Utilization of Pivotal Response Treatment: Direct Implementation, Generalization Beyond Autism Spectrum Disorders, Utilization Across the Lifespan, and Efficacy of Parent-Training
Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) has demonstrated significant increase in functional language and communication for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). When compared with analogue teaching conditions, PRT outcomes were superior. Utilization of PRT occurs with children with ASD, either verbal or nonverbal. Generalization of PRT techniques beyond ASD has been examined, with increased functional verbal output demonstrated in children with other developmental concerns. Not only are results of PRT generalizable among children, but also adults. ASD and other diagnoses impact the presentation and development of emotional intelligence due to impairments in reciprocal social interaction. These deficits become more pronounced over the lifespan; thus, treatment remains important. Addressing social conversation skills is necessary for friendships, dating relationships, and employment. Evidence suggests teaching self-management is successful in targeting these behaviors. Video feedback has targeted a number of social behaviors. While the majority of the literature supporting the utilization of said techniques is discussed in relation to ASD, these techniques were useful with other conditions. Finally, one aspect of PRT that differs from other interventions is utilization of parent-training models. Traditional direct service models require at least 25 hours a week for several years to produce published outcomes. PRT, with its emphasis on family involvement, has demonstrated unmatched outcomes while utilizing less time and resources. Because parents spend more time with their children during the days, evenings, and weekends, they can provide more consistent and time intensive intervention for their children. Furthermore, research demonstrates that parents can be trained effectively. This paper reviews multiple aspects of PRT and its utilization with individuals diagnosed with a variety of conditions, at different points across the lifespan, with different developmental and social concerns. Finally, parent-training models are examined and discussed, as parents assist in providing the unmatched outcomes PRT demonstrates.