Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

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Poster Session #94
EAB Saturday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Saturday, May 28, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
12. An Analysis of Preference for Delayed Timeout in the Pigeon
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIZABETH PAIGE THUMAN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Christine E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract: Timeout from positive reinforcement can be an effective punisher, and it has been argued that timeout may function aversively. According to?Leitenberg?(1965), an event or stimulus is considered aversive if behavior that prevents (avoidance) or terminates (escape) the event is maintained.?Avoidance and escape from?timeout?might be maintained by the increased access to positive reinforcement brought on by the avoidance of?timeout?periods?or by a reduction in the overall frequency of?timeouts.?Thus,?determining the function of?timeout?can be?difficult?as?timeout?postponement can be?conceptualized as either negative reinforcement (avoidance of TO) or positive reinforcement (increasing access to time-in).??The purpose of the current study was to assess pigeons’ preference for timeout when presented after a short or long delay, when the timeouts did not decrease in frequency nor did the access to the time-in component increase. Results indicated that pigeons’ choice behavior showed a preference for the delayed timeouts, however some pigeons exhibited a bias when contingency reversals were implemented. Multiple reversals were conducted in order to determine the source of bias. A discussion of bias and future directions are also presented.
 
14. Concurrent-Chains Procedures and Polydipsia in Spontaneously Hypertensive and Lewis Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MALANA JEAN MALONSON (West Virginia University ), Carlos F. Aparicio Naranjo Naranjo (Salem State University)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

This poster extends the generality of finding showing that polydipsia is induced by food delivery acting as a phylogenetical important event (PIE). Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) and Lewis (LEW) rats pressed on two levers simultaneously available in the initial link of a concurrent-chains procedure. Two random interval schedules (conc RI 11s RI 11 s) arranged entries to two terminal links. One terminal link delayed the delivery of 4-food pellets according to 6-delay components (0.1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 s) randomly presented in the session. The other terminal link delivered 1-food pellet immediately. In one condition (W) a 100-ml bottle containing tap water was continuously available in the session recording the behavior of licking the metal tube of the bottle. In the no water condition (NW) an empty bottle was placed in the chamber. The SHRs developed a stronger polydipsia than the LEWs, with the SHRs showing a higher number of licks than the LEWs to start each cycle, during the initial and terminal links of each cycle, and during the 60-s blackout following each delay component. These results support the idea that the LEW is an appropriate control for the SHR rat, showing more motor impulsivity induced by food (liking behavior) in the latter than in the former strain of rats.

 
16. Living and Eating Alone: Conspecifics Modulate Spatial Behavior in a Food-Searching Task in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FRYDA ABRIL DIAZ (Center for Studies and Research in Human Knowledge and Learning; University of Veracruz), Varsovia Hernandez Eslava Eslava (Universidad Veracruzana), Alejandro Leon (University of Veracruz), Bernardo Castro (University of Veracruz)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Previous studies have reported that individual vs. gregarious-housing conditions affects spatial behavior in a food-searching task in rats. Also, literature has shown that effort to obtain food affects food-searching behavior. The present study evaluated the effect of early exposure to individual vs gregarious housing and two conditions of access to food (restricted vs free) on the spatial food-searching behavior in rats. Six male-Wistar rats (38 days old) were exposed, for 19 weeks, to one housing condition (Individual N=3; Gregarious N=3); and then they were exposed to a food searching task, in a 1mx1m arena with nine food containers in two conditions (restricted vs free) for 12 sessions. We compared the spatial behavior (routes, recurrence, time in zone, distance, and entropy) between housing and food access conditions. We discuss the results in terms of the modulating function of these variables over the spatial behavior in a food-searching task.

 
18. Selection and Rejection Control by Discriminative Compounds: The Role Of Observation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PABLO ANDRÉS LEDESMA (Master's student), Alvaro A. Clavijo Alvarez (Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract: Some measures of stimulus control that feature S+ and S- compounds have demonstrated control by more than one S+ component, and even by S- components. Not all components that feature control attain visual contact, which might be explained by rejection control: responses to non-observed components are controlled by rejection of observed ones. One way to determine whether control is established via selection or rejection involves eye-tracking. The present study examined the relation between a component’s visual formal aspects and direct observation during discrimination training, and whether those aspects control responses in extinction via selection or rejection. Four experiments reinforced and punished responses to discriminative compounds and measured observational responding. Subsequent extinction tests measured response rates and latencies to the components compared against each other. For ‘explorers’ who fixated proportionally and for longer on all components—above 10 seconds in acquisition—both S+ components controlled via selection and S- ones controlled via rejection. ‘Fast learners’ fixated the least, leading to lack of or weak control by only the highly fixated components—generally colors. Discriminative patterned compounds strongly hindered acquisition, but not reversion. Suggestions for future research are encouraged to further advance in the field.
 
20. Hyperbole or Actually Hyperbolic? An Evaluation of Demand Analysis Using Hyperbolic Curve-Fitting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ALBERT MALKIN (Southern Illinois University / Western University), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract:

Common approaches used to describe and analyze the demand for reinforcers have undergone several permutations over approximately the past two decades (e.g., exponential, exponentiated, mixed-effects modeling, zero-bounded, etc.). The aim of each approach is to fit a curve most precisely to data used to quantitatively describe complex cost-reinforcer relationships. Further, each of the above methods has improved upon the others by accounting for more of the data or reducing the number of parameters. This poster will propose to re-purpose a commonly used approach to describe a different type of behavioral economic data - discounting. We will demonstrate the use of an alternative approach for the purposes of analyzing demand data, using a one-parameter exponential decay, a one-parameter hyperbola model. We re-analyzed published data on dosage-level effects (Ko et al., 2002; Winger et al., 2002). Results suggest that a hyperbola model provides a reasonable description of the data (Mean R2 = .90; Median = .95; SD = .14) comparable to other newly proposed one-parameter models of demand (e.g., zero-bounded). We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of a hyperbola model to analyze demand (e.g., to describe a relationship with discounting).

 
22. The Effect of "Hidden Zeros" on Delay Discounting of Monetary Rewards
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA SIMON (Millersville University of Pennsylvania), Kelly M. Banna (Millersville University of Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Nicole M. Davis (Northeastern University)
Abstract: The extent to which individuals discount delayed rewards is associated with many factors, including age, substance abuse, and contextual factors, such as framing. Understanding the conditions under which framing influences discounting may contribute to the development of interventions that reduce discounting, thereby decreasing risky behavior and increasing long term gains. The present study investigated the effect of the explicit zero frame on delay discounting using a titrating procedure (Du et al., 2002). Participants recruited from Amazon Turk (N=83; Female=55.4%; Age=29–65, M = 45.7, s = 9.6; African American=4.5%, Asian=3.6%, Caucasian=85.5%, Hispanic/Latino=3%) completed the discounting task in one of two conditions: one that used a standard discounting frame (e.g., “Would you prefer $100 now or $200 in 3 months?”) or one that used an explicit zero frame (e.g., “Would you prefer $100 now and $0 in 3 months or $0 now and $200 in 3 months?”). An independent samples t-test (two-tailed, α = 0.05) failed to find an effect of framing condition on area under the curve, t(81) = .95, p = .3469, 95% CI [–.098, .275]. Contrary to previous research, these data do not suggest that the explicit zero frame reduces discounting.
 
26. Relational Behavior in Rats With Successive Auditory Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SANDINO ALEJANDRO PERALTA VILLAFAÑA (Universidad Veracruzana), Mario Serrano (UNIVERSIDAD VERACRUZANA)
Discussant: Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

In order to explore relational behavior in animals, rats were exposed to a discrete-trial successive-discrimination procedure using different pairs of auditory stimuli. The length of stimuli was 5s, 10s and 15s and reinforcement was contingent upon a lever-pressing response if and only if the second stimulus presented was longer (Group 1) or shorter (Group 3) than the first stimulus. For the other two groups of rats, refraining from responding in negative trials was also followed by reinforcement. Percentages of obtained reinforcers were similarly low for all groups of rats but for different reasons. Rats in groups 1 and 2 usually responded in both positive and negative trials, while rats in groups 3 and 4 tended to stop responding in both kinds of trials. Results are discussed in relation to previous experiments on transposition.

 
28. Examining Children’s Preference for Behavioral Treatment of Food Refusal
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
RITA MARIE DRUFFNER (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County ), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The current investigation sought to replicate the concurrent operants procedure conducted by Dozier et al. (2007) to determine client preference for baseline or a function-based treatment conditions aimed to increase bite acceptance and decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior. Three children who were patients in an intensive pediatric feeding program participated in the study. Functional behavior assessments and treatment analyses were conducted to identify and target the variables (potentially) maintaining inappropriate mealtime behavior for each of the participants. During the choice assessment, a treatment room was divided into two sides with one side for baseline and the other side for treatment. Participants were given the opportunity to choose a side of the room. The cumulative choice allocations were used as a measure of preference. Results showed that two of the three participants preferred the treatment condition to the baseline condition. The third participant was indifferent toward either condition. Future research should continue to assess child (and caregiver) preference for elements of feeding interventions.
 
30. Effects of Goal-Setting Methods on Basketball Dribbling Rate and Fluency
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ALEX NIETO (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Research in the area of youth sports coaching has demonstrated a lack of evidence to support many coaching practices. Shortcomings of common coaching practices include large proportions of downtime, lengthy instructional sessions, and ineffective speeches and drill design. Furthermore, precise measurement of behavior rarely occurs in the context of most youth sports coaching, and relatively little is known about relations between environments arranged by coaches during practice and performance in competitive play. More research is needed to identify the most effective and efficient way to teach youth athletes specific skills and how drills/practice for fundamental component skills impact more complex composite sports behaviors in competitive play. The aim of this study is to examine these issues through a) comparison of goal-setting methods (progressive-ratio versus percentile methods) for training a fundamental basketball skill (dribbling) and b) observation of the effects of goal-setting methods for this skill in practice on dribbling performances in situations more similar to those prevailing during competitive play.
 
32. Interactive Effects of Extinction in Multiple Contexts and Cues Associated with Alternative Reinforcement on Resurgence
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CARLOS DANIEL EVERARDO RIVERA (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento, Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento, Universidad de Guadalajara), L. Rebeca Mateos Morfin (Instituto de Gestión del Conocimiento y el Aprendizaje en Ambientes Virtuales, Universidad de Guadalajara)
Discussant: Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Understanding what procedures can mitigate recovery effects of extinguished behaviors can have important implications in applied settings. In the resurgence procedure, a target response (TR) is established during an initial phase, afterwards the TR is extinguished in a second phase while an alternative response (AR) is reinforced and then both responses are extinguished in a test phase. The TR tends to recover during the test. Cues associated with extinction during alternative reinforcement have shown to effectively mitigate the resurgence effect. At the same time, there’s evidence that carrying out an extinction procedure in multiple contexts can also mitigate other recovery effects. Both procedures in the same preparation could have an additive on resurgence. This study evaluated the effects of cues associated with extinction during alternative reinforcement and extinction in multiple contexts on resurgence in humans. Four groups of human participants were exposed to the resurgence procedure varying the inclusion or exclusion of extinction in multiple contexts and a cue associated with alternative reinforcement. Results showed that extinction in multiple contexts and cues associated with alternative reinforcement were effective to mitigate resurgence in the same preparation, but cues were more effective on their own account.
 
34. Comparison of Reinforcer Duration during the Functional Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MARGARET CAVANAUGH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Hausman (Journey Autism & Behavioral Care Centers), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Varying durations of reinforcement between conditions of the functional analysis may result in unequal exposure to the establishing operation for problem behavior. The current study sought to compare the effects of differing reinforcement durations (i.e., contingent 30 s versus contingent brief verbal comment) in the attention condition on the outcomes of the functional analysis with two individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities on an inpatient hospital unit. Results were mixed across participants; an attention function was only found in the condition when longer durations of attention were provided for one individual. For the second, within session patterns of responding during the longer duration attention condition suggested target behavior was automatically-maintained. Findings suggest that the duration of attention may be an important factor in determining behavioral function.
 
 

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