Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

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Poster Session #91
AUT Saturday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Saturday, May 28, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
119. Further Evaluation of Multiple Schedules to Rapidly Establish Discriminated Manding during Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA RAMIREZ (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Shermetrius Mack-Gray (University of Miami )
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: Multiple schedules are commonly used to thin the schedule of reinforcement following functional communication training (FCT; Hagopian et al., 2011). One method of schedule thinning involves slowly introducing periods of signaled extinction for the functional communication response (FCR) and gradually increasing the duration of the extinction period (Hanley et al., 2001). Betz et al., 2013 demonstrated that a two- part multiple schedule (60s/60s and 60s/240s) was effective in decreasing the overall level of the FCR while maintaining low rates of problem behavior without the lengthy schedule-thinning procedure. One limitation of Betz et al. is that all the participation had sophisticated language and responded well to verbal instruction. The purpose of this study was to systematically replicate the procedures described by Betz et al. with children with ASD with limited language. Additionally, we conducted a terminal probe as the first step in the exposure to the multiple schedule. Preliminary results show that the rapid stimulus control procedure described by Betz et al. was successful in decreasing the rate of the FCR and maintaining low levels of problem behavior one participant with moderate language skills.
 
121. An Evaluation of Robot-directed Prompts to Facilitate Interactions with Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Karla Welch (University of Louisville)
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: In the current investigation, we used an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of a robot directed prompts on the percent of intervals with communicative interactions of dyads of children with autism spectrum disorder. Data indicated mixed results across participants. Implications for future research and practice will be described.
 
123. Comparison of Escape Treatments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANAE' PENDERGRASS (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Catherine Williams (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: Although prior research has demonstrated the effectiveness of several interventions for escape behaviors, the purpose of this study is to conduct a between-subjects comparison of three escape interventions for challenging behaviors. These interventions include demand fading, differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) using edibles, and DRA using breaks. Even though all of these interventions have been successful at decreasing problematic behaviors, the relative effectiveness and efficiency of each treatment is unknown. We examined data for 13 participants, to date, who were randomly assigned to receive one of these treatments, where treatment duration and change in challenging behaviors were assessed. Three of 5 participants displayed an 80% reduction in challenging behavior with demand fading, 4 of 4 for DRA with Edibles, and 2 of 4 with DRA + Extinction. Overall, DRA with edibles may be more likely to be effective for individuals with escape behavior, at least in the short term.
 
125. Teaching Quality Engagement during Play in a Residential Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN MARIE ARRAIOL (May Institute), Robin K. Landa (May Institute), Danielle Cotton (May Institute)
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: The opportunity to engage in personally enjoyable, child-directed play has been internationally recognized as a fundamental right for all children (United Nations Council for the Rights of Children [UNRC], 2013). However, children with disabilities may face barriers to accessing play, some of which may stem from mistaken assumptions regarding their interests or capabilities, an overemphasis on play as a vehicle for instruction, or fears regarding the possibility of “risky” play. Residential staff serving children and adolescents with autism reported that residents preferred playing alone, and staff therefore often refrained from interacting with them during their play except to ask questions or provide instructions or redirection. We used behavioral skills training to teach staff to offer residents opportunities to play in a child-directed manner either with staff or alone. Measures included staff behavior (e.g., gaining assent, following the resident’s lead, refraining from instruction and interference) and student assent to play together versus alone. Staff performance improved following intervention, and assent data showed that residents chose playing with staff over playing alone. Considerations for providing protected times and spaces for child-directed play in residential settings will be discussed.
 
127. Examining the Use of In-vivo Feedback and the Effects of Generalization during Caregiver Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
XUEHUA ZHAO (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: A behavioral skills training package often includes multiple components that are commonly used during caregiver training for implementation of pediatric feeding protocols. Previous research has shown that using fewer behavioral skills training components during caregiver training was effective and produced high levels of correct implementation integrity. We examined the effects of using fewer behavioral skills training components (i.e., written instructions and in-vivo feedback) and added generalization components during caregiver training. The baseline condition included the provision of written instructions only. During the treatment condition, in-vivo feedback was provided and novel changes were systematically incorporated after caregiver demonstrated high levels of correct implementation integrity. Results showed moderate levels of correct implementation during baseline, but increased with the addition of in-vivo feedback. Levels of correct implementation by caregivers decreased when generalization components were introduced, however, caregiver performance improved to mastery criteria with continuous implementation of the protocol and in-vivo feedback.
 
129. Implementation of a Visual Choice-Making Schedule to Reduce Screaming Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA DEL VECCHIO (University of South Florida ), Sheridan Tihista (Behavior Analysis Support Services (BASS) ), Mary Spivey (Behavior Analysis Support Services (BASS))
Discussant: Jessica Zawacki (PAAL)
Abstract: Antecedent strategies such as visual schedules and choice of tasks have been identified as effective methods to reduce problem behavior that is maintained by escape (Horner et al., 2002; Romaniuk et al., 2002). The combined use of visual schedules, verbal warnings and the alteration of environmental variables have been shown to increase appropriate transitions while simultaneously decreasing problem behavior (Cale et al., 2009). The implementation of a visual schedule with a choice-making component was introduced in attempt to decrease the screaming behavior of a 4-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a clinic setting in Florida. The client’s screaming behavior was maintained by access to tangibles and escape from nonpreferred activities and tasks. Results from the first phase of the intervention did not show to be effective in decreasing the frequency of problem behavior. Various limitations were present as staff members that worked directly with the client were inconsistent, the presentation of novel schedule changes occurred and the client was suffering from allergies. Future directions for this research include the incorporation of a “teacher’s choice” component as well as the client’s choice based on the level of problem behavior that occurs during identified problematic periods in the client’s day.
 
131. Assessment of Protective Equipment to Minimize Severe Self-Injurious Behavior: A Demonstration in a Hospital-Based Inpatient Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TYLER ROSADO (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Brittany Ruth Schmidt (BASS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: Although reinforcement-based interventions are the most preferred method to decrease severe self-injurious behavior (SIB), restrictive protective equipment is sometimes necessary to further decrease severe SIB (Powers et al., 2007). As such, it is important to identify a variety of protective equipment required to minimize problem behavior. In this clinical study, the participant was a 12-year-old male diagnosed with autism, whose problem behaviors were multiply controlled (e.g., attention, tangible, and escape maintained). Within a multielement design, various levels of arm-splint rigidity (e.g., 16 total flexible splints, 8 total flexible splints, 2 total flexible splints, 1 total flexible splint, no splints, and no arm restraint) and different protective helmets (e.g., Ringside helmet with and without a face cage, a Macho helmet, a weighted baseball hat, and a weightless baseball hat with and without an elastic chin strap) were assessed in order to identify the least-restrictive protective equipment required to minimize problem behavior and maintain high rates of engagement with toys (e.g., tablet and joke books). As a result of gradually thinning the protective equipment, this assessment revealed that the subject was able to tolerate the application of a baseball hat with an elastic chin strap without the application of arm restraints for 20 minutes with high rates of toy engagement. Clinical recommendations for practitioners and implications for future research will be discussed.
 
133. An Evaluation of Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior across Multiple Stimulus Classes of Demands
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIANNA BLUE (Kennedy Krieger), Alexa Noppenberger (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Margaret R. Wright (Kennedy Krieger)
Discussant: Brittany Ruth Schmidt (BASS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: Demand assessments have been conducted to empirically determine demands to include in functional analyses. However, the assessments often include a variety of demands and it is unclear whether individuals with escape-maintained problem behavior exhibit a general tendency toward escape or whether only specific demand classes evoke problem behavior. This study systematically assessed different stimulus classes of demands in an abbreviated demand assessment and then validated the outcomes in an extended functional analysis with an adolescent female diagnosed with autism and an intellectual disability who was admitted to an inpatient program for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Demands for which the participant engaged in high rates of problem behavior and had a shorter latency to problem behavior in the demand assessment coincided with high rates of problem behavior in the escape condition of the functional analysis. Demands for which the participant engaged in low rates of problem behavior in the demand assessment and had a longer latency to problem behavior coincided with lower rates of problem behavior in the escape condition of the functional analysis. Results indicated that there were different rates of problem behavior exhibited in different stimulus classes of demands. These results support the need for a direct demand assessment in addition to conducting a functional analysis to ensure that no false positives occur.
 
135. Differential Reinforcement of Correct Responses during Baseline Conditions: A Preliminary Investigation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN JUDTIH FRASER (TACT, LLC), Cory Whelan (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC), Rachelle de Saint Phalle (TACT, LLC), Kara LaCroix (TACT, LLC)
Discussant: Brittany Ruth Schmidt (BASS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: Behavior analytic practitioners often implement baseline conditions for skill acquisition programs by withholding differential consequences to evaluate the learners’ skills in the absence of reinforcement and prompting. A wide body of research has been conducted utilizing baseline conditions in this manner, but recent research has evaluated the effects of differentially reinforcing correct responses early rather than later in teaching conditions (Campanaro et al., 2020). The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of differentially reinforcing correct responses in baseline conditions versus a more traditional baseline condition on the acquisition rate of a listener responding skill. Following three exposures to each baseline condition, acquisition rate will be compared via trials to mastery (e.g., 80% independent responding across two consecutive sessions). The first participant is a four-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who communicates using vocal verbal behavior. Results will be discussed by comparing the rate of skill acquisition on listener responding targets following exposure to each baseline condition. Companaro, A., Vladescu, J., DeBar, R., & Nippes, K. (2020). Comparing skill acquisition under varying onsets of differential reinforcement: A preliminary analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 53(2), 690-706.
 
139. An Evaluation of the Number of Sessions in MSWO Preference Assessments for Social Interaction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Samuel L Morris (Southeastern Louisiana University), ALVA ELIZABETH ALLEN (Southeastern Louisiana University; Rollins College), Madison Leigh Gallagher (Southeastern Louisiana University)
Discussant: Brittany Ruth Schmidt (BASS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: The multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment (MSWO) has frequently been evaluated or utilized in research. Some research has evaluated how the number of MSWO sessions used to obtain a hierarchy of preference can impact the assessment’s outcomes. To date, no research has conducted such evaluations with MSWOs for social interactions or with a reinforcer assessment including all of the same stimuli as a point of comparison. In the current study, we utilized previously published data from MSWOs for social interactions to compare one, two, and three-sessions MSWOs to four-session MSWOs and a progressive-ratio reinforcer assessment. Results indicated that, relative to four-session MSWOs, two and three-session MSWOs produced hierarchies about as similar to the reinforcer assessment hierarchies and identified the same most reinforcing stimuli about as often. Results generated by comparing one, two, or three-session MSWOs to the reinforcer assessment were much different than those generated by comparing them to the four-session MSWOs. Implications for clinical use of, and future research on, MSWOs is discussed.
 
141. Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior through Intervention on Precursor Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIATU FORNAH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Mount St. Mary's University), Alyssa Fisher (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Ruth Schmidt (BASS ABA Therapy)
Abstract: Severe problem behavior (SPB), such as self-injurious behavior (SIB), poses an imminent risk of harm. Thus, identifying treatments that intervene before SPB occurs are highly desirable. Research has suggested there may be responses that reliably precede and predict the occurrence of SPB, called precursors (e.g., Fahmie & Iwata, 2011). Intervening on the precursor may decrease the probability of occurrence of the SPB itself. This study reports on an assessment designed to disrupt the occurrence of automatically maintained SIB (ASIB) exhibited by a 17-year-old male diagnosed with autism by intervening on a precursor hypothesized to form a behavior chain culminating in SIB. The adolescent’s ASIB was categorized as subtype II, which is highly resistant to treatment involving reinforcement alone (Hagopian, Rooker, & Zarcone, 2015). Rates of the precursor and SIB were evaluated when no disruption procedure was in place and then compared to rates during the implementation of three different disruption procedures. Each was implemented for 5 s contingent on the precursor or SIB. Relatively lower rates of SIB were observed across the three disruption procedures. These data suggest that intervening on a precursor for ASIB may decrease the frequency of SPB and therefore reduce risk of injury.
 
143. Assessment of Intraverbal Errors in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE PANTANO (Caldwell University), Tina Sidener (Caldwell University), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), April N. Kisamore (Hunter College)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: Intraverbals are not easily acquired by individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous literature has included a qualitative assessment of intraverbal errors (Sundberg and Sundberg, 2011) and provided quantitative analysis of errors with neurotypical children (Devine et al., 2016). However, an assessment that includes a quantitative analysis of intraverbal errors for children with ASD has not been completed. The purpose of this study was to complete an analysis of errors children made in intraverbal responses. Modifications were made to the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment Placement Program’s (VB-MAPP) intraverbal subtest. The Assessment of Intraverbal Repertoire was administered to children of typical development and children diagnosed with ASD. Data are presented on error types identified during intraverbal assessment. This information may be used to facilitate goal selection and teaching procedures for children diagnosed with ASD.
 
145. Qualitative Features of Synthesized Reinforcement Contingencies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL METRAS (Virginia Institute of Autism), Gregory P. Hanley (FTF Behavioral Consulting; Western New England University)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: Slaton and Hanley’s (2018) review revealed that synthesized reinforcement contingencies, or contingencies with multiple establishing operations, targeted responses, and reinforcers, have been used in function-based assessments and treatments of multiply-controlled problem behavior since 1997. This finding is significant because the term synthesized reinforcement contingency emerged relatively recently within the functional analytic literature (see Hanley et al., 2014). Given that synthesized reinforcement contingencies were documented in functional analytic research prior to Hanley et al.’s 2014 publication, it is likely that they are also documented in other areas of applied behavior analytic research. However, there are currently no reviews describing how synthesized reinforcement contingencies are used outside of the functional assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Therefore, the purposes of the present review are (1) to identify examples of synthesized reinforcement contingencies in applied behavior analytic research (2) published outside of the functional assessment and treatment of problem behavior literature, and (3) to describe common qualitative features of the synthesized contingencies.
 
147. Differential Reinforcement and Stimulus Fading to Teach Tolerance of a Polysomnography (Overnight Sleep Study) Setup
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH ELIZABETH MARTINEZ ROWE (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Seth Walker (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: There are a growing number of publications supporting the use of behavior analytic strategies to increase compliance with medical procedures. However, little research has been conducted on the application of applied behavior analysis to the setup required for an overnight sleep study (i.e., polysomnography). The participant in the current study presented with autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe destructive behavior (i.e., aggression, property destruction, self-injury). These conditions combined with a poor sleep/wake schedule and gasping during the night necessitated a sleep study. The caregiver referred the participant to outpatient services due to a history of failed similar procedures (i.e., EEGs). We used an ABCBC design to evaluate the effects of differential reinforcement and differential reinforcement plus stimulus fading on compliance and reduction of destructive behavior with the 25-step sleep study procedure. Our approach successfully taught tolerance of the procedure and reduced problem behavior. The participant completed the scheduled sleep study and received a diagnosis of mild obstructive sleep apnea.
 
149. A Comparison of the Effects of Mastery Criteria on Skill Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER R. PADEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Madison Schaller (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mikayla Crawford (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Megan Marie Harper (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: Clinicians in early intervention often require a mastery criterion of a certain percentage across several sessions when teaching skills. A survey by Richling et al. (2019) found that clinicians commonly require three sessions at or above 80% accuracy. Selected criteria are often based on the clinician’s previous experiences but is not supported by empirical data. Previous researchers have compared the effects of 80%, 90% and 100% criterion across three sessions and found the skills assigned to the 100% criterion resulted in better maintenance (Longino et al., 2021). These findings suggest that the most common criterion chosen by clinicians may not lead to the maintenance of skills. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to provide evidence to support the relationship between varying levels of mastery criteria and the effects on maintenance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of six different mastery criteria (one or three sessions at 80%, 90%, and 100%) on the maintenance of receptive skills taught using a prompt delay procedure. Preliminary results suggest some difference in maintenance across criteria for one high-level learner. We continue to implement this protocol with additional participants. Implications for clinical service delivery and related future research suggestions will be provided.
 
151. Guiding Medication Changes Based on the Results of a Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA MARIE FINLAY (Melmark), Lauren Carol Carson (Melmark)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: According to Spencer, et.al., 2013, 64% of children and adolescents with Autism are prescribed at least 1 psychotropic medication, 35% are prescribed at least 2 psychotropic medications and 15% are prescribed 3 or more. George, 17-year-old Male, presented with head directed self-injurious behavior which caused significant injuries resulting in hematomas to either side of his head. A functional behavior assessment including indirect assessments and ABC data concluded that George would engage in self-injury to escape demands. A function based treatment in the form of a break response was trialed however did not produce a significant reduction in self-injury. Through a functional analysis conducted by behavior analysts and collaboration with a psychiatric nurse practitioner a major reduction in self-injury was noted. The functional analysis (FA) was able to determine a social avoidance function, which then informed the introduction of an antidepressant to treat potential social anxiety. Overall, due to this collaborative approach George has since demonstrated a 71.6% reduction in self-injury since his admission. Spencer, D., Marshall, J., Post, B., Kulakodlu, M., Newschaffer, C., Dennen, T., Azocar, F., & Jain, A. (2013). Psychotropic medication use and polypharmacy in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 132(5), 833–840. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3774
 
153. An Assessment of the Prevalence of Feeding Difficulties in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANGIE VAN ARSDALE (University of Florida), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida), Emma Grauerholz-Fisher (Salve Regina University), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Abstract: Many children have feeding disorders in the form of insufficient quantity, insufficient quality, or both. These difficulties have been observed in children with and without developmental disabilities; however, the prevalence is much greater in children with autism spectrum disorder (Twachtman-Reilly et al., 2008). Still, limited studies have assessed the prevalence of reported food selectivity, food refusal, inappropriate mealtime behavior, and other feeding related patterns in children with autism spectrum disorder enrolled in early intervention clinics. In this study, we collected data from 256 intake packets, including age, height, weight, diagnosis, and relevant feeding information, to determine the prevalence of feeding difficulties in this population. Data will be analyzed by calculating the correlation between feeding-related behaviors and other variables, such as age, diagnosis, other feeding-related behaviors, etc. The prevalence of feeding difficulties determined for the population in this assessment, as well as the implications for children with autism spectrum disorder as a whole, will be discussed.
 
155. Functional Relation between Modeled Communication to a Learner Using Their Primary Communication Modality and Expressive Communication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Amira Ahmad (BASS ABA Therapy), brittany Nicole farrell (BASS Autism ), BRITTANY RUTH SCHMIDT (BASS ABA Therapy)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on the functional relation between alternative communication devices and verbal communication within the Autism Spectrum Disorder population. However, there is a current gap in the literature regarding the impact of caregivers’ use of an individual's primary communication modality on the individual's expressive communication. Using an ABA design, this study aimed to bridge this gap by solely communicating to the participant in his primary communication modality (Augmentative & Alternative Communication device) during their sessions. During baseline, the frequency of spontaneous mands emitted was collected, rate of acquisition was calculated, and the Sampling Utterances and Grammatical Analysis Revised (SUGAR) assessment and Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT-III) were conducted. The intervention phase involved running a mand session, discrete training session with novel tacts, and a natural environment training session (NET) while exclusively using the participant’s primary communication modality. A second baseline was run following the intervention phase to assess progress. Hypothesized results will likely indicate that modeling an individual's primary communication modality is an effective intervention for increasing one’s expressive communication. The results of this study will benefit the field of Applied Behavior Analysis and support the current body of literature due to the similar findings and results.
 
157. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Implementation of a Positive Bedtime Routine with Children with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities to Increase Child Total Sleep Duration
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH DAVID PANNOZZO (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Amanda C. Philp (Teachers College, Columbia University), Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders often have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. These issues can be detrimental not only to the child, but the parents, as they are responsible for ensuring their children fall asleep and/or stay asleep. There have been many research studies looking at increasing sleep, and one common procedure is the implementation of consistent sleep routines. We examined the effects of parent training using Behavioral Skills Training (BST) on parental implementation of positive bedtime routines with their children who had disabilities on child total sleep duration. The study included two sets of parent-child dyads with the children ranging in age from 6 to 13 years old. Children participants all had a diagnosis of either autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability and exhibited low levels of total sleep duration at the onset of the study. Results indicated parent implemented positive bedtime routines were effective in increasing sleep duration for both child participants. Limitations and future research were further discussed.
 
159. Effects of Practice-Based Coaching via Telehealth on Parent Implementation of Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), CHARISSA DONN VOORHIS (Purdue University), Amanda M Austin Borosh (Purdue University), Rose A. Mason (Purdue University), Eric Shannon (Purdue University)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract: Parent-mediated interventions are an important component of treatment planning to increase access to behavioral interventions for individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Telehealth service-delivery is a useful and promising method for training caregivers to use evidence-based behavioral interventions. We conducted a single-case nonconcurrent multiple-baseline across participants design evaluating the use of a telehealth approach to coach parents of children with autism or Fragile X to implement functional communication training (FCT) during home routines. Researchers used a practice-based coaching (PBC) framework to collaboratively form weekly action plans and goals with parent participants to guide their implementation of FCT. Results indicate PBC via telehealth can be used to improve parent implementation of FCT, which subsequently effectively reduced target challenging behaviors while increasing the use of functionally communicative responses of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Across participants, different approaches and coaching intensity were required to reach mastery criteria for FCT implementation. While some participants successfully implemented FCT receiving weekly 30 min coaching sessions with researchers, others required more intensive support via in vivo bug-in-ear coaching with their child. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are presented.
 
161. The Effect of Multiple Exemplar Training in Relational Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Claire Holmes (University of Illinois at Chicago), Jessica M. Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago ), Amanda N. Chastain (University of Illinois, Chicago), JASMINE RANDHAWA (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract:

There has been an increasing interest in using relational training procedures during clinical interventions for autistic individuals. The current study investigated the effect of using multiple exemplar training (MET) in promoting the derivation of untrained stimulus-stimulus relationship for a 7-year-old autistic boy in teaching causality. The participant was first taught to answer five why- questions on providing the rationale for an action (A-B training). For example, the participant was asked, “why do you laugh,” and an acceptable answer was, “because I hear a joke.” After reaching the mastery criteria, probes were conducted in several 10-trial blocks where the participant was asked to answer five novel corresponding what- questions (B-A testing). For example, the participant was asked, “what do you do when you hear a joke?” Results showed that the participant failed to show derivation. MET was subsequently delivered with two stimulus classes serving as exemplars. Following the MET, the participant successfully derived the correct response for the three remaining class members during the B-A testing. Implications for using MET during clinical interventions were discussed.

 
163. Evaluating the Efficiency of Conducting a Brief Bidirectional Naming Assessment on CentralReach
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARLY COVALL (May Institute), Laura Eisen (May Institute), Sarah C Connolly (May Institute), Sarah Frampton (May Institute)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract: Recent literature has focused on the critical elements of language programming that addresses the establishment of bidirectional naming (BiN; Frampton et al., 2017; Miguel 2016). Several studies have demonstrated that the establishment of a tact repertoire is equally or more efficient than listener training for promoting the emergence of responding in the opposite relation (Conine et al., 2020; Delfs et al., 2014; Frampton et al. 2020; Kodak & Paden, 2015; Sprinkle & Miguel, 2012). Such findings have been extended the demonstration of speaker training’s efficacy for promoting the emergence of listener responding in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Contreras et al., 2019). Furthermore, researchers have developed assessment methods to determine the presence or absence of a BiN repertoire to maximize language programming efficiency (Miguel 2016). Despite these collective findings, practioners face numerous barriers translating research to daily practice with clients. Leveraging electronic data collection and shared program banks may be an effective means to disseminate practices within organizations. The present study utilized CentralReach to conduct a brief assessment of bidirectional naming with 3 young children with ASD. These data have implications for dissemination on a larger scale within organizations.
 
165. Using Progressive Ratio Functional Analysis to Understand Persistence in Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BAILEY COPELAND (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Lee Paranczak (Vanderbilt University), Margaret Jane Macdonald (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Maria Jose Otero (Child Study Center, Cook Children's)
Abstract: n the first study, researchers combined a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement with the methods of a standard functional analysis to determine behavioral functions and reinforcer value for three participants who engaged in challenging behavior. In the second study, researchers assessed each participant’s caregiver’s tolerance in implementing two behavior reduction strategies, extinction and noncontingent reinforcement. Results depict that the relationship between a parent’s tolerance for ignoring challenging behavior and their child’s breakpoint in reinforcer value may provide insight into when extinction could be successful and implemented with greater fidelity. In cases in which extinction is necessary (e.g., severe destructive behavior, socially inappropriate behavior) but a child’s response output and breakpoint are greater than their parent’s tolerance, a motivating augmental training may increase a parent’s fidelity and tolerance (i.e., duration) in implementing extinction.
 
167. Identifying Sensitivity to Conversational Attention and Assessing Conversation Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sylvia Aquino (Marquette University ), JESEY MARIE GOPEZ (Marquette University), Stephanie A. Hood (Marquette University ), Michelle Castillo (University of Northern Texas)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate an assessment to differentiate treatments to increase conversational skills (e.g., Stocco et al. 2020; and Hood et al., 2017). We replicated the functional analysis of on topic or restricted speech (Stocco et al., 2020) while collecting data on additional conversation skills (e.g., shifting the conversation given a progression of subtle to salient cues of uninterest). During a conversation, subsequent changes in the topic of conversation may be influenced by the topics initiated by both conversation partners. As demonstrated in Stocco et al., participants rarely changed the topic of conversation when the therapist reinforced any topic and did not initiate other topics of conversation. Thus, we compared participants conversational skills and preferences for conversations whether or not the therapist initiate topics of conversation. Participant 1’s speech was sensitive to conversational attention. That is, differential attention increased on topic speech, but skill deficits in following and shifting the conversation persisted. Participant 1 showed a preference for conversations wherein the therapist did not initiate conversations. Implications of preference and conversational arrangements will be discussed (e.g., balancing potential aversive properties of evocative situation to assess skill deficits).
 
Diversity submission 169. Non-medical intervention publication trends for individuals with autism spectrum disorder in China
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
WENYONG QU (Tennessee Technological University), Krystal Kennedy (Tennessee Technological University), George Chitiyo (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis and autism spectrum disorder diagnosis are two emerging areas in China resulting in large responsibilities placed on new BCBAs. Like the US, China is creating a certification system, however, their system is a leveled, unique certification system with two additional technician-like certifications. Regardless of the credential, behavior analytic professionals must rely on literature when seeking effective and conceptually systematic interventions. Furthermore, practitioners in therapeutic and educational fields such as ABA often find themselves educating families on their child’s diagnosis while providing vetted resources with accurate information. In China, literature is typically accessed through a university or purchased on an individual bases. As such, Chinese practitioners of ABA need to be aware of trending and accessible literature. This poster will review trends related to behavior analytic interventions but will extend the review beyond ABA interventions by also reviewing trends related to additional non-medical interventions related to individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

 
171. Utilizing Telehealth to Improve Access to Social Skills Groups During and Post-Pandemic
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Lilian Hernandez (360 Behavioral Health; California Psychcare), ELIZABETH ANNE PASCUAL (360 Behavioral Health; California Psychcare)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract:

Social skills groups are used to provide opportunities for learners to practice social skills with peers regularly. Groups are typically organized based on age and interests, and are offered for kids, preteens, teens and young adults. Social skills groups are usually conducted face-to-face, however, during the COVID-19 crisis, conducting social skills groups in person presented many challenges. Telehealth has evolved as a new platform for participants to gather virtually to continue developing their social skills. Without the social interactions learners typically access while in school, participating in a social skills group virtually provides a safe and supportive environment where they can continue to learn the skills needed to improve social-emotional development. Compared to in-person social skills groups, through the use of Telehealth, we’ve been able to increase both the number of different social skills groups being conducted at a given time as well as the number of participants attending each group. Additionally, we have been able to increase the variety of groups we offer and further specialize them to their ages and needs. Social skills through Telehealth is a service delivery model that has offered us the opportunity to increase our outreach and will continue to post-pandemic.

 
173. Crisis Admissions Program: An Alternative Pilot Discharge Plan for Patients with Autism Presenting in Behavioral Crisis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EDIE GRACE BRUSH (Marcus Autism Center ), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are more likely to be admitted to the emergency department (ED) for behavioral or psychiatric reasons than their typically developing peers. These children have higher rates of inpatient psychiatric admissions and often require longer lengths of stay, ultimately incurring significantly larger medical costs. Additionally, specialized inpatient treatment centers for the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior are limited and most often consist of a purely pharmacologic approach to crisis intervention. Given the limited access to inpatient services and potentially inappropriate approach to care for these patients, a pilot program was developed to fill the gap in care for patients with ASD experiencing a behavioral health crisis. The Crisis Admissions Program focuses on identifying triggers through functional-behavioral assessment and individualized de-escalation strategies based on applied behavior analysis are developed and generalized to the home environment. The admissions also focus on parent training with an emphasis on environmental engineering, crisis prevention, and behavioral management to provide the caregivers tools to mitigate future hospitalizations. This poster will illustrate this unique treatment model and present preliminary clinical data on caregiver satisfaction ratings and 6-month readmission rate to the ED for 13 participants.
 
177. The Role Parental Stress Plays on the Intelligence Test of 5-year-old Children With Potential Autism Trait
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
SHEOW YUN SIE (Queens College, City University of New York), Donato DeIngeniis (CUNY Queens College), Christine Ginalis (CUNY Queens College), Harold Butler (Fordham University), Yoko Nomura (CUNY Queens College)
Discussant: Michael P. Kranak (Oakland University)
Abstract:

Research on the effects of parental stress on a child’s cognitive function has insubstantial results, particularly among children with potential Autism trait. The current study examined whether parental stress is associated with cognitive scores among children with potential Autism trait relative to children without Autism trait. A subsample of 97 mothers and their 5-year-old children was extracted from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Mothers completed a Parenting Stress Index, reporting magnitude of stress in the parent, and an Autism Spectrum Quotient questionnaire, disclosing possible Autism trait in their child. Children were administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence to assess different domains of cognitive function. A two-by-two Factorial ANOVA was conducted to compare main effects of predictors (parental stress and child’s potential Autism trait) and its interaction on child’s cognitive performance. The results showed a significant interaction toward the Children Full Scale IQ, F(1, 93)= 11.46, p= .001, Verbal Comprehension, F(1, 93)= 6.54, p= .01, Visual Spatial, F(1, 93)= 4.64, p= .03, Fluid Reasoning, F(1, 93)= 5.81, p= .02, and Working Memory, F(1, 93)= 13.25, p< .001. Notably, there was an increase in cognitive function among children with potential Autism trait and higher stress parent.

 
 

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