|From Dog Bites to Dental Caries: Applied Behavior Analysis Techniques Focusing on Prevention
|Monday, May 31, 2021
|4:00 PM–5:50 PM
|Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
|Chair: Jessica Foster Juanico (University of Kansas)
|Discussant: Kelley L. Harrison (The University of Kansas)
|CE Instructor: Kelley L. Harrison, Ph.D.
As applied behavioral science continues to extend beyond description to reliable prediction and control, as behavioral technology advances, and as intersection between implementation science and behavior analysis increases, focus in some areas of behavioral research and practice may shift from intervention to prevention (Alai-Rosales et al., 2015). Such refocus is already evident in some diverse applications of behavioral science (Biglan, 2003), including problem behavior (e.g., Fahmie et al., 2016), organizational safety (e.g., Hyten et al., 2017), and community-participatory research (e.g., Watson-Thompson et al., 2017), to name a few. The presentations comprising this symposium will address preventative and response strategies within the area of behavioral health and safety, including reviews pertaining to dental health and emergencies, and data-based presentations about safe dog interactions and pedestrian safety. The presentations will be discussed in relation to prevention efforts within the field of applied behavioral science, and suggested directions for future research will be provided.
|Instruction Level: Intermediate
Prerequisites include familiarity with behavior analytic terminology and single-case research design methodology.
|Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) summarize the literature describing behavioral approaches to compliance with dental routines among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities; (2) summarize the literature describing behavioral approaches to emergency preparedness and responding among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilties; (3) describe one behavioral method for teaching dog safety skills to children; and (4) describe one behavioral method aimed to increase pedestrian safety.
|Pediatric Behavioral Dentistry: A Scoping Review
|BRITTNEY MATHURA SURESHKUMAR (Brock University), Nicole Bajcar (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University), Kelley L. Harrison (The University of Kansas)
|Abstract: Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay, is a leading cause of decreased quality of life among children in both the United States and Canada (Jackson et al., 2011). Globally, dental caries are responsible for approximately 60% to 90% of cavities among children, and up to 100% of cavities in adulthood (Canadian Dental Association, 2017). Given this widespread prevalence across the lifespan, the American Dental Association (2013) recommends regular dental visits to increase or maintain oral health. However, noncompliance during dental routines is a commonly reported problem, especially for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD; Kupzyk & Allen, 2019). This is particularly concerning because children with IDD are also at a greater risk of developing dental disease and having unmet dental needs relative their typically developing counterparts (Abraham et al., 2018). The purpose of this presentation is to present the results of a scoping review of behavior management strategies to treat the dental anxiety and noncompliance of children with IDD during dental routines. Results will be discussed within the context of practical implications and suggestions for future research.
Systematic Review of Emergency Training for First Responders and Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
|KIANNA CSOLLE (University of Kansas), Scott McEathron (University of Kansas), Jorey Hart (University of Kansas), William Bauer (University of Kansas), Robin Kuhn (University of Kansas)
Emergencies, or situations involving individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) requiring immediate assistance from first responders, may be managed most efficiently or prevented entirely when all parties involved have prior training. A literature review was conducted to identify interventions for teaching individuals with ASD emergency prevention and response skills as well as to identify trainings for teaching first responders how to interact with the ASD population during emergencies. Results of the literature review identified an abundance of safety skill interventions yet a relative dearth of research explicitly targeting emergency prevention and response skills for individuals diagnosed with ASD. Although many ASD-specific resources were identified for first responders, there were few empirical studies supporting behavioral training techniques. Even fewer works identified included training for both the ASD population and first responders together. The implications of these results are discussed within the broader context of emergency response and prevention for the ASD population, and suggestions for future research are provided.
|The Effect of Pedestrian Gestures on Driver Yielding
|CASSIDY MYERS (University of Kansas), Thomas L. Zane (University of Kansas)
|Abstract: Although there are many attempted safeguards (e.g., crosswalks, signs, lights) to keep pedestrians safe, in 2018 there were 6,283 pedestrian fatalities accounting for nearly 20% of all traffic deaths (National Safety Council, 2019). Although there is a plethora of research confirming the effectiveness of environmental variables (e.g., markings on pavement and verbal warnings from police) to increase motorist yielding, rarely has research studied how pedestrian behavior can increase driver yielding. The researcher in this study focused on the effects of different pedestrian gestures (i.e., extended arm and raised hand) as seen in Crowley-Koch et al. (2011) on motorist’s yielding behavior. Research assistants serving as pedestrians would approach the crosswalk as a vehicle approached and stepped into the crosswalk, giving the car ample time to yield, while implementing a gesture. When implemented by a research assistant serving as a pedestrian, both the extended arm and raised hand prompts resulted in higher levels of vehicles yielding when compared to baseline (i.e., no gesture). Future research could study the effectiveness of signs at crosswalks prompting pedestrians to implement gestures to cross the street.
|Teaching Dog Safety Skills to Children via Remote Technology
|KAITLIN ROSE SCANLON (University of Kansas), Jessica Foster Juanico (University of Kansas)
|Abstract: Behavior analysts have been effective in teaching various safety skills (e.g., Dancho et al., 2008; Himle et al., 2004; Miltenberger et al., 2009); however, few studies have evaluated dog safety skills. Over 4.5 million people are bitten by dogs each year and more than half are children (American Humane, 2019). Additionally, children often engage in behaviors that may increase the likelihood of dog bites and injuries (Patronek et al., 2013). Therefore, it is important to develop effective dog safety skills trainings. In Study 1, we conducted a survey to identify the prevalence of dog bites, common behavior of children around known and unknown dogs, and the importance of teaching dog safety skills to children as reported by their caregivers. Results of the survey suggest that children are more likely to sustain bites and injuries from known dogs, engage in behaviors that increase the likelihood of bites and injuries, and caregivers find dog safety skills important. In Study 2, we evaluated the effects of remote behavioral skills training in teaching three children to engage in safe behavior in the presence of unknown, off-leash dog videos. Remote behavioral skills training was effective for all three participants, and generalization occurred for two of the three participants to novel videos of unknown, off-leash dog videos.