|The Time is Now: Intervention for the Fourth Dimension
|Saturday, May 27, 2017
|5:00 PM–5:50 PM
|Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1E/F
|Area: VRB/EAB; Domain: Translational
|Chair: Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal (University of Nevada, Reno)
|Discussant: Kimberly Kirkpatrick (Kansas State University)
|CE Instructor: Jovonnie L. Esquierdo-Leal, M.A.
A common conference theme is the need for bridging the gap between the basic and applied behavior analysts for a more cohesive and coherent analysis of behavior. One particular void is that of time and timing. A survey of basic and applied literature on timing reveals an inconsistent array of studies, either experimental work without applicable value or interventions without a clear tie to basic principles. For example, the effectiveness of mindfulness training, particularly as it related to present moment awareness, is well documented. Nevertheless, there is little experimental work that explains how the process of focusing on the present functions to promote wellness. A more coherent discussion of time and timing is needed to bolster the foundation of successful treatments as well as strengthen basic research as it pertains to other temporal repertoires, like delay discounting. The symposium will begin with a behavior analytic review of present moment awareness, followed by an experimental presentation tying applied and basic work on time by addressing the two essential behavioral repertoires for timing: awareness and verbal behavior.
|Instruction Level: Intermediate
|Keyword(s): mindfulness, relational responding, time management, timing
Mindfulness Without Mentalism: Present Moment Awareness, Derived Relational Responding, and the Behavioral Cusp
|EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Jonathan J. Tarbox (FirstSteps for Kids), Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
Being present or mindful has come to be fairly widely accepted as a psychological strength. Defined in clinical psychology as bringing ones complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis, mindfulness has been associated with a range of positive behavioral outcomes. In psychotherapy interventions, including some with behavior analytic foundations, this is reflected in the frequent inclusion of present moment awareness and/or mindfulness as a target behavior. Less common has been the consideration of mindfulness as a target behavior in more traditional Applied Behavior Analysis interventions. This is odd, considering its apparent utility as a repertoire, and may be related to confusion between mindfulness as a behavior and mindfulness meditation as an intervention. This paper will (1) offer a behavior analytic definition of present moment awareness, (2) explore verbal repertoires that interfere with present moment awareness, and (3) argue for its relevance for many clients served by ABA, not only as an independent target behavior but also in facilitation of behavioral cusps.
It's About Time: Integrating Timing Research With Verbal Analyses
|CAROLYN BRAYKO (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
As the saying goeswhat goes unmeasured, goes unmanaged. Time management is often cited as a desirable skill, although there are few behavioral measurements to track it. Often discussed at the applied level and rarely at the basic level, there remains a vacuum of understanding by what we call time management. Much of the work that has been done relies on mentalistic notions of motivation or appeals to neurological clocks. Exploring the repertoires involved with timing behavior under controlled conditions (e.g., reporting and estimating time intervals) may later provide a more productive avenue for practitioners to train time management. Taking the same view as Gibsons ecological view that events are perceivable but time is not, the presentation will address a systematic investigation of how timing is shaped in verbal humans. Preliminary studies with university psychology students assessed the degree of accuracy one can report interval duration without a clock. Current data demonstrate that timing strategies seem to correctly discriminate a fixed versus variable time schedule, but decreased sensitivity to verbal antecedents during the task. The opposite findings were observed for participants without timing strategies. Subsequent studies will discuss how rule governed behavior influence timing accuracy and time management skills.