Automatically Reinforced Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY REPAK (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Julia Iannaccone (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Matthew Louis Lucciola (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University ), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Sara R. Jeglum (Blank Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) has previously been delineated into three subtypes based on the pattern of responding and presence of self-restraint in the ignore/alone and toy play conditions of the traditional functional analysis. Subtype three is classified by the presence of self-restraint; however recent research questions whether subtype three is a distinct subtype or rather a variant of subtype one or two (Hagopian et al., 2015; 2017). Furthermore, it has been suggested that different patterns of responding may occur when self-restraint is blocked compared to when it is allowed. The purpose of the current study was to (1) compare functional analysis results when SIB is blocked versus allowed and (2) utilize a pairwise functional analysis methodology to determine if responding is more characteristic of subtype one or subtype two in a case of subtype three automatically reinforced SIB demonstrated by an adult with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated differentiated responding when self-restraint was allowed compared to when it was blocked. Specifically, responding was more characteristic of subtype one when self-restraint was allowed and subtype two when self-restraint was blocked. Future research should explore similar techniques to determine if subtype three is a unique subtype of automatically reinforced behavior or if it can resemble subtypes one or two.
 
Diversity submission 160. Professionals' Adaptations of Autism Interventions for Somali Families
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER REILLY (University of Minnesota; National Center for Leadership in Intensive Intervention), Moon Young Savana Bak (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities), Elsie Liu (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Abstract: The study employed qualitative methods, specifically 1:1 interviews, to investigate the adaptations that behavior analysts serving Somali families with a family member with autism make when conducting family training and education. To be included in the interviews, the individual had to have at least one year of experience supporting Somali families with a member with autism in an applied behavior analysis related professional field (e.g., Board Certified Behavior Analysts, speech language therapists). More specifically, the research question was “what considerations are necessary to adapt autism-specific family interventions for Somali families?” The questions for the topic guide were developed based on the Ecological Validity Model (EVM; Bernal et al., 1995) and further modified based on Barnett and colleagues’ (2019) study of therapists’ adaptation of children’s evidence-based practices. The semi-structured 1:1 interviews lasted approximately 60 minutes, and thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2005) was used to identify themes. After analyzing the preliminary data, themes include 1) using appropriate language and styles of communication; 2) incorporating ideals related to religion; 3) building trust through including feedback and providing relevant examples; and 4) tailoring the contextual elements (e.g., setting, length) and methods (e.g., prompting, role-play). Implications, limitations, and future directions will be addressed.
 
161. The Importance of Having a Peer Model: Evaluating the Skill Acquisition Gains and Maladaptive Behavior Reduction When Peer Models Are Present
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jason Kleinberg (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), LORI E. MASTROGIACOMO MASTROGIACOMO (Gold Coast Children's Center)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Social skills are an imperative skill for all children to learn; however, in many instances, children on the Autism Spectrum display deficits in this area. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to evaluate whether using peers as a tool to increase social interactions is a valuable tool. The hypothesis of this research paper is that by implementing a peer model, children with ASD will learn the skills necessary to participate socially while encouraging an increase in social initiations and responses. This research also looked at whether or not peers were able to contribute to children with ASD’s skill acquisition and behavior reduction goals. After looking at a total of 16 articles, it was determined that peers play a huge role in the acquisition of skills and in increasing social initiations and responses. This shows that implementing peers as a model will increase the likelihood that children on the Autism Spectrum will gain the skills needed to increase the frequency of peer interactions, while also improving both skill acquisition and behavior reduction.
 
162. A Systematic Literature Review of the Most Commonly Used Error Correction Procedures When Teaching Tacting to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNA FLEMING (Endicott College; Autism Care Partners), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Error correction procedures are a key component when teaching new skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. Learners can have varied responses to different types of error correction procedures which could facilitate or hinder skill acquisition. Teaching tacts is a common component of language acquisition programs in behavior analytic treatment for children with autism. Due to the fact that learning tacts is a significant component of verbal behavior and effective communication, it is essential that error correction is utilized to assist in teaching. This systematic literature review includes 12 articles that evaluated error correction procedures in the acquisition of tacts for individuals with autism. Each article was analyzed across different dimensions (i.e., participant characteristics, setting, dependent variables, error correction procedures, and outcomes). Although each article included complex error correction procedures and interventions, the majority of the articles were lacking treatment fidelity, error correction categorization, and effects of the error correction procedure on tact acquisition.
 
163. A Pilot Examination of a Comprehensive Preference Assessment to Identify Categories of Preferred Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JEANNINE ELIZABETH EDERER (DDDC), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Marissa Cortinas (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Hanadi-salah Ibrahim (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kimberly Boley (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Melisa Dennis (Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Debra Paone (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: The present study used a comprehensive preference assessment to identify preferred items for school-age participants with autism with a limited repertoire of preferred leisure items and activities. Preference for items within and across four categories comprised of different sensory characteristics was measured. The categories were auditory/auditory visual, tactile, gross motor, and visual. The three highest ranked items in each category were included in an across category paired choice preference assessment. The initial data show three of the top four items from the across category preference assessment were from the same category (shared similar stimulus features). A concurrent operant reinforcer assessment was used to assess the reinforcing efficacy of highest ranked items from the across category preference assessment compared to other high ranked items from a single stimulus preference assessment. Initial results show the rate of responding was highest to an item identified as preferred from the comprehensive preference assessment. Additional reinforcer assessments were conducted. This study provides a method of identifying categories of preferred leisure items that may expand an individual’s repertoire of reinforcers. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of exposing clients with limited interests to a variety of leisure items and activities to determine preferences.
 
164. Identification of Components of a Treatment Package to Target Automatically Maintained Behavior Using a Series of Individualized Analyses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN CORAZON (Alpine Learning Group), Kaitlyn Kaplanovich (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: A child with autism engaged in high rates of vocalizations that were determined to be automatically maintained (Figure 1). A brief treatment analysis consisting of RIRD, pausing with positive practice, and functional communication training to request a break in the presence of sound were equally ineffective at decreasing rates of vocal stereotypy (Figure 2). Subsequently, two additional analyses were conducted. An analysis of auditory stimulation using an alternating treatment design showed that vocal stereotypy was lowest with headphones playing the sound from a video (Figure 3); and, a competing stimulus assessment identified three tasks during which engagement was higher than stereotypy (Figure 4). These analyses informed the development of a treatment package consisting of auditory stimulation and engagement with competing tasks, plus a DRA. The results of this case study support the benefits of a series of brief analyses to inform the identification and development of components of a treatment package for high-rate automatically maintained behaviors.
 
165. Assessing the Reinforcing Value of Stimuli Identified in Preference Assessments During Low and High Effort Contexts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAGAR PATEL (Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore Country; Department of Behavioral Psychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore Country; Department of Behavioral Psychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine), Margaret Cavanaugh (Department of Behavioral Psychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nathalie Fernandez (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Preference assessments are often used with individuals with disabilities to identify preferred stimuli that might function as reinforcers in treatment arrangements. In these assessments, brief access to a stimulus is delivered immediately contingent on simply selecting it. Thus, these procedures require the participant to exert little to no effort in choosing the stimulus that they would like to engage with; they simply need to point to, vocally name, or physically approach the stimulus. However, preferred stimuli are typically arranged for more effortful responses in treatment, such as after completing a series of difficult demands or after waiting for some period of time. Some research shows that stimuli individuals prefer in a lower effort context may not be as preferred in a higher effort context, raising issues with the efficacy of treatments developed based on the outcomes of the low-effort preference assessments. Thus, the current evaluation sought to examine whether manipulations of effort prior to stimulus selection in a preference assessment would affect preference. Further, we evaluated the reinforcer efficacy of stimuli preferred in the different effort contexts.
 
166. Stimulus Control and Functional Analysis Informed Procedures for Reducing Self-Injurious Behavior: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN CAPIZZI (Alpine Learning Group), Cortney Debiase (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group ), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: An adolescent with autism engaged in two topographies of low frequency high intensity self-injurious behavior (SIB) (i.e., hand to object and hand to body). Intervention 1 included use of differential reinforcement of other behavior and application of protective equipment (i.e., padded gloves and helmet). A trial based functional analysis conducted in the classroom showed that SIB was likely maintained by escape from demands, and access to tangibles (Figure 1). Of note, the conditions under which SIB occurred during attention and tangible control conditions indicated that the behavior was also evoked by others initiating social interactions with the participant. This prompted a more detailed analysis of the type of attention that preceded SIB (Figure 2). This analysis showed that latency to engage in SIB was high for social interaction with play item and demand statement (the conditions that mirrored the FA exactly) it was also the only conditions under which self-injury occurred at all. Therefore, the treatment package developed sought to maximize conditions under which self-injury occurred less frequently and minimize conditions under which self-injury occurred most frequently by alternating these conditions throughout the day (Figures 3 & 4). This case study highlights the importance of antecedent analyses in treatment development.
 
167. Treatment Evaluation of the Performance-Based, Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BAI PAN (Department of Psychology, Queens College, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Queens, NY 11367, USA), Phoebe Elizabeth MacDowell (Queens College & The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Caitlin Whitaker (Department of Psychology, Queens College, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd, Queens, NY 11367, USA ), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and problem behavior are at higher risk of experiencing traumatic events and developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, psychiatric assessment in these individuals is challenging due to the co-occurring symptoms. Therefore, it is critical to incorporate a trauma-informed care (TIC) framework, when possible, into ABA services for problem behavior such as practical functional assessment (PFA) and skill-based treatment (SBT). One of the PFA formats includes the use of the performance-based IISCA, which has been shown to effectively inform functional communication training (FCT) outcomes after incorporating TIC. We aimed to evaluate the utility of the performance-based IISCA for informing the entire SBT process including FCT and delay and denial tolerance training for two children with ASD. During the PFA, reinforcement intervals in the performance-based IISCA were dependent on participants’ performance (e.g., remaining calm and engaged with preferred items). During SBT, reinforcement was immediately introduced without using extinction when dangerous problem behavior occurred. In contrast, non-dangerous problem behavior was managed with empathizing statements. Results indicate that the problem behavior of the two participants decreased after PFA/SBT, while communication, tolerance, and cooperation skills increased. All caregivers were satisfied with the process and improvement in their children.
 
168. A Comparison of Responses to Denied Mands on Rate of Challenging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Lauren Adkins (Bancroft), Emily Virok (Bancroft), DEANNA GROSS (Bancroft), Dana Marie Szymanski (Bancroft), Natalie Mandel (Bancroft)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: For some individuals who engage in challenging behavior, the function of their challenging behavior is adult compliance with their idiosyncratic mands (Bowman et al., 1997; Schmidt et al., 2017). Given there are instances that individuals engage in mands at a high rate that may not be able to be honored, it is essential to know how to respond to these requests in a way that will result in the least amount of challenging behavior. Previous literature suggests that when denying tangible items, it is beneficial to offer an alternative item or complete a task before receiving that item (e.g., Mace et al., 2011). It is unclear if these same results apply to more idiosyncratic requests. In this investigation, we utilized a multi-element design to assess several different responses to mands on levels of challenging behavior for individuals diagnosed with autism with severe challenging behavior with confirmed or hypothesized compliance with mands functions . Current results suggest that specific types of responses to requests may result in less challenging behavior.
 
169. Teaching Generalized Imitation to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CELSO GOYOS (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Vanessa Paula Souza Brandão (Instituto Lahmiei-Autismo, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Generalized imitation, as a behavioral cusp, provides the learning of a range of new behaviors without the need for direct teaching. The present research aims to evaluate whether the teaching procedure of generalized imitation through multiple exemplars is efficient. In a multiple-baseline design across four children with autism, an initial baseline measure of generalized imitation was administered, followed by individual teaching of multiple imitation exemplars, and again by applications of the generalized imitation measure. Each exemplar was taught via a ten-trial protocol which gradually introduced a learned model and a new one, in an alternated fashion. Correct responses were followed by a preference item and incorrect responses only by an inter-trial interval. P1 and P2 showed emergence of Generalized Imitation. It should also be noted that different numbers of exposures were necessary for each of them. Maintenance data collection occurred only for P1 and P2, since the data obtained for P3 and P4 are still inconclusive, as they show a slow evolution when the baseline is reapplied. Therefore, the results suggest that the Generalized Imitation test can be used, both as a predictor of the child's performance on new individual exemplars, and on Generalized Imitation itself.
 
170. Clothing Competing Stimulus Assessment in Adults With Automatically Reinforced Self-Injury and Self-Restraint
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICHOLAS MIGLIACCIO (Rutgers, State University of New Jersey ), Julia Iannaccone (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Matthew Louis Lucciola (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Previous research establishes competing stimulus assessments (CSAs) as effective tools to identify stimuli associated with a reduction in challenging behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related disabilities (Haddock & Hagopian, 2020). Research on CSAs, however, is limited within (1) the adult population and (2) subtype three automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of a competing stimulus assessment to identify clothing items associated with a reduction in challenging behavior in a 27-year-old male, Myles, diagnosed with ASD demonstrating severe automatically reinforced SIB and self-restraint. Six clothing items were included, and data were recorded on SIB, self-restraint, item engagement, and item avoidance. After each clothing item was placed on Myles, he was directed to wear the item for the duration of the session. All instances of SIB were blocked and contingent on clothing removal, the item was placed back on the participant. Results of the assessment showed a reduction from baseline in SIB and self-restraint when wearing some of the included clothing items. An 80% reduction from baseline in SIB was not achieved for any item; however, one item was associated with a 100% reduction in self-restraint. Future researchers should continue to evaluate the efficacy of CSAs in identifying items associated with reduced challenging behavior in adults demonstrating self-restraint and automatically reinforced SIB (subtype three).
 
171. A Comparison of Nonremoval of the Spoon and Demand Fading During Treatment for a Feeding Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TATUM LISA ALENCAR (Children’s Specialized Hospital RUCARES), Emma Auten (Children’s Specialized Hospital—Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH—RUCARES)), Kathryn M. Peterson (Children’s Specialized Hospital—Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services (CSH—RUCARES)), Jaime Crowley-Zalaket (Children's Specialized Hospital)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Individuals with feeding difficulties are at risk for experiencing negative outcomes such as poor weight gain, dehydration, malnutrition, hospitalizations, dependence on tube feedings, or cognitive impairments (Peterson et al., 2018). Nonremoval of the spoon (NRS) and demand fading are two interventions that have been shown to lead to increases in acceptance of novel food and decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior (Bachmeyer et al., 2009). NRS is a well-established intervention for feeding difficulties; however, it can be associated with side effects such as crying or extinction bursts (Engler et al., 2023; Woods & Borrero, 2019). In addition, antecedent-based interventions such as demand fading may take longer to achieve successful outcomes than extinction-based procedures (Piazza et al., 2007). In the current study, researchers compared NRS and demand fading across treatments for solids and liquids for one individual with a pediatric feeding disorder. Overall, results showed NRS produced an increase in acceptance more rapidly than demand fading; however, components of demand fading were incorporated into the NRS procedure. The child’s caregiver indicated preference for the extinction-based procedure. Future researchers should continue to conduct treatment comparisons to help guide best practice recommendations as well as evaluate the social validity of these interventions with stakeholders.
 
172. The Impact of Guided Meditation Delivered Through Virtual Reality
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JEFF SCHRAM (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Guided meditation has been shown to be effective at reducing anxiety, depressive symptoms, and challenging behavior in individuals with autism (Cachia, Anderson, & Moore, 2016). Individuals with autism and co-occurring intellectual disabilities, or those with limited vocal verbal repertoires, however, may have difficulty accessing and completing guided meditation activities. Since participating in guided meditation is traditionally a private event, observing if one is actively meditating is challenging. One potential way to improve access to guided meditations and increase confidence that meditation occurred is through immersive technology, such as virtual reality (VR). In the current study, we examined how delivering guided meditation from Floreo® using VR for individuals with autism and co-occurring intellectual disabilities impacted behavioral measures of affect, or mood, and challenging behavior, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression measured through indirect assessments. Data were collected on affect and challenging behavior prior to and following engagement in a brief guided meditation, as well as engagement in the guided meditation. Results suggest that presenting meditation using VR may improve behavior, mood, and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression following engaging in meditation. Engagement data also suggest that presenting meditation using VR may increase confidence that meditation activities are being accessed.
 
173. A Systematic Literature Review of the Use of Aspects of a Token Economy to Aid in the Decrease of Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Carly Doherty (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), ALYSSA JEAN CLARK (Endicott College)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy is a common trait displayed by those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Vocal stereotypy can be problematic in that it may interfere with learning and social interactions; therefore, it is often targeted for decrease using a variety of treatment interventions, including token economies. This literature review was conducted via the PRISMA guidelines and includes 10 articles that incorporated aspects of token economy procedures, both independently and within a treatment package, as treatments to decrease levels of vocal stereotypy in individuals diagnosed with ASD and other learning disabilities. Each article was evaluated across six dimensions: participants, setting, treatment package, implementation, outcomes, and maintenance. As found in 90% of the evaluated articles, aspects of token economies, specifically token reward/exchange and response cost, are effective intervention procedures to aid in the decrease of vocal stereotypy. Based on the analyses of the articles, information regarding the effects of token economy procedures to aid in the decrease of vocal stereotypy was discussed, along with the implications of the findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research.
 
174. A Systematic Literature Review on Interventions for Depression for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kaley Dawn Gaulard (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College), Anna Linnehan (Endicott College), NICOLE RADZILOWICZ (Endicott College)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Risk factors and depressive symptoms can be difficult to detect in the ASD population, as they may present differently than the general public. Current assessment tools and interventions are based on what has been effective for neurotypical individuals; however, it must be considered whether these assessments and treatments are appropriate for those who are neurodiverse. Behaviour analysts should collaborate with other mental health professionals to explore effective behavioural treatment for behaviours associated with depressive symptoms. This literature review includes 34 articles that examined assessments and interventions for depression in autistic individuals. Each article was examined across several dimensions (participants, research designs, primary outcomes, measurement tools, intervention, and outcomes). From this analysis, information regarding identifying risk factors, assessing for depressive symptoms, and applying interventions for behaviours associated with depression in ASD are discussed. The outcomes of this paper demonstrate the low success rate in utilizing interventions for autistic people with depression. Limitations in the current literature and suggestions for future research are also identified.
 
Diversity submission 175. Addressing the Impact of Response Interruption Response Redirection and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior on Managing Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARK GIL MASCARINA CAPARROS (Little Prince SNS Kuwait )
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: This research evaluated the effectiveness of response interruption response redirection (RIRD) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in addressing the vocal stereotypy of a 4-year-old child with autism in Kuwait. Functional analysis (FA) results revealed that behavior is maintained with automatic reinforcement. The child’s mastered targets were incorporated each time during the RIRD procedure, and appropriate vocalizations were required during the DRA protocol. With the combination of multiple probe design across settings design and alternating treatment design, baseline data were collected, and intervention across settings was started RIRD and DRA, which demonstrated a decreasing trend of vocal stereotypy. Treatment went back to the second baseline phase, and then the second treatment phase was introduced to verify the effectiveness of RIRD and DRA as alternate treatments. Treatment was implemented across settings such as therapy center, home, and community. Results revealed that both RIRD and DRA are effective methods in decreasing the percent of occurrence of vocal stereotypy in all settings tested.
 
176. Attrition in Autism Research for Challenging Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation to Parental Stress and Other Predictors Related to Project Completion
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN GONZALES (University of Texas at San Antonio), Alison Cox (Brock University), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio), Nazurah Khokhar (Brock University), Marie-Chanel Morgan (Brock University)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Research shows that caregivers of children with autism have higher levels of parenting stress compared to caregivers of children without a disability or those with other disabilities. Although autism research has increased tremendously over the past 30 years, factors leading to attrition in research have not been as widely explored. Therefore, it is possible that parenting stress may be a factor that impacts their involvement. As such, the current study utilized the Autism Parenting Stress Index (APSI) as a tool to measure parental stress prior to participating in a two-part research and service project aimed to provide support for children with autism that engage in challenging behavior. Service consisted of assessment and treatment of the challenging behavior, followed by caregiver coaching while participation in the research study aimed to validate a tool regarding the severity of the behavior for a $100 incentive. Preliminary results show that participants with higher APSI scores were more likely to complete all components of the project compared to those that did not. Further research is needed to determine the specific barriers preventing families from completing services in full.
 
177. Increasing Toy Engagement Using the Disequilibrium Model: A Systematic Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN RYAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Hunter King (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine ), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract: The disequilbrium model suggests that restricting access to a contingent activity (e.g., iPad time) creates a response deficit that occasions more engagement in an instrumental activity (e.g., work completion) to access to the contingent activity. While several conceptual papers exist on the disequilbrium model, it has not been widely applied with clinically relevant behavior. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic replication of the study conducted by Falligant and Rooker (2021) to further demonstrate the generality and applicability of the model in clinical contexts. Results of the current study align with prior research demonstrating this model’s ability to quantify the magnitude and direction of predicted change in instrumental behavior based on measures of free operant baseline responding. From a practical standpoint, our findings suggest that disequilibrium theory could be leveraged to optimize procedures aimed at increasing item engagement and concomitantly decreasing problem behavior through response competition.
 
178. The Transition Process Between Post-16 and Post-19 Services With Autistic Individuals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RHYS JONES (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Kate Hewett (Jigsaw School), Chloe Mason (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Mariann Szabo (Jigsaw CABAS School), Gemma Reeder (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Natalie Leow-Dyke (Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Meara X. H. McMahon (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: This study investigated the importance of improving independence for Autistic individual’s which can help facilitate the transition process between post-16 and post-19 services. By increasing independence skills this may in turn enhance an individual’s wellbeing which has been shown to be an integral factor allowing for a seamless transition between child and adult services. Previous research has also examined ways to improve the well-being of Autistic individuals and independence through the use of PROACT-SCIPr-UK ® interventions (West & Kaniok, 2009). By increasing independence, this can provide individuals with necessary skills such as problem solving and decision making. This can in turn prepare the individual for life beyond post-16 services and into post-19 services. Independent variables in this study included the use of functional communication training, further staff training, environmental adaptations and the use of PROACT-SCIPr-UK ® proactive strategies. Some of these strategies included increasing communication, choice making and addressing physical needs. A pretest-postest quasi- experimental design was used to examine results of 4 Autistic individuals. . Results from the study showed a reduction in the use of PROACT-SCIPr-UK ® interventions and the number of incident reports logged across participants.
 
179. Analyzing Variables Affecting Response to Name in Children Within Special Education Setting: Training, Generalization, and Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERNA DOGG PALSDOTTIR (Arnarskoli; Reykjavik University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University), Berglind Sveinbjornsdottir (Reykjavik University), Hanna Steinunn Steingrimsdottir (Reykjavik University)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Response to name (RTN) is an important developmental milestone in early childhood which usually emerges around the first year of life. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack the skill to respond to their name and require individually tailored training to be able to establish the response. This study evaluated an assessment and treatment model for RTN from Conine et al. (2020), for three children with ASD. By analyzing variables affecting response to name with each participant we were able to establish stable responses, generalize across trainers and settings, and maintain over time. All participants went through a series of training conditions as described by previous authors in phase I. During phase II, adjustment was made depending on what variables were affecting the establishment of response to name, and at last, a generalization and maintenance was established in phase III. In this poster, we will focus on the use of titration levels for the establishment of RTN for one participant, the thinning of the reinforcement schedules, and generalization across trainers and settings.
 
180. Analysis of Current Treatment in Addressing Head-Directed Self-Injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LACY KNUTSON (South Dakota State University), Sydney Slouka (South Dakota State University), Reid Wieczorek (South Dakota State University), Danielle Seljeskog (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a highly concerning therapeutic concern among individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Topographies can vary extensively but inherent to the label, injury to the self is likely. Further concerns arise when the specific response topography is likely to result in both superficial (e.g., shallow wound or abrasion), as well as internal injury (e.g., TBI, concussion, detached retina, etc.). If an individual is not treated successfully for their SIB, the probability of long-term damage or tissues loss increases. Behavior analysis has been a leading therapeutic intervention for addressing self-injury for the past 40 years. With the advances in technology within and outside of behavior analysis, it is important to continue exploring options to supplement behavioral interventions for the benefit of our clients. The current survey examined the methods and practices used by Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) to treat individuals who engage in head-directed SIB. These data inform the reader of the current therapeutic practices and supportive equipment used in treatment by BCBAs, as well as BCBA attitudes towards the use supportive equipment.
 
181. The Use of Behavioural Contracting With an Embedded Differential Reinforcement of Low-Rate Behaviour to Reduce Behaviours That Challenge in an Autistic Individual
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RHYS JONES (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Grant Gautreaux (Nicholls State University), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Nicholls State University)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Behaviours that challenge (BTC) are more likely to occur in autistic individuals compared to neurotypical children (Rzepecka, McKenzie, McClure, & Murphy, 2011; Minshawi et al., 2014). The present study investigated the effectiveness of behavioural contracting with an embedded differential reinforcement of low-rate behaviour (DRL) to reduce BTC with a 16-year-old autistic male with an associated learning disability. Behavioural contracting has been shown to be an effective method for reducing BTC due to contracts outlining clear expectations and rewards in relation to a target behaviour. (Vaughn & Bos, 2012). Differential reinforcement is a strategy implemented to reduce BTC in autistic individuals, especially those with an associated learning disability (Marcus & Vollmer, 1996). The participant had some vocal speech but also used an augmentative communication device or Makaton sign to communicate. His BTC included hairpulling, kicking, biting and spitting. An AB experimental design was used to monitor the number of BTC emitted with the implementation of behavioural contracting with the embedded DRL. Results of the study showed a reduction in the number of BTC the participant emitted throughout the school day; subsequently the reduction of BTC generalised to his home and residential setting.
 
182. The Impact of Toothpaste Flavors on Toothbrushing Completion, Avoidance Behaviors, Challenging Behavior, and Preference
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Samantha Fioravanti (Bancroft), HAYLEY HABERSTROH (Bancroft), Natalie Mandel (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: Routine toothbrushing is an integral part of daily hygiene. However, toothbrushing or accepting assistance with toothbrushing is a daily task that can be difficult for some individuals. Several previous studies assessed ways to increase independent toothbrushing (e.g., Bishop et al., 2013; Moran et al., 2022); however, additional research is warranted on what changes could be made to the stimuli used during the activity. The type of toothbrush or toothpaste flavor could be a factor in why toothbrushing could be an aversive task leading to short durations or physical avoidance. Alterations to these stimuli may also result in differentiated preference. This investigation utilized a multi-element design to assess the impact of different toothpaste flavors on physical avoidance, challenging behavior, and duration of independent or accepting assistance during toothbrushing for individuals diagnosed with autism with a history of difficulties during this daily living activity. Current results suggest that the flavor of toothpaste may impact these measures.
 
183. Evaluation of Web-Based Training Model For Training Parents To Deliver Safety Skills Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DEMET TAVUKCU (Maltepe University), DINÇER SARAL (Hacettepe University), Hatice Deniz Degirmenci (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University), Seray Olcay (Hacettepe University), Ahmet Fidan (Sakarya University)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: A web-based training portal is developed in order to show parents of children with ASD how to teach safety skills (www.guvendeyiz.org). Portal is mainly designed to help the parents understand the features and concepts of systematic instruction as well as train them how to deliver instruction by using behavioral skill straining, social stories, and video modeling for teaching safety skills. Training portal consists of seven modules; (1) Safety Skills, (2) Systematic Instruction, (3) Behavioral Skill Training, (4) Social Stories, (4) Video Modelling, (6) Self-Monitoring and Evaluation, and (7) Promoting Generalization & Maintenance. Each module presented in seven sub-sections; (1) Explanation, (2) Pre-Assessment, (3) Training Modul (i.e., social stories), (4) post-Assessment, (5) Module Evaluation, (6) Recommended Resources and (7) Summary & Forms. Each module consists of two to four sections. Each section was also audio recorded. There are questions to enhance user interaction. There are correct and incorrect video model samples for each intervention. Intervention modules also have self-monitoring and evaluation section. This section consists of check list with steps that should be followed during training. User can watch the video and asses his/her practice performance with the form. self-monitoring and evaluation aim to help parents to improve their training skills.
 
184. The Effects of the Web-Based Training Portal on Parental Skills To Deliver Behavioral Skill Training and Acquisition of Safety Skills by Their Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HATICE DENIZ DEGIRMENCI (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the web-based parent training portal on parents' ability to use behavioral skills training as well as acquisition of target safety skill by their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers will also measure generalization and maintenance outcomes across parent-child dyads. Finally, social validity data are being collected from participating parents regarding the significance of target skills, acceptability of the intervention, and significance of the out comes before, during and after the intervention. The study employed the non-concurrent (delayed) multiple baseline design (across subjects) and included three parent-child dyads. The researchers developed a web-based parent training portal to train parents for teaching safety skills to their children with ASD (www.guvendeyiz.org:The website is currently unavailable as it is prototype form.). The web-based portal included five learning modules. In the study, the participating parents are required to complete the portal and all learning modules. Then, they are required to prepare training materials and teach the target safety skill to their children using behavioral skills training. The study now continues and the results will be presented during Convention.
 
185. The Effects of the Web-Based Training Portal on Parental Skills to Deliver Social Stories and Acquisition of Safety Skills by Their Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERAY OLCAY (Hacettepe University), Hatice Deniz Degirmenci (Anadolu University), DINÇER SARAL (Hacettepe University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the web-based parent training portal on parents' ability to use Social Stories as well as acquisition of target safety skills (i.e., exhibiting safe responses to inappropriate offers online) by their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers also measured generalization and maintenance outcomes across parent-child dyads. Finally, social validity data were collected from participating parents regarding the significance of the target skills, acceptability of the intervention, and significance of the outcomes before, during, and after the intervention. The study employed the non-concurrent (delayed) multiple baseline design (across subjects) and included three parent-child dyads. The researchers developed a web-based parent training portal to train parents for teaching safety skills to their children with ASD (see www.guvendeyiz.org. The website is currently unavailable as it is a prototype form.). The web-based portal included five learning modules. In the study, the participating parents were required to complete the portal and all learning modules. Then, they were required to prepare training materials and teach the target safety skills to their children using Social Stories. The study results will be presented during the Convention.
 
186. Evaluating the Use of GIF-Based Preference Assessments for Establishing Hierarchies of Physical Activity
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
RENEE KENNISH (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities are less likely to engage in physical activity than those without such diagnoses. The present study employed a paired stimulus preference assessment with GIFs of various forms of physical activities to establish a hierarchy among four participants who attend an adult day program for individuals with Autism and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The physical activities included in this study were those that could be completed with little to no assistance to the participant aside from the setup of the materials and the initial instruction to begin exercising; these types of activities were selected to mimic a typical environment where a staffing ratio may not allow uninterrupted instruction. The accuracy of the results from the paired stimulus preference assessment were subsequently tested using a response restricted analysis and engagement probe. The results suggest that GIF-based preference assessments accurately identify preferred forms of physical activity, but that duration of engagement in such activities may not always accurately reflect preference.
 
187. A Component Analysis of Icon Discrimination Procedures Recommended for Speech-Generating Device Users
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELA SALAZAR (University of Miami), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Some children on the autism spectrum exhibit minimal to no speech skills (Tager-Flusberg & Kasari, 2013). Speech-generating devices are one type of augmentative and alternative communication system that can facilitate the emergence of early communication skills when combined with discrimination training (Lorah, 2018; Lorah et al., 2014). Our current study replicated and extended Lorah et al. (2014) and Lorah (2018) by (a) conducting discriminated mand training using a speech-generating device and multi-phase protocol, and (b) analyzing outcomes by assessing the percentage of correct trials, types of correspondence, and distributed position selections. Discriminated mand training procedures involved an implementer (a) presenting a speech-generating device immediately after a participant reached for a preferred item, and (b) delivering differential consequences. Three children (3 – 7 years) on the autism spectrum who exhibited minimal echoics and varying matching skills, and had differing histories with the use of speech-generating devices participated. We identified that only some components were necessary to establish discriminated mands for two participants who met acquisition criteria. However, the progressive multi-phase protocol was ineffective for one participant who did not meet acquisition criteria. We discuss the importance of using multiple data analyses when targeting discriminated mands and to detect faulty stimulus control.
 
188. Demand Fading to Teach Appropriate Behavior During Dental Visits for a Learner With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SANDRA R. GOMES (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Jessica Lamb (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Morgan Colville (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Chelsea Moczulak (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Emily E. Gallant (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: Parents reported that Caleb, an eight-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder, displayed disruptive behavior and noncompliance during dental cleanings and exams that prevented their completion. To address this, we used a treatment package consisting of programming common stimuli, demand fading, duration shaping, and a behavioral contract to teach Caleb to tolerate various components of a pediatric dental visit. Common stimuli specifically included a simulated exam room in Caleb’s school with a dental exam chair, treatment tray, and dental hygiene instruments. Over ten months of intervention to date, Caleb has moved from initially only tolerating sitting in the dental chair for five seconds, to tolerating tooth counting, flossing, scaling, and polishing; wearing a protective X-ray blanket; bite wing insertion; and rinsing his mouth during a ten-minute simulated exam. Terminal goals include use of a simulated saliva extractor and extension of the exam to a normative duration (i.e., 20-30 minutes). Generalization data indicate successful performance with novel exam materials (e.g., color/material of dental hygiene tools), people, and locations within the school setting. Generalization assessment in the community with Caleb’s dentist is planned for future visits and will inform discussion of the utility of the common stimuli programming component in particular.
 
189. Using Progressive Ratio Reinforcer Assessment to Identify Healthy and Unhealthy Reinforcers a Single Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRIGETTE K FLORES (Amigo Care ABA), Shelby Lynne Quigley (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Amigo Care ABA, Maryland Association for Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) need a well-balanced nutritional diet for their health and development (Webber, Robinson, & Gray, 2018). Compared to their non-developmentally disabled peers, children with autism experience a plethora of grave effects due to poor food consumption including obesity, increased risk for diabetes, and premature mortality (Bourne, Mandy, & Bryant-Waugh, 2022). Studies have suggested the diet of children with autism often consists primarily of processed foods that are low in nutritional content and are known to adversely affect both behavioral and cognitive functioning (Crowley et al., 2020). While many caregivers are aware of the adverse effects of their child’s eating habits, the inability to motivate and control their child’s behavior leads to a continuation of delivering processed foods. In this study, a multiple-stimulus preference assessment was conducted to identify preferred healthy and unhealthy foods. The highest preferred items of each category were then tested using a progressive ratio reinforcement assessment to evaluate the effectiveness as a reinforcer. The results indicate both healthy and unhealthy foods serve as effective reinforcers, offering a potential opportunity to utilize healthy foods to reinforce positive behavior over unhealthy options, thereby providing a promising avenue for encouraging better choices.
 
190. Tact Extension Through Extended Echoic Instruction in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARCELA FREIRE (Federal University of São Carlos), Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: This study aimed at testing the effects of extended echoic instruction on emerging responses of extended tact in three 3, 4, and 9 year-old boys diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Tact and echoic extended responses were defined as an increase in the amount of elements according to the Portuguese language, i.e., subject, verb, pronoum and complement or any combination of these. Initially, as a baseline condition, matching-to-sample tasks were applied without reinforcement to assess the initial extended tact and echoic repertoire, each with four elements for four sets, for example, cute big furry dog (four-element chain of set 1, and different elements for sets 2, 3 and 4). Subsequently, extended echoic instruction was introduced in sets 2 and 4 and then 3, and the effects on the other set were evaluated. The next condition involved a return to the baseline. Extended tact emergence was not observed in sets 1 and 2, but there was no significant change in echoic performance in set 1 and echoic gains in set 2 receded after a few baseline sessions. In sets 3 and 4 a more stable and increased performance in extended tact was observed after extended echoic instruction.
 
Diversity submission 191. Systematic Cultural Adaptation and a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of Research Units Behavioral Interventions (RUBI) Parent Training Program With Korean Caregivers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES LEE (University of Washington School of Medicine; Seattle Children's Autism Center), Veronica Youn Kang (University of Maryland at College Park), Gospel Yejin Kim (University of California Davis), Sehee Jung (Community Autism Research and Education (CARE) Lab ), Haemi Kim (Simple Step ABA ), Jin Sun Son (Simple Step ABA), Sean Joo (University of Kansas), Karen Bearss (Seattle Children's Autism Center)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Parent training is an effective way of reducing challenging behaviors that are exhibited by young autistic children and promoting caregivers’ mental health well-being. Research Units Behavioral Interventions (RUBI) is an evidence-based parent training program to reduce challenging behaviors by providing behavior analytic strategies to parents. However, few studies have examined how RUBI can be culturally adapted to be used with diverse and underrepresented populations. To address this gap, we conducted a two-part study that includes (1) a rigorous process to culturally adapt RUBI, and (2) a pilot randomized controlled trial to test the effects of RUBI in reducing child’s challenging behaviors among Korean families. We first conducted systematic cultural adaptation of RUBI using several implementation science tools to increase the contextual fit using the Cultural Adaptation Checklist (Lee et al., 2023). We have also formed a community advisory board to inform adaptation. The second part of this study involves a pilot waitlist-control RCT with 31 Korean caregivers of young children with autism or developmental delays. Our preliminary data analysis indicates that RUBI led to significant changes in caregivers’ knowledge of behavioral principles and had insignificant yet moderate effect sizes on child’s challenging behaviors and caregivers’ confidence in using behavioral strategies.
 
192. A Proposal for Teaching Echoic to Facilitate Mand Emergence in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAYARA CRISTINA FREITAS PEREIRA GIOLO ("Lahmiei Autism Institute, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil), Celso Goyos ("Lahmiei Autism Institute, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the systematic teaching of echoic verbal operants would facilitate the learning of manding in children with autism. A specific protocol was developed for manding instruction, while the echoic instruction followed the protocol by Goyos (2018). The procedure consisted, after assessing the manding repertoire, exposing the participants to echoic instruction using the syllable or word learned in the previous protocol, through manipulation of the motivational operation. Two children diagnosed with autism aged 1 to 5 years, both without echoic repertoire before the research, participated in the study. A multiple-probe design across participants was employed. The results demonstrated that both children acquired a generalized echoic repertoire, achieving 100% mastery, and expanded the emission of manding to preferred items even in environments beyond the clinical setting. This suggests that teaching generalized echoic behavior prior to manding instruction may facilitate such acquisition, contributing to the expansion of the verbal repertoire in children with autism.
 
193. Comparing a Function-Based and Non-Function-Based Intervention for Echolalia
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA RENAE GONZALEZ (University of Texas at San Antonio; MS-Behavior Analysis), Hannah MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio ), Ashley Labay (University of Texas at San Antonio )
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Echolalia is a restricted pattern of vocal behavior in which a person may repeat some or all of a previously spoken utterance and is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. While echolalia is not always problematic (and should not be targeted for change), for some individuals, it can impact social exchanges, friendships, and hinder progress toward educational goals. Different treatment packages have been evaluated to reduce echolalia and increase appropriate vocalizations. A limitation to the current research is the inattention to behavioral function when designing these interventions. In the current study, a functional behavior assessment was conducted on the immediate echolalia of a nine-year-old male yielding a social-negative function. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a function-based (i.e., differential reinforcement of alternative behavior; DRA) and a non-function-based intervention (i.e., cue-pause-point; CPP) on correct responding to two sets of intraverbal responses. For the DRA intervention, emission of a correct response resulted in an immediate break, while incorrect responses were followed by representation of the trial. Results of the treatment evaluation showed that CPP was more effective in reducing echolalia as compared to DRA for this participant. Implications for practitioners and future research will be discussed.
 
194. The Effects of Sensory Integration Therapy on Stereotypy in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH WALKER (Teachers College, Columbia University), Robin Nuzzolo (Fred S. Keller School, NY), Kelsey MacLellan (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to systematically replicate the independent variables used in Moore et al.’s (2015) experiments experiment using sensory integration therapy (SIT) as a treatment for automatically maintained stereotypy in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to sensory integration theory, SIT strategies may address atypical sensory processing by providing stimulation across different sensory modalities. However, researchers have yet to demonstrate experimental effects of SIT on the reduction of stereotypical behaviors. The present study used a concurrent multiple baseline design across 3 preschool students with ASD to test for a functional relation between SIT- individualized, sensory diets prescribed by an occupational therapist- and the frequency of vocal and motor stereotypy. No experimental effects were demonstrated following SIT. This study replicated the original findings (Moore et al., 2015) which also failed to validate SIT as an effective treatment for the reduction of stereotypy in young children with ASD.
 
195. Competing Stimulus Assessment Using Staff Video Messages to Decrease Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Adult Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DESIREE POOLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rajen Bajracharya (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sara Deinlein (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Competing stimulus assessments (CSAs) are commonly used to identify stimuli that compete with problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement (Rooker, Bonner, Dillon, & Zarcone, 2018). With some modification, CSAs can also be used to identify stimuli that may compete with other functions of problem behavior, such as access to adult attention. The participant in this study was a 14-year-old boy, Atticus, who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and mild intellectual disabilities. He was admitted to an inpatient hospital for the assessment and treatment of self-injury, aggression, and property destruction. Atticus’ functional analysis showed his problem behavior was maintained by access to adult attention. A CSA was conducted using pre-recorded videos of preferred staff members talking about Atticus’ preferred topics; each test condition video contained one staff member. In both the control and test conditions, problem behavior resulted in access to attention (e.g., brief reprimands). Results showed varying levels of engagement based on the staff member featured in the video, and an overall reduction in problem behavior across all staff member videos, relative to the control condition. Potential applications for these results in the context of a comprehensive treatment package will be discussed.
 
196. Understanding the Impact of Behavioral Technician Burnout on Treatment Outcomes for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
XIAOFAN ZHANG (University of Pittsburgh; Wuhan Linjie Rehabilitation Medical Center), DAN LI (Wuhan Linjie Rehabilitation Medical Center), Rachel E. Robertson (University of Pittsburgh)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: Due to the demands, workload, and working conditions, behavioral technicians may experience burnout while providing treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine the potential impact of burnout on treatment outcomes in behavioral service delivery, taking into account private events. Participants were recruited and interviewed regarding their roles and experiences in conducting behavioral interventions for children with autism. Qualitative data analysis was conducted, followed by random selection and quantitative analysis of past students' data. Annual reports of past students were randomly sampled and categorized for comparison. By comparing the group of students associated with participants in their early career when they reported burnout to the group of students linked to participants later in their careers when they did not report burnout, the quantitative results were compared to the qualitative findings. The conclusion drawn suggests that burnout may affect individuals differently in their delivery of behavioral services. Further single-case research is suggested.
 
197. Assessment of Challenging Behavior Surrounding Highly Preferred Walks for Leisure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARY MIDDLETON (Kennedy Krieger Institute), sabrina olivera (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sara Deinlein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Steven G. Little (Walden University)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and / or intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may engage in challenging behaviors (e.g., self-injury), and functional analysis is considered the “gold standard” for assessing the function of these behaviors. Test and control conditions can be designed to isolate “idiosyncratic” functions (e.g., access to being pushed in a wheelchair; DeLeon, Kahng, Rodriquez-Catter, Sveinsdottir, & Sadler, 2003). The participant in this study was a 9-year-old female, Katherine, who was diagnosed with ASD, severe IDD, and disruptive behavior disorder. She was admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of self-injury and aggression. Based on anecdotal observations of challenging behavior during and following walks, an assessment was conducted to evaluate whether challenging behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of access to walking. In the test condition, challenging behavior produced access to a walk for 1 min. In the control condition, Katherine was permitted to walk uninterrupted for the duration of session. When challenging behavior persisted in the control condition, we hypothesized that Katherine was engaging in challenging behavior when she was not permitted to control the route. As such, we designed test 2 and control 2 to test this hypothesis. In test 2, challenging behavior resulted in access to a 1 min walk and Katherine was allowed to choose the route. In control 2, Katherine was permitted to walk her chosen route uninterrupted for the duration of session. Conditions were evaluated in a reversal design. Phase 2 results indicated that Katherine engaged in challenging behavior to access positive reinforcement in the form of walking in her chosen route.
 
198. A Multicomponent Approach to Reduce Inappropriate Touching Behavior in Public Places
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALESSANDRO DIBARI (Fondazione Oltre le Parole Onlus), Claudia Costella (Fondazione Oltre le Parole ONLUS), Fiorenza Fella (Fondazione Oltre le Parole ONLUS)
Discussant: Ken Winn (Advanced Behavioral Resources)
Abstract: During the covid 19 pandemic everyone had to change their behavior to avoid contagion. In this study, a package of treatments was implemented to reduce the behavior of touching surfaces or items, inside a shopping center, by an 18-year-old student with autism spectrum disorder. The treatment package included the implementation of antecedent manipulation strategies, use of rules and error correction procedures. A combination of reversal design and component analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment package and to fade the treatment component. Subsequently, maintenance and generalization were tested with the parent. During the maintenance the touch behavior increased, so we reintroduced the error correction procedure and take data about procedural integrity by the caregiver. The procedural integrity results low and so the parent receive a booster training by the terapist. Results showed that partecipant meet the criterion for generalization and maintenance in the final phase of the study.
 
199. Extending the Generality of Skill-Based Approaches: Teaching With Multiple Exemplars to Promote Treatment Transfer
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DELANEY E SCHNEIDER (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Muroe-Meyer Institute), Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health), Rianna Mueller (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe Meyer Institute), Alyha McCartney (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe Meyer Institute), Caitlin Fulton (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Abstract: Recent behavior analytic research has demonstrated the efficacy of a skill-based approach in preventing and treating significant challenging behaviors. These approaches often prescribe treatment components aimed at improving various aspects of validity and treatment generality. Despite these benefits, there remains limited evidence demonstrating treatment generality from clinically relevant situations to other socially valid situations. Furthermore, it is unclear if teaching across these varied situations, or multiple exemplars, maintain treatment effects toward a goal of behavioral inoculation. This study assessed the generality of a skill-based approach with an individual who displayed significant challenging behaviors. Function assessment indicated that challenging behaviors occurred to escape academic demands to access preferred tangibles and attention. Treatment produced decreases in challenging behaviors and increased in target skills like communication and cooperations. Treatment was necessary for other demand situations involving activities of daily living. Effects generalized to situations where only reinforcers were removed or temporarily unavailable. Furthermore, treatment effects transferred to nonclinical settings with caregivers.
 
 

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