Association for Behavior Analysis International

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
Advancements in Research on the Incidental Acquisition of Language and Other Advanced Verbal Repertoires
Saturday, May 25, 2024
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Marriott Downtown, Level 4, Franklin Hall 1-2
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Georgette Morgan (University of Georgia )
Discussant: Jennifer Longano (Fred S. Keller School)
CE Instructor: Georgette Morgan, Ph.D.
Abstract: Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc BiN), a verbal developmental cusp present when an individual learns language through exposure, has been shown to serve as the foundation for other advanced verbal repertoires (Corwin & Greer, 2017; Frias, 2016; Greer, 2008; Greer & Speckman, 2009; Hranchuk, 2016; Morgan, 2021). The four presentations within this symposium first investigate the conditions under which Inc BiN is demonstrated and second analyze the effects of the presence of Inc BiN on word learning, reading comprehension, and the establishment of derived relations. The first presentation examined the degree of Inc BiN when stimuli were presented during simultaneous and non-simultaneous naming exposures. The second presentation analyzes the rate of learning new words under two instructional conditions for individuals who demonstrate Inc BiN. The third presentation examines the effect of the establishment of Inc BiN on reading comprehension. The fourth presentation analyzes the establishment of Inc BiN and derived relational responding to determine if one repertoire is the precursor for the other or whether both symbiotically affect each other and are thus related to other underlying stimulus control. Collectively, these studies provide further evidence regarding changes in learning that occur for individuals who demonstrate strong stimulus control for Inc BiN.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Target audience members include graduate students pursuing a master's degree and board certification and/or a PhD in behavior analysis. Audience members should have a general understanding of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) and Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc BiN) or incidental language acquisition.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the effects of simultaneous versus non-simultaneous naming exposures on the demonstration of Incidental Bidirectional Naming, (2) describe how the demonstration of Incidental Bidirectional Naming changes rate of word learning acquisition and the type of teaching contingencies an individual may contact, and (3) describe advanced verbal repertoires that are correlated with the demonstration of incidental language acquisition.
 

Simultaneous Versus Non-Simultaneous Stimuli Presentation in Naming Experiences in an Analysis of Derived Responding and Bidirectional Naming

JENNIFER LONGANO (Fred S. Keller School), Maithri Sivaraman (Teachers College of Columbia University, USA; ), R. Douglas Greer (Professor Emeritus Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), Georgette Morgan (University of Georgia )
Abstract:

Probes for the presence or absence of bidirectional naming was examined under two conditions. In one condition, participants were presented with three sets of stimuli under a naming condition in which both visual and auditory stimuli were presented simultaneously. After two hours following the naming experience, probes were conducted to test for the emergence of listener responses (point to) and speaker responses (tact and intraverbal). Three additional sets of stimuli were presented to participants in a naming experience that presented the auditory stimuli, saying the name of the picture, followed by a brief delay and then the presentation of the visual stimuli. Probes for untaught listener and speaker response were conducted after two hours. The auditory stimuli and then a delay of the visual stimuli was presented also during the probe sessions under this condition. Data were collected for 10 preschoolers with disabilities who demonstrated variability in their bidirectional naming responses but overall showed higher levels of responding under the simultaneous condition. For participants who demonstrated strong stimulus control for bidirectional naming correctly responded to untaught listener and speaker response under both conditions.

 

Toddlers Demonstrating Incidental Bidirectional Naming Learn Tacts From Exposure Alone

CESIRA K. FARRELL (Fred S. Keller School), R. Douglas Greer (Professor Emeritus Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), Yifei Sun (Teachers College Columbia University/ Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract:

Young children who learn names as listener and speaker without direct instruction demonstrate stimulus control called Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BN), a verbal developmental cusp. After observation(s) of caretakers speaking the names of stimuli, identified as Naming Experiences, these children acquire names. Two experiments, with 11 toddlers demonstrating Inc-BiN, compared learning of names under Tact Instruction (TI) (i.e., baseline) versus NE conditions using alternating treatments designs. In Experiment 1, children mastered at least 100 words across NE and TI conditions. Mastery was two consecutive listener and speaker responses for a single operant. Mastered operants were replaced with new words until at least 100 were mastered. Participants learned verbal operants faster in NE conditions, accuracy maintained at high levels for both conditions with listener maintenance stronger. Given that TI necessitated longer duration of sessions, in Experiment 2 researchers doubled the words presented in the NE condition (16 words per session) compared to the TI sessions (8 words as in conditions in Experiment 1 for both). Children learned faster under NE even after the doubling; duration of sessions remained longer in TI, and maintenance of the stimulus control was strong for both conditions. Results suggest mechanisms for how children typically learn names as a continuum of stimulus control made possible by Inc-BiN which appears key to how children learn thousands of words without instruction. The authors speculate from existing related literature that the learned reinforcement for the phenomenon is parity or relational correspondence.

 

First Graders With Increased Complexity in Bidirectional Naming Demonstrate Relational Responding Through Reading Comprehension

LAUREN BALDONADO (SUNY New Paltz), R. Douglas Greer (Professor Emeritus Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract:

More complex forms of Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc. BiN) can join the basic Inc. BiN capability, a continuum of stimulus control for forming word-object relations. With additional interventions or experiences, this increase in complexity sets the occasion for the acquisition of more complex language and repertoires. In a multiple probe design across dyads, this study investigated the effects of the establishment of Inc. BiN for unfamiliar stimuli on multiple measures of reading comprehension. Participants consisted of 3 dyads of first graders who textually responded at or above grade-level and demonstrated the absence of Inc-BiN stimulus control for unfamiliar stimuli. Reading comprehension measures consisted of: (1) experimenter-derived passage comprehension probes, (2) read-do probe consisting of unfamiliar stimuli, and (3) Woodcock Johnson (WJIV®) subtests. Participants acquired Inc. BiN stimulus control for unfamiliar stimuli through a Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) intervention across listener and speaker responses. WJIV® results demonstrated the greatest increases in Passage Comprehension performance, while marginal and educationally significant increases were observed across Reading Vocabulary and Reading Recall subtests. The results suggest a continuum of combinatorially entailed relational responding based on the complexity of Inc. BiN established.

 
At the Intersection of Incidental Bidirectional Naming and Derived Relational Responding
GEORGETTE MORGAN (University of Georgia ), R. Douglas Greer (Professor Emeritus Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), Ariela Holanda (Federal Institute of Parana, Brazil), Samantha Wendy Liebowitz (Teachers College, Columbia University), Katherine Garcia (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Abstract: Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc BiN) and derived relational responding have been used to explain the accelerated rate of word learning that occurs within the second to third year of life. Research has demonstrated strong correlations between the establishment of arbitrary derived relations and the presence of Inc BiN. However, there remains limited research on whether the establishment of Inc BiN is the source of derived relations, the establishment of derived relations is the source of Inc BiN, or if conditioned reinforcement for observing responses and the correspondence between observing and producing responses are the source of reinforcement for Inc BiN and derived relations. This study examines the effects of the establishment of Inc BiN on the acquisition of derived relational frames as well as the effects of the establishment of derived relational frames on the acquisition of Incidental Bidirectional Naming to determine if one repertoire is the precursor for the other or whether both symbiotically affect each other and are thus related to other underlying stimulus control. Results suggest that conditioned reinforcement and the correspondence between observing and producing responses may serve as the source of reinforcement for both Inc BiN and derived relational responding.
 

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