|A Relational Frame Theory Account of Complex Human Behavior: Hierarchical Responding, Casual and Temporal Responding, Humor and Time Perception|
|Monday, May 30, 2022|
|8:00 AM–9:50 AM |
|Meeting Level 1; Room 152|
|Area: EAB; Domain: Translational|
|Chair: Carmen Luciano (University Almeria, Spain)|
|Discussant: Francisco Jose Ruiz Jimenez (Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz)|
Relational Frame Theory (RFT) is a functional-analytic approach to human language and cognition that allows to addressing several complex behaviours such as humour, time perception, hierarchical categorization response, and causality responding. This symposium is composed of empirical studies concerning the conditions under which these four human behaviours might take place. The first paper aims to establish arbitrary applicable hierarchical responding in adult human. The second paper aims to establish arbitrarily applicable causal and temporal responses in adult humans. The third paper aims to isolate part of the processes that might hinder for the emergence of humor. Finally, the fourth paper aim to analyze the impact of motivational functions (pleasant, unpleasant and as well as higher-order or overarching functions) that might be involved in the passage of time through different time perception measures The four papers will be discussed according to what contextual conditions should be involved in deriving behaviour according to the four behaviors.
|Instruction Level: Advanced|
|Keyword(s): "casual relations", "hierarchical responding", "humour", "time perception"|
Experimental Analysis of Hierarchical Transformation of Functions
|JORGE VILLARROEL CARRASCO (University of Almeria), Carmen Luciano (University Almeria, Spain), L. Jorge Ruiz-Sanchez (University of Almería)|
Hierarchical categorization is a response in which a class of stimuli is treated as a member of a wide class of stimuli (e.g., human is classified as a member of the category “animal”, while “animal” is classified as a type of “living being”). According to RFT, hierarchical categorization is a type of arbitrarily applicable relational responding, and this response is involved in complex behaviours such as the self. The main purpose of this study is to establish hierarchical responding in adult humans as relational operants with specific transformation of functions (TOF). In the Phase 1 of the experiment, 10 participants were trained to establish four stimuli as relational cues: Same, Difference, Same-Inclusion and Difference-Inclusion. In Phase 2, four networks were trained using these cues, two hierarchical ones (Same and Difference inclusion cues) and two non-hierarchical ones (Same and Difference cues). In phase 3, different functions were assigned to stimuli in the four networks. Finally, all stimuli of the two hierarchies were tested for derived relations and TOF and most of the participants responded correctly at the first attempt.
Transformation of Functions Through Temporal and Causal Relations: A Preliminary Study
|Jorge Carrasco (University of Almeria), Carmen Luciano (University Almeria, Spain), L. JORGE RUIZ-SANCHEZ (University of Almería), Beatriz Harana (University of Almeria)|
The field of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) has not been focused on temporal and causal framing despite its relevance for understanding how human beings make predictions and explain their own behaviour. The current study aims to establish arbitrarily applicable causal and temporal responses in adult humans. For that, in the Phase 1 of the experiment, 10 participants were trained to establish four stimuli as relational cues: Before, After, Casual and Effect. In Phase 2, two networks were trained using these cues, one temporal network (Same and Difference inclusion cues) and one casual network (Casual and Effect cues). In phase 3, aversive and appetitive functions were assigned to stimuli in both networks and the transformation of functions were tested. The results show that most of the participants exhibited a relational responding pattern consistent with their relational training. This study represents a functional analysis of temporal and causal responding, adding evidence to understanding complex human behavior.
Is This a Joke? Altering the Emergence of Humor Functions: A Relational Frame Analysis
|MATHEUS BEBBER (University of Almeria), Carmen Luciano (University Almeria, Spain), L. Jorge Ruiz-Sanchez (University of Almería), Francisco Cabello (University of Murcia)|
Humor is a complex behavior, and there is no consensus regarding under which conditions it emerges. The present study aims to isolate part of the processes that might hinder the emergence of humor, mostly focused on derived relational behavior according to RFT. Four protocols have been promoted: One condition was a mix of perspective-taking and discomfort functions applied to some of the characters in the typical joke. The second condition manipulated only the perspective-taking. A third condition involved applying only the discomfort function. Finally, a fourth condition involved the manipulation of the joke through a desliteralization protocol. Moreover, two control conditions were implemented without any manipulation in the jokes. Fifty-eight participants were distributed among five conditions (9 or 10 participants in each condition). In all conditions, the jokes were presented successively in the same order differing in the type of manipulation implemented. Results show the mix and the desliteralization protocols, resulting in the higher reduction of humor responses. These findings are discussed according to the contextual components defining each experimental protocol and highlight the functions that might be derived according to the interaction between the manipulation and the participants’ histories of relating events.
|Time Estimation and Passage of Time: Analyzing the Effects of Motivational Functions|
|BEATRIZ HARANA (University of Almeria), Carmen Luciano (University Almeria, Spain), L. Jorge Ruiz-Sanchez (University of Almería)|
|Abstract: If we hear someone say "I was doing an exercise for an hour" instead of "I was doing it for an eternity", it seems that both phrases do not bring the same functions. There are different ways of measuring time perception. The way in which one estimates time might differ from one's sense of the passage of time. Addressing this phenomenon in the field of behavior analysis could provide insight into the transformation of functions that occurs as time passes. The main aim of this study is to analyze the impact of motivational functions (pleasant, unpleasant and as well as higher-order or overarching functions) that might be involved in the passage of time through different time perception measures. Throughout the experiment a single interval was used for each condition (10 intra – subject participants). Condition 1, participants went through the time interval task with the manipulation of immediate pleasant and unpleasant functions. In condition 2, higher-order motivational functions (e.g., something significant for the participant) were connected hierarchically to the immediate unpleasant function indicated in condition 1. An individual analysis of each subject was carried out. The results show differential impact in time estimation and in the passage of time according to the type of functions. The most remarkable results were that higher-order motivational functions seem to produce a transformation of functions in the way one feels the passage of time.|