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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #256
Sunday, May 28, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
AUT
Chair: Jessica L. Thomason-Sassi (New England Center for Children)
155. Journaling as Response Redirection of Perseveration in a Young Adult with Autism
Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH BAIRD (Partnership for Behavior Change), Sorah Stein (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often show higher levels of stereotypy that interfere with social and academic functioning. Some individuals engage in vocal stereotypy in the form of vocal perseveration (VP). Response redirection has been used as a procedure to reduce or eliminate perseverative questions and statements in subjects. In the current research, a high-functioning 22-year-old male is given prompts to translate spoken perseverative questions and statements into text within a set interval. This study took place during in-home ABA therapy sessions. A changing criterion design is used to establish the number of allowed spoken VP (versus written) during this interval to access the reinforcer. Data on spoken perseveration are recorded and reported as frequency of episodes of VP during the interval. Currently, the data show a range of three to nine VP per two and a half hour session. This research may lead to a new way to provide a new direction on response redirection.
 
156. An Analysis of Academic Work Completion during Psychotropic Medication Titrations in Individuals Diagnosed with Developmental Disabilities
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
AVA MALEY (The New England Center for Children; Western New E), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: A variety of psychotropic medications are used to treat a number of symptoms associated with ASD and other related disabilities. Oftentimes the efficacy of these medications is assessed using indirect measurement methods such as ratings scales or parent report. For school aged children, it may be beneficial to measure academic work completion during psychotropic medication titrations, in addition to challenging behavior such as aggression and self-injury, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of effectiveness. This poster displays archival data collected during medication titrations on number of academic sessions conducted per day during baseline and each subsequent dose. Participants include students who experienced a titration of a psychotropic medication while attending a residential school for students with autism spectrum disorders and other related disabilities. Data include measures of work completion (mean sessions per day) and challenging behavior (rate of self-injury, aggression and environmental destruction) across specified doses. Figures display the proportion of baseline comparing rate of session completion during baseline and terminal dose. Additional figures display the percentage of participants for whom an increase or decrease in work completion was observed and the relation between rate of problem behavior and work completion during medication titrations.
 
157. Evaluating the Effect of Medication Changes Using a Time-Limited Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behaviors
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
JOCELYN SHIEH (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Pharmacological treatment is commonly utilized to treat problem behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has only approved the use of risperidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability, including tantrums, aggressions, and self-injurious behaviors, in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. One potential reason for the lack of successful research in this field is deficits in properly subcategorizing problem behavior; specifically, large-N pharmacological studies have largely ignored the function of problem behavior. Single-case studies have successfully used functional analyses to demonstrate the effects of medications (Valdovinos et al., 2009; Crosland et al., 2003). However, length of the functional analyses differs across studies, creating an issue in large-N research where lengthy and highly individualized assessments may be difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine if a one-day, time-limited functional analysis targeting self-injurious behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder could identify function and behavior changes post-medication change. In addition, we piloted a structured decision tree for order of functional analysis conditions. Functional analyses were conducted before and after medication changes for 3 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder whose primary concern was self-injurious behavior. Results suggest that reduction in self-injurious behavior was identified through the functional analysis for 2 out of 3 participants.
 
158. A Novel Approach to Teaching Joint Attention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KATELIN HOBSON (Arizona State University), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Joint Attention describes the capacity to use eye contact and cues to coordinate attention with another person in the sharing of an experience (such as an interesting object or event; Mundy, Sigman &Kasari 1994). Previous literature has explored the development and facilitation of joint attention in a variety of ways (Bakeman &Adamson, 1984; Whalen & Schreibman, 2003; Taylor & Hoch, 2008; Vaiouli, Grimmet, & Ruich 2013). Further, Mundy and Gomes (1998) found that responding to joint attention and receptive language development were correlated, and that initiating bids for joint attention and the development of expressive language were correlated. These relations have implications to the overall development of language AND that a specific targeting of responding to and initiating joint attention was imperative to the aforementioned skills concerning language. Therefore, the proposed study seeks to extend the body of work (particularly that of Whelan and Schreibman, 2003) concerning facilitation of joint attention via training an appropriate pointing skill given a socially-relevant, evocative environment stimulus.
 
159. Exploring How Parents Choose Autism Treatments
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI L. HILLMAN (Eastern Washington University)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: In March 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released an estimate of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prevalence as 1 in 68 children. The earlier in life ASD can be identified and treated, the better. However, there are hundreds of treatments ranging from behavioral and educational therapies to traditional and complementary alternative therapies to downright dangerous therapies. Many popular treatments are not empirically supported, but are still widely used. How do parents sort out the good treatments from the not so good? Given the chronic symptoms associated with ASD, and the importance of early intervention, it is important for providers to understand how and why parents choose the treatments they choose. This presentation explores how parents choose Autism Spectrum Disorder treatments, and what factors they consider important when choosing a treatment for their child(ren) with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 
160. Evaluating Predictors of Job Performance and Burnout Among BCBAs
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Karen R. Harper (ABA of Illinois, LLC), RACHEL VICTORIA CROOKSTON (ABA of Illinois, LLC)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis has done an increasingly impressive job at remediation of poor employee performances using techniques such as behavioral skills training. However, less is known about factors which may a priori predict such poor performances before actual employment occurs. Additionally, there may be certain factors which also may be able to detect outstanding employees as well. The purpose of this presentation is to describe an investigation into a wide range of potential factors impacting BCBA employee performance in a large multi-state organization serving individuals with disabilities. We examined age, years since graduation, stress indices, mindfulness levels and related these to job burnout, turnover and behavioral performance reviews. We will show results of this analysis including an extremely powerful relationship between mindfulness and job burnout as well as self-reports of personal accomplishment. Additional relationships between these factors and performance reviews will also be discussed. Finally a behavioral interpretation of these seemingly cognitive sounding predictors will be presented.
 
161. How Far is Too Far: Lag-sequential Analyses
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLI J DALEY (Arizona State University), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: A precursor behavior is defined as a behavior that occurs reliably before a target behavior. In the current literature, researchers have arbitrarily identified that in order for a precursor behavior to be identified as a precursor, the behavior should occur within 10 seconds of each other. The ten seconds inter response time (IST) is referred to as a lag-10 seconds. Dracobly and Smith (2012) extended the work conducted by Borrero and Borrero (2008) by increasing the lag- interval from 10 seconds to 20 seconds. The results of the study suggested that the temporal difference did not affect the results of a precursor behavior. The purpose of the current study was to identify the maximum duration between behaviors in a behavior chain for the first behavior to be a precursor behavior to the latter.Implications and future research about the utility of lag schedules for generating new behaviors will be discussed.
 
162. A Nursing and Behavior-Analytic Collaboration to Teach Weight Management Skills to Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Debra Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), EMILY GALLANT (Somerset Hills Learning Institute; Caldwell University), Sandra R. Gomes (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Jessica Lamb (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Edgar D. Machado (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Jennifer Rodzinak (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Paul Shreiber (Somerset Hills Learning Institute)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Overweight and obesity, especially among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a growing national concern with with imminent and lifelong health implications. Via routine school screenings, three children and one young adult with ASD were identified as overweight, obese, or underweight. An individualized treatment package was implemented for each student, consisting of coaching provided to parents by the school nurse with collaboration from students classroom teachers and teacher supervisors. Parents were coached to measure and report childrens food consumption, increase the proportion of healthy foods in the childs diet by reducing servings of nutritionally poor foods (e.g., cookies, chips), increasing servings of nutrient-rich foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits), and increasing daily physical activity using a shaping procedure. Coaching at school and/or at home and supplemental teaching to increasing food repertoires at school were implemented based on individual student needs. Results indicate reversal of trend in body mass index (BMI) for all four students; two students achieved healthy-range BMI, and two achieved BMI designations healthier than those prior to intervention. Outcomes represent an effective, individualized, school-based multidisciplinary collaboration of behavior analysts, health professionals, and parents to manage unhealthy weight in students with ASD.
 
163. Comparing the Impact of Caregiver Training Provided in Clinical and Natural Environments
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTIN DORRIS (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), LaTamara Garrett (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: In an effort to better equip caregivers with the knowledge base and tools necessary to adequately address the needs of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), two model early intervention programs were funded by federal and state governments and provided by personnel at a university-based institute on Autism Spectrum Disorder. This service delivery study compares the impact of a caregiver education model delivered in two different environments. Through this study, we aim to analyze data related to fidelity of implementation and perceived outcomes to compare an early intervention program conducted in a clinical setting to a program conducted in a combination with natural environments. Twenty families have completed participation or are currently engaged in services across these two service models. Surveys were developed to assess professional perceptions of improvement and severity, goal ratings were used to assess progress towards specific treatment objectives, and treatment fidelity forms were used to enhance validity and reliability of behavioral interventions. The preliminary results of this project support effectiveness of caregiver training in clinical and natural settings. Professionals report higher levels of improvement and more significant changes in severity ratings in clinical settings; however, pre/post goal ratings and treatment fidelity indicate higher levels of caregiver achievement.
 
164. ABA Parent Training for Spanish-Speaking Families: A Comparison of Methods
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Kylan S. Turner (Arizona State University), ERIN ROTHERAM-FULLER (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be a critical support for both parents and their children (Bearss, Johnson, Smith, Lecavalier, & Swiezy, 2015). Unfortunately, these trainings are not often well attended, and programs in Spanish have been even less frequently examined. The current study seeks to compare two methods for engaging participants in a parent training intervention program conducted in Spanish, for Spanish-speaking parents of school-aged children with ASD. This study was conducted at a clinical site where 75% of families were exclusively Spanish-speaking. Twenty families were recruited who had at least one child with ASD, aged 6-8 years old. Seventeen families ultimately participated in the training program in two separate group models (n=9 in model 1 and n=8 in model 2). In the first model, the interventionist assessed all families, and the intervention included 6 group sessions, followed by 4 individual sessions. In the second model, separate staff assessed families, and the intervention included 4 group sessions, followed by 4 individual sessions. Content was the same in both models, and focused on teaching ABA terms, strategies, and application for issues with their own children. Families completed both parent and child measures before the training began, including a diagnostic evaluation with their child. Parent engagement was significantly higher in the first model (6 group and 4 individual sessions) at 84.6% than in the second model (4 group and 4 individual sessions) at 43.8%. Cultural adaptations to the intervention were needed to increase participation in both models, including offering childcare, dinner for participants and children, and extending time for social engagement, but more relationship building opportunities were included in the first model.
 
165. Employment Skills for Young Adults With Autism: Interventions With Empirical Evidence in Community Settings
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
LESLIE ANN BROSS (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: This poster provides an overview of interventions with empirical evidence to support young adults with autism to gain employment skills in their local communities. Despite intensive services during K-12 education, postsecondary outcomes of adults with autism have consistently remained bleak. Obtaining and maintaining employment is critical for ensuring young adults with autism earn wages, develop relationships in their local communities, and experience an overall high quality of life. Applied behavior analysis techniques and interventions can be applied in authentic employment settings for learners age 18 and older to support their employability skills. The poster will describe interventions grounded in principles of ABA that a job coach, employer, or related service personnel can implement in community settings. In addition, procedures for aligning the young adults strengths, interests, and preferences with the needs of the employer will be discussed. Behavioral interventions with empirical evidence and a strengths-based approach can be the supports young adults with ASD need to be competitively employed for pay within their local community.
 
167. An Evaluation of Pre-requisite Skills and Motivation in Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
TESS GARTENBERG (Central Texas Autism Center), Aarti Haresh Thakore (Central Texas Autism Center), Samantha Contreras (Central Texas Autism Center), Kelle Wood Rich (Central Texas Autism Center, Inc.)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: There are several training procedures and techniques for teaching social skills to children diagnosed with Autism. Some of the most common training techniques are social stories, Pivotal Response Training (Pierce & Schreibman, 1997), video modeling, in-vivo training in the classroom setting, etc. Most of the social skills training for children with Autism are done with typically developing peers. However, no studies have focused on the effects of Motivating Operations on the acquisition of targeted social behaviors. Thus, this study was an attempt to evaluate the effect of shared motivation on acquisition of the social targets. The social skills targets were selected based on direct observation using the VB-MAPP task analysis for social skills. There were two participants in the study, both diagnosed with Autism. The social training sessions were conducted across eight total sessions, on a weekly basis, using 2:2 adults to children ratio. The sessions involved in-vivo training; the therapists first contrived the social situations by pairing the peer with other reinforcers and contriving motivating variables, and used least-to-most prompting through the targets. The results showed that one out of the two participants acquired all the 10 targets from the task analysis as she was highly motivated by peers attention rather than other primary reinforcers around, thus she initiated and requested more frequently. Overall results suggest that the acquisition of social targets increased given the participants had all the necessary prerequisite skills and shared motivation with their peer.
 
168. Effects of a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior Procedure to Decrease Multiply Maintained Self-Injurious Behavior in a Child With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
KADIJAH QUINLAND (The University of Georgia), Rachel Cagliani (University of Georgia), Samantha Huddleston (The University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other (DRO) behaviors involves reinforcing other behaviors besides the target problem behavior (Iwata, Zarcone, Smith, & Mazaleski, 1993). In this study, a DRO procedure was implemented in a classroom with one child with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in SIB. The child’s problem behavior was determined through a functional analysis to be maintained by automatic reinforcement as well as positive reinforcement in the form of accessing tangibles such as various edibles and electronics and negative reinforcement in the form of escaping demands. A changing criterion design was used to systematically increase the reinforcement interval for the DRO procedure. The DRO interval began at one minute and increased by 30 seconds after three consecutive intervals without problem behavior. If the child engaged in SIB during the interval the timer was reset. The interval was systematically increased to more than 20 minutes across three months. Results indicated that the child met mastery criteria (e.g. did not engage in SIB for at least 20 minutes). The child maintained the behavior and generalized the skill to multiple setting outside of the classroom.
 
169. Tuesday Night Flights: An Exploration of The Role of Community Supports and Interventions for College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
LISA DEER (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: With the emergence of young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attending college, some support recommendations for these students have been reported. However, standardized, evidence-based models of formal support programs for college students with ASD have not yet been developed or described. This exploratory study is a retrospective reflection on the methods, outcomes and insight gleaned over three years of a service-based social group for college students with ASD. More than 20 students have been served through the group over six long semesters (spring and fall). This interdisciplinary effort was created in response to student need and recognition of the lack of research and resources available for this population. Evidence-based intervention methods including Pivotal Response Training (PRT) and Person-Centered Planning (PCP) driven by student interest and participation are utilized through a non curriculum-based group in a naturalistic setting. Topics and guests are selected based on student input. Attendance is voluntary, but consistent. Students are provided with guidance and assistance in accessing both on and off-campus resources, and individual intervention efforts conducted outside the group format are described. Behavioral trends, impact of the group on campus awareness and service requirements, student retention, graduation outcomes and recommendations for replication efforts are explained.
 
170. Training Effects on Implicit Spatial Perspective-Taking by Observing the View From Another Person's Perspective in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
HIROSHI ASAOKA (University of Tsukuba ), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Spatial perspective-taking is the ability to observe the view from another persons perspective, considering what is observed and how it is observed. Several studies have reported that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may demonstrate the difficulties in performing this task, when tested with appropriately implicit methods. This study was aimed to examine whether three children with ASD could be taught to spontaneously move their face or body as per another persons perspective. A multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. At baseline, sample stimuli were randomly presented by lighting one of the two eyes, with the face stimulus rotated 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees from the upright position. Subsequently, comparison stimuli without lighting the eye were presented at 0 degrees, and the subjects were asked to point at the position of the expected lit eye. During training, sample stimuli were presented, and the subjects observed the view from the upright position, when an error occurred. The results indicated that the acquisition of target behavior is promoted by reducing the time lag between observation by the subject and presentation of comparison stimuli, and by increasing the time to gaze on the stimulus in the move to the upright position.
 
171. Applications of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior With and Without Extinction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATTIE GUERRERO (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ana Ramirez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Noemi Trevino (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ana Huerta (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) is a behavior reduction procedure often implemented in conjunction with extinction (EXT); however, there is limited research in its use without EXT for challenging behavior that is not maintained by sensory reinforcement. This study will evaluate the use of DRO with and without EXT in the treatment of socially-mediated challenging behavior in two children with autism. Results indicate that reductions in problem behavior are evident; however, EXT leads to greater reductions faster. In conclusion, EXT may not be required if the goal is to reduce challenging behavior but not to eliminate it, whereas EXT may be an important component to the DRO contingency when trying to eliminate problem behavior.
 
172. A Pilot Study Examining the Test-Retest and Internal Consistency Reliability of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills Revised
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), James W. Partington (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: The literature contains a variety of assessment tools for measuring the skills of individuals with autism or other developmental delays, but most lack adequate empirical evidence supporting their reliability and validity. The current pilot study sought to examine the reliability of scores obtained from the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R). Two forms of reliability were measured, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Analyses using data obtained from neuro-typical children (N = 50) yielded strong evidence of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. These preliminary findings suggest that the ABLLS-R can yield reliable scores.
 
173. Matrix Training: Teaching a Child With Autism Gross Motor Imitation, Listener, and Speaker Behavior Skills
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY N. FIORILLI (Applied Behavior Consultants)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Children with autism often display difficulties in generalization of formally taught targets or skills. A teaching method that has been referenced through the literature is a teaching matrix, also referred to as matrix training or recombination generalization. The research points to this method being utilized with listener instructions and pre-academic skills. In this study, matrix training was utilized to teach a child with autism gross motor, listener, speaker, and play skills. Results indicated that the participant acquired more trained and untrained targets in lessons linked with matrix training, compared to lessons not linked with matrix training. Although, the intervention supports the use of matrix training, the sample size is a limitation and does not necessarily support generalization of procedures to additional participants. Further research should include a larger sample size, with an analysis of procedural implementation across response classes.
 
174. The Use of Stimuli to Increase of Motivating Operations to Increase Functional Mobility
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NOEMI TREVINO (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Jennifer McGovern (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Priscilla Boghs (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Cristelle Miana (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley ), Victorira Garate (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Pedro Izaguirre (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Lorie Zamarripa (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: . Functional mobility is an important component of a childs development. As the child walking independently allows the child to access natural environmental reinforcers such as participating in school activities. Motivating operations (MOs) are frequently used in behavior analysis during treatment to ensure that stimuli used as reinforcers are powerful. A motivating operation is often defined as an environmental variable that alters the effectiveness of a stimulus and the behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus (Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2001). In the present study, we evaluate the use of motivating operations to teach walking in a 3 year old Hispanic male with Autism and a club foot. Results indicate that the child learns to walk using less intensive supports across sessions. This study highlights the importance of considering the use of MOs in behavior analysis to increase daily living skills, such as walking in children with a deformity.
 
175. A Large N Descriptive Assessment of Token Systems
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LESLEIGH ANN CRADDOCK (New England Center for Children), Stephanie Bonfonte (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Token economies have been the focus of a significant amount of research and are a commonly taught procedure in behavior analytic training programs. Although this may give the impression that their use is widespread, it is unclear exactly how often they are used in behavior management programming and, when they are, what forms they take. This poster entails an analysis of the prevalence of token economies used with individuals in a residential program for students with autism and other disabilities. Data were collected on the schedules for token production and exchange, types of stimuli used as tokens, the use of tokens in behavior reduction programming, and the types of back up reinforcers used. No interobserver agreement data were collected, as the data are archival. The data showed that token economies are prevalent, with a little less than half of all students programming including token economies. While token exchange values varied greatly, most token production schedules were set at FR1.
 
176. Assessment of Presession Exposure on Token Reinforcement During Response Acquisition
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
STEFANIE UPSHAW (The New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Mary Katherine Carey (Western New England University), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Token economies are commonly used in teaching new skills to individuals with autism. Tokens are delivered in lieu of primary reinforcers for correct responding and then exchanged for back-up reinforcers. When used this way, tokens are conceptualized as generalized reinforcers by virtue of being exchangeable for an array of primary reinforcers. Thus, they may be insensitive to motivating operations for certain back-up reinforcers and useful if skill acquisition is affected by satiation. The current study evaluated methods for testing for abolishing operations during response acquisition for two men with autism. First, the effects of satiation on skill acquisition was tested when tokens were exchangeable for one back-up reinforcer. Second, the mean consumption inter-reinforcement time (IRT) was analyzed across sessions. Data showed evidence of satiation with a small effect of satiation on the rate of skill acquisition for one participant and no evidence of satiation for the second participant. Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 33% of sessions with 98% agreement in the Presession Exposure Assessment and 99.5% agreement in the Mean Consumption IRT Assessment. These data suggest that the use of mean consumption IRT during presession exposure is a sensitive measure of detecting satiation with a back-up stimulus.
 
177. Family Outcomes for Families and Toddlers Who Participated in the Project DATA Model Clinical Trial
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Jennifer Fung (University of Washington), ILENE S. SCHWARTZ (University of Washington)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Parents are children's first teachers. When working with toddlers, especially toddlers with autism, it is essential to ensure that interventions are both effective and acceptable to all members of the family. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that parents of children with disabilities report higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children. Parents of children with autism report stress levels even higher than those of parents of children with other disabilities. The purpose of the data that will be presented in this symposium will demonstrate that the Project DATA model was acceptable to families and that families were pleased with the range of outcomes achieved by their children. We will also discuss the impact that this intervention had on the family life. Implications for practice, including issues of where the intervention was provided, will be discussed.
 
178. A Comparison of Approach Frequency and a Compound Preference Index in Predicting Reinforcer Effectiveness Among Individuals With MR and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN C. MAURO (The Sage Colleges, Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Bernard Baugh (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC), Erin Smith (The Sage Colleges), Joseph Priestley (Brett DiNovi & Associates)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Fisher et al. (1992) found that a concurrent assessment procedure was superior to a successive assessment procedure in differentiating among preferred stimuli and also better predicted which stimuli would function as more effective reinforcers. In the present two-experiment study, the concurrent assessment paradigm was used to assess the stimulus preferences of three adults with profound mental retardation (Experiment 1) and three children with autism spectrum disorder (Experiment 2). Rather than using a single measure of preference, multiple measures (i.e., frequency, latency and duration) of preference were combined to develop a compound preference index (PI). More quantitatively, the PI was defined as: PI = f (D)/L, where the terms of this ratio refer to the frequency (f) of approach behavior, duration of engagement (D), and latency (L) of approach behavior measured across discrete trials of a concurrent preference assessment procedure. A regression analysis showed that the compound preference index more precisely predicted reinforcer effectiveness than the frequency of approach measure of preference. However, the degree of prediction was greater and more reliable for the adults with mental retardation than the children with autism. These latter results are discussed in terms of the typical patterns of behavioral excesses of autism spectrum disorder.
 
179. Incontinence Interventions for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Developmental Disabilities: A Review of Evidence and Meta-analysis
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
SETH WALKER (Utah State University), John Davis (University of Utah), Heather S. Davis (Texas A&M University)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Incontinence is problematic for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or other developmental disabilities (DDs) in that it places limits on socialization, residential and vocational placements and general quality of life. Quality of life impairments can include inadequate hygiene, stigmatism, physical discomfort and irritation of the genitals, diminished self-confidence, and restriction from typical daily activities (e.g., Cicero & Pfadt, 2002; Hyams, McCoull, Smith, & Tyrer, 1992; Lott & Kroeger, 2004; McCartney, 1990). The current study seeks to extend previous reviews (Kroger & Sorenson-Burnworth, 2009) of continence research by examining intervention components and outcomes for this population. Following a review of published studies utilizing Single Case Research (SCR), the current study found statistically significant differences between studies based on participant characteristics and outcomes. Specific intervention components were also examined; however no significant differences were detected. This is likely due to the lack of continuity between studies in methods used for this intervention. Exact intervention methods be reviewed in this session and recommendations for practice and future research will be provided.
 
180. A Comparison of Contingency-Based Reinforcement Thinning Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELINDA ROBISON (Child Study Center), Joshua Jessel (Child Study Center), Einar T. Ingvarsson (University of North Texas), Rachel Metras (University of North Texas)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Reinforcement thinning involves the gradual introduction of periods of time in which the reinforcers are unavailable. The return of the reinforcers following a delay can either be time-based (e.g., multiple or mixed schedule) or contingency-based (i.e., chained-schedule). Ghaemmaghami, Hanley, and Jessel (2016) compared the utility of time-based and contingency-based progressive delays with four individuals who exhibited problem behavior. Larger reductions in problem behavior during reinforcement thinning were consistently obtained in the contingency-based conditions. We extended this research with two children with autism who exhibited problem behavior by comparing two forms of contingency-based reinforcement thinning procedures: one in which the reinforcer is presented following a programmed number of alternative responses (i.e., differential reinforcement of alternative behavior [DRA]) and one in which the reinforcer is presented following a programmed duration without the target response (i.e., differential reinforcement of other behavior [DRO]). We found greater reductions in problem behavior during the DRA-based reinforcement thinning condition suggesting that returning the reinforcers following a delay contingent on a response is likely to improve the efficacy of a reinforcement thinning procedure.
 
181. Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Individuals With Autism: A Critical Literature Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Future Directions
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
Leman Kose (University of South Florida), LISE FOX (University of South Florida)
Discussant: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Abstract: Comorbid psychiatric disorders in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly prevalent. The comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with autism is an especially recognized issue. Interventions implemented for individuals with OCD only do not necessarily prove effective for individuals with ASD who also have an OCD diagnosis or symptoms. Acknowledged as the first line of treatment for OCD, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) evinces promising outcomes for individuals with both ASD and OCD as long as the treatment protocol is enhanced by necessary modifications. This poster presentation provides the results of a critical literature review of the use of CBT as a treatment approach for OCD in individuals with ASD to determine the strength of evidence that supports the use of CBT to address OCD in individuals with ASD, identify the modifications that were used to increase treatment success, and discuss implications for future research and practice. The poster presentation will include a table of all studies that were analyzed and their relevant features and an analysis of the modifications used across studies to enhance intervention effectiveness.
 
182. Use of a Multiple Schedules Arrangement to Control Excessive Motor Imitation
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SOPHIA SILVER (Children's Hospital Colorado), Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus), Lindsay Cohen (Children's Hospital Colorado), Rebecca Campbell (Children's Hospital Colorado), Kelly Carpenter (Children's Hospital Colorado)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: We present data from one participant who engaged in excessive motor imitation that interfered with academic learning. Using a multiple baseline across stimulus design we evaluated the use of a multiple schedules arrangement to control motor imitation. During Condition 1, one of three stimuli were presented on a computer screen alternating with a control stimulus (a blank computer screen). The participant imitated the visual stimulus at a high rate and only engaged in the relevant imitation when the control stimulus was presented once. During Condition 2, we evaluated whether motor imitation could be controlled by “Do” versus “Don’t do” requests. The vocal instructions did not affect motor imitation. During Condition 3, we introduced a multiple schedules arrangement to control motor imitation. When a green stimulus was presented, motor imitation was allowed to occur. In contrast, when a red stimulus was presented, motor imitation resulted in response blocking. Stimulus control over motor imitation was established via this multiple schedules arrangement. The participant engaged in the highest rates of motor imitation when the green stimulus was presented compared to when the red stimulus was presented. These data will be discussed with the goal of assisting educators control excessive motor imitation.
 
183. The Effects of Delayed Reinforcement Without Extinction on Treating Escape-Maintained Problem Behaviors
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELLE SMITH (The Ohio State University), Natalie Andzik (The Ohio State University ), Corinne Gist (The Ohio State University), Nancy A. Neef (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Treating problem behaviors without the negative side-effects of extinction (i.e., extinction bursts, spontaneous recovery, worsening topographies, extinction induced aggression, and behavioral contrast) has proven a successful way eliminate escape-maintained problem behaviors. This study is extending the research by being the first known study to examine the effects of delayed reinforcement without extinction for escape-maintained problem behaviors. The participants included three males and one female diagnosed with autism ranging from four to five years old. Occurrences of problem behavior in baseline and intervention resulted in removal of the demand for 30s. Compliance during treatment was reinforced with tokens that were traded in at the completion of a session for a break with a preferred item. Thus far, delayed reinforcement for compliance has resulted in an immediate decrease of problem behavior to near zero levels and increased compliance to 84% or higher for all participants in intervention. The data indicates that the treatment was successful by eliminating problem behavior for two participants and decreasing the average rate from 3.1 per minute to .5 per minute for other. Compliance for all participants has not dropped below 85% in intervention. Overall, the intervention has been successful for three out of three participants currently in intervention.
 
184. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Maintenance and Generalization of Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA AGUILAR (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Elaina Garcia (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The purpose of this review and meta-analysis is to extend the work of Heath, Ganz, Parker, Burke, and Ninci (2015) by conducting a systematic evaluation of the current literature base evaluating the maintenance and generalization of functional communication training (FCT). This meta-analysis also aims to quantitatively determine the overall effectiveness of the maintenance and generalization of FCT by effect size analysis. Studies were identified through a search of four electronic databases using the keywords functional communication training, functional communication, functional analysis communication, and mand training. Included in this definition of FCT are mand training, with an explanation of behavioral function determination and the inclusion of differential reinforcement, and the description/implementation of FCT despite the absence of the actual term, FCT (e.g., Schlichenmeyer, Dube, & Vargas-Irwin, 2015). To be included as maintenance or generalization the teaching strategies must have been implemented in the acquisition phase and then tested in the maintenance or generalization phase, without being explicitly taught. After applying the final inclusion criteria to the 113 articles, 15 studies were identified. Initial results and implications for future research and practice will be discussed.
 
185. Teaching Toileting Skills to Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities: A Review of Recent Literature
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ABIGAIL GORHAM (Northern Illinois University), Jeffrey Michael Chan (Northern Illinois University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism often have difficulty acquiring self-help skills such as toileting, and behaviorally-based intervention methods to teach toileting skills have been in use for many decades (Foxx & Azrin, 1973). The purpose of this literature review is to analyze recent peer-reviewed journal articles (2009-present) that reported the outcomes of toileting skills interventions for children with autism and developmental disabilities, updating the review by Kroeger and Sorenson-Burnworth (2009). We included 6 articles in the review, and the following information was analyzed: participant characteristics, setting, implementer, intervention components, research design, and results. Further, we analyzed authors’ reports of generalization, maintenance, treatment fidelity, and social validity data. Results of the synthesis indicate that a variety of common toileting intervention methods were implemented, such as dry pants check, extra fluids, positive reinforcement, and imitation training. Studies were conducted in home and school environments with participants ranging in age from 3 to 13 years old. Researchers reported primarily positive results across all studies. Implications for practice and future avenues for research will be discussed.
 
186. Use of Social Stories to Decrease Maladaptive Behavior and Increase Desired Behavior In Children with Autism: Review of A Few Case Studies
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
SADAF KHAWAR (Hybridge Learning Group)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Social Stories have been used to assist individuals with Autism who have an inherent deficit to self-learn certain desired behaviors to encounter novel situations and understanding of other’s thoughts or emotions, partially owing to their struggle with the Theory of Mind. After a brief overview of the research supporting effectiveness of social stories and the components of a social story, four specific case studies will be discussed which will highlight the use of social stories to increase desired behavior and decrease maladaptive behavior. These include: (1) Ray (Age: 4) who started asserting himself and became “socially strong” instead of being bullied by his elder brother; (2) Alex (Age:5) whose inappropriate behavior of showing private parts in public decreased; (3) John (Age: 5) whose tantrums after losing a game decreased as he learnt it is OK to lose; and, (4) Alec (Age:6) who learnt to mind personal space and not touch people inappropriately and talk to strangers. Actual social stories used will also be shared.
 
187. Comparison of Delay Procedures for the Reinforcement of Mands
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MADELYNN LILLIE (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Melissa Drifke (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) involves teaching an alternative functional communication response (FCR) that results in the same reinforcer that had historically maintained problem behavior. After establishing this response through immediate reinforcement, therapists must then teach individuals to tolerate delays to reinforcement, without the resumption of problem behavior or repeated requesting. The current study analyzed a multi-element comparison of three procedures to teach delay tolerance, including a time delay, a DRO delay, and a DRA delay, with four children with autism who engaged in tangibly-maintained problem behavior. That is, appropriate requests were honored following a set amount of time (time delay), a set amount of time without problem behavior (DRO delay), or after a set amount of tasks were completed (DRA delay). Results showed that without fading, each terminal-probe-delay resulted in increased levels of problem behavior and loss of the FCR. However, with fading, all procedures resulted in lower levels of problem behavior and maintenance of the FCR. Some differences were evident in the DRA procedure, which may be beneficial in some cases to reduce continued requests, but could result in more problem behavior for children who also present with escape-maintained problem behavior.
 
189. Assessing Preference for Different Types of Social Interaction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SAMUEL L. MORRIS (University of Florida; Florida Autism Center), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Very few researchers have evaluated methods of assessing preference for social interactions despite their potential utility. Many methods that have been evaluated were sufficient for the subjects whom they were used with, but seemed inadequate for the subjects in the current study. Consequently, we developed a new method of assessing subjects’ preference for social interaction. The social interaction preference assessment (SIPA) consist of several sessions which are divided into trials. Selection responses are recorded during each of these trials and response options and their consequences are removed from the array based on the percent of selections across consecutive sessions. In this assessment forced exposure prior to each session and dissimilar stimuli were used to aid the development of stimulus control. We conducted a SIPA with 4 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who communicated with limited vocal repertoires or augmentative communication systems. The SIPAs identified relative preference for two types of reinforcing social interactions for all subjects and a hierarchy of preference for three types of reinforcing social interactions for 2 out of 4 subjects. These results were encouraging but should be viewed as preliminary until studies replicating, extending, and comparing these procedures with other methods have been conducted.
 
190. The Effects of Blocking and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Decreasing Head Banging
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY DAVIS (The BISTÅ Center)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In this study, we examined the effects of blocking and PECS to decrease severe head banging. Following behavior reduction, we further examined the increase in communication abilities with PECS. The participant was a three-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and chromosomal deletion. The Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) results showed the function of the behavior to be access to tangible items. The intervention consisted of blocking head banging behaviors alone, and then blocking was paired with the introduction of PECS as an appropriate replacement behavior. PECS was systematically introduced, beginning with hand over hand trials and eventually moved to independent use of a binder. In each phase of PECS, data was taken on correct PECS exchange responses as well as hourly rate of head banging. Preliminary results indicate that the introduction of PECS effectively decreased the rate of head banging for access to a tangible as well as increased the communicative behaviors of the participant.
 
191. Assessment of Reinforcer Potency through the use of Progressive-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KADIJAH QUINLAND (The University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (The University of Georgia), Rachel Cagliani (The University of Georgia)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Several studies have suggested the use of progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement as a means of more realistically assessing the potency of a reinforcer. This study utilized progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement as a reinforcer assessment within the applied setting in order to assess the potency of highly preferred items as well as the viability of progressive ratio schedules as an assessment for reinforcers. Stimuli were classified as high, moderate and low preferred based on their rankings according to a multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment. Stimuli were subsequently assessed using a progressive-ratio schedule. Results of this study suggest that progressive ratio schedules may serve as an adequate reinforcer assessment for some individuals.
 
192. Comparison of Video Modeling Techniques for Maintaining Vocational Skills of Individuals With Autism and/or Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TONI R. VAN LAARHOVEN (Northern Illinois University), Traci Vanlaarhoven-Myers (Indian Prairie School District 204), Daina Hunt (Argyle Independent School District), Ximena Burgin (Northern Illinois University), Jesse (Woody) W. Johnson (Northern Illinois University), Stephanie DeSpain (Northern Illinois University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of using different video modeling strategies to maintain vocational skills of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and/or Developmental Disabilities (DD) over winter break. Twelve students participated and each was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured prior to and following break. Participants were either randomly assigned to a control condition (no videos), reviewed videos while on break (over break condition), or reviewed videos several times when they returned from break (booster sessions). With the exception of the Control group (no videos for either task), one task was assigned to the video modeling condition (either Booster or Over Break condition), and the other task served as a control for each participant (no video). A nonequivalent dependent variables design or modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of each video modeling condition. Results indicated that students increased their independence with both tasks following the video modeling procedures. Findings were surprising yet consistent across learners and replicated previous research. Plausible explanations for the results will be shared.
 
193. The Evaluation of Interventions for Task Transition Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Literature Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTY PRAWIRA (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Difficulties with task transition is a problem that cannot be neglected; as a result, a growing body of research has evaluated various interventions to improve task transition. The purpose of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of behavioral interventions to improve transition from activity to activity among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A systematic and comprehensive search resulted in 21 included studies. Studies were analyzed according to (a) participants, (b) settings, (c) dependent variables, and (d) interventions. Results indicate picture activity schedules combined with prompting are the most commonly implemented interventions. Implications for future research and practice will be discussed.
 
194. An Evaluation of Stimulus Fading and Positive Reinforcement to Improve Rapport in a Mother-child Relationship
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
VALORI N. BERENDS (Seattle Children's Hospital), Eric Boelter (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Amber Persons (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Ronald S. Thomson (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas)
Abstract: McLaughlin and Carr (2005) demonstrated the effect of quality of rapport between support staff and adult individuals with developmental disabilities as a predictor of inappropriate behavior. The researchers also identified effective procedures for improving rapport between the same dyads. Steps for conditioning staff people as reinforcers have been previously identified by researchers (Carr et al., 1994). The current study looks to extend upon the existing research by improving rapport between a young child with autism and his mother during an enriched play scenario including non-contingent access to preferred play items, praise for appropriate play, touch and positive commentary on the childs play. At baseline, the mothers attempt to engage in enriched play with the child resulted in high rates of disruptive behaviors. However, an ABAB design demonstrated that enriched play with the therapist did not result in disruptions. Following replication of treatment effects, an 8-step protocol was implemented to fade the mother into the enriched play with therapist, and then fade out the therapist while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. Results of the study show the effectiveness of fading procedures.
 
195. Increasing Spontaneous Tacting in Children Using Echoic Training and Feedback
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
TRACY YIP (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong), Tsz Ching Ng (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Typically developed children engages in spontaneous tacting of their environment as a form of social exchange and communication throughout their day. As communication and socialization are two key areas of deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder, many of them either do not exhibit tacts or they may engage in faulty tacts such as repeating phrases or tacting objects which may be non-relevant to the setting. The limitation of their spontaneous language may hinder their social development with others and impede on social communication exchanges. Participants of the study were three children with autism spectrum disorder ranging between age 5 to 6, who exhibited repetitive tacting of irrelevant objects in the setting or would engage in low rates of spontaneous tacting through out the day. All three participants were integrated into a regular school setting where it would be essential for them to engage in spontanous and relevant tacting. Using echoics training and immediate social communication feedback, spontaneous tacting for all three children has been successfully increased.
 
196. Using a Progressive-Ratio Reinforcer Assessment to Inform Token Economy Menu Prices
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH BROOKE HAYGOOD (Auburn University), Odessa Luna (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Token economies are frequently used to reduce problem behavior and increase compliance with individuals with escape-maintained behavior. When implementing a token economy, the therapist must identify the number of tokens required to exchange for backup reinforcers. This may involve identification of a fixed amount for the exchange ratio or a varied amount for different backup reinforcers using a menu. However, little research has evaluated systematic procedures to help inform decisions for exchange ratios. The purpose of the study was to evaluate using the break point for several types of reinforcers (e.g., snacks, play time, and social) as well as different magnitudes of those reinforcers (i.e., large vs. small amounts) during a progressive-ratio reinforcer assessment to inform exchange prices with two participants with escape-maintained problem behavior. The break points for each reinforcer were averaged to produce an exchange price for that item. Following the reinforcer assessment, the token economy with the set menu prices was evaluated within an FCT + Tokens treatment evaluation. The increased menu prices still maintained low levels of problem behavior and high levels of compliance.
 
197. An Evaluation of a Video-based Preference Assessment to Identify Reinforcing Social Stimuli for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELENE ABULADZE (California State University, Fresno), Lynn Service (University of British Columbia), Laura L. Grow (California State University, Fresno), Sarah Orique (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Pictorial depictions of social stimuli are most common for preference assessments of social interactions (Kelly, Roscoe, Hanley, & Schlichenmeyer, 2014; Lang et al., 2014). However, social stimuli are dynamic and videos may better depict the salient features of social stimuli (Synder, Higbee, & Dayton, 2012). The purpose of the study was to evaluate a video-based preference assessment and subsequent reinforcer assessment for social stimuli. To date, two children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder between 3- and 5-years old participated in the study. The study was conducted in three phases. First, the experimenter interviewed caregivers to identify a list of preferred social interactions. Next, the experimenter evaluated the top six ranked social stimuli using a video-based, paired-choice preference assessment. Finally, the experimenter evaluated the reinforcing quality of a high- and low-preference social stimulus using a concurrent operants, progressive-ratio reinforcer assessment. The video-based preference assessment results were predictive of the reinforcer assessment results. The results will be discussed in terms of future research directions and clinical practice.
 
198. An Evaluation of Idiosyncratic Response Across Therapists Conducting Assessments and Treatments for Challenging Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER STRACQUADANIO (Rutgers University), Rachel Davis (Rutgers University), Dylan Zimmerman (Rutgers University), Daniel Heimlich (Rutgers University), Mikala Rae Hanson (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Given the communication deficits inherent in ASD, students with autism often present with a variety of interfering behaviors. The empirical literature strongly suggests that interventions for challenging behavior be based on the results of a functional behavior assessment (FBA) and be directly linked to the underlying cause of the behavior. The intervention process can be further complicated when assessment results and treatment response vary across implementers. The current study assessed the inappropriate touching of an adolescent male diagnosed with ASD. A brief functional analysis was conducted to determine the function of the student’s inappropriate touching. A male and female therapist alternated running all conditions. The results of the FA confirmed a tangible function for sessions run with the female instructor while no clear function was identified with the male instructor. A multiple baseline design was used to compare non-contingent access to tangibles across the two instructors. The treatment was effective in decreasing inappropriate touching when implemented by the novel female instructor. However, the effectiveness for the treatment when implemented with the male instructor was less pronounced, suggesting a difference in function across therapists. Implications for an effective treatment across staff where the function of inappropriate touching varies will be discussed.
 
199. Preliminary Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial of a Web-based Program for Delivering in-home Early Intervention to Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE S. GOODIN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Megan E Vosters (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Stephanie A. Hood (Briar Cliff University ), Andrew Pierce Blowers (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage), Aaron D. Lesser (The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Research has shown that Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI) is effective when implemented by trained and supervised technicians. However, there are few empirically supported demonstrations of programs to supervise in-home technicians using web-based technologies, which is a concern given the limited, but growing, number and location of experts given the demand for EIBI services. We are conducting a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a 10-15 hours per week, 6-8 month, web-based program for supervising and monitoring in-home technicians implement EIBI protocols. One dependent measure included children's performance on our autism curriculum based assessment, which involved competency measures with direct observation. To date, 7 test-control dyads have completed the pretest and posttest assessments, and mean different from pretest to posttest skills was 34% and 18%, respectively. A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated that posttest ranks for the test group were significantly higher than the control group, Z = 3.53; p < .001. The results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of our web-based program to provide families with internet access anywhere in the world with EIBI services.
 
200. Assessing Preference for and Efficacy of Different Forms of Verbal Praise as Reinforcers for Children With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY SULLIVAN (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Richard W. Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Verbal praise is widely used as a social reinforcer in a variety of ABA applications. Descriptive as opposed to general verbal praise is most commonly recommended, as is an “enthusiastic” quality to verbal praise. However, there is no clear empirical support suggesting that one type of praise is more effective than another, perhaps because preferences for different types of praise is highly individual. Thus, a reliable assessment method is clearly needed. This study evaluated a novel computer-presented assessment method designed to determine preference for different types of verbal praise. Participants were five children with autism spectrum disorder. A concurrent-operant, button-pressing task presented on a touch-sensitive tablet computer was used to evaluate preference for four types of praise: general neutral, general enthusiastic, descriptive neutral, and descriptive enthusiastic praise. The results showed clear preferences for two of the five participants, and their respective preferences differed from one another. These results suggest that the assessment procedure may be useful for some participants. Data collection is currently ongoing to test the reinforcing efficacy/function of the participants’ individual praise-type preferences in an auditory visual matching-to-sample task.
 
201. Preliminary Comparison between Two Behavioral Assessment Methods for Children with Autism via Telehealth
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA DETRICK (University of Missouri), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Pei Huang (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The current project is a randomized clinical trial of two functional behavioral assessment procedures in progress across three sites (Iowa, Texas, and Georgia; Lindgren & Wacker, 2015-2019; NIMH R01MH104363). The purpose of the project is to compare the result of functional communication training (FCT) treatments that are based on the results of either a standard functional analysis (SFA) or an abbreviated antecedent assessment (brief assessment of motivation; BAM). The results from the FCT treatments will be used to determine whether a) an abbreviated assessment is sufficient, allowing for rapid treatment implementation, or b) standard, extended FA procedures are necessary to adequately identify function(s) of problem behavior for effective treatment. Participants are young children with autism with severe problem behavior. All assessment and treatment (FCT) procedures are conducted by the child’s parents in their home with coaching from a trained behavior analyst via telehealth. Data will be presented comparing the results obtained with the BAM to those obtained with the SFA. To date, we have data for five participants who completed both assessments. The function(s) identified with the two assessments were an exact match for one participant, a partial match for three participants, and did not match for the remaining participant.
 
202. Effects of Staff Proximity on Disruptive and On-Task Behavior in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES MARAVENTANO (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center), Jenna Budge (Rutgers University), Rachel Davis (Rutgers University), Efrat Kemp (Rutgers University), Jacqueline Smith (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: As school-age students with autism spectrum disorder transition into adult services, resources can diminish significantly. Specifically, lower financial resources can greatly effect staffing ratios which contribute to higher levels of support and supervision. With these lower levels of staff oversight, the ability for staff to ensure effective and consistent clinical services is greatly compromised. The purpose of the present study is to assess the effects of staff proximity on disruptive behavior and on-task behavior for students diagnosed with ASD. Preliminary results suggest a negative correlation between staff proximity and target behavior (on task behavior, disruptive behavior, stereotypical behavior). In other words, the further staff are from the learner, the greater the likelihood of undesirable behavior. After achieving this outcome, intervention options will be examined to enhance the effectiveness of intervention when staff are unable to remain close. Interventions will involve the use of assistive technologies, such audio playing devices and video. Further, implications will be discussed for the importance of fading behavioral intervention plans as children age out of school-based placements.
 
203. Introduction of Demands into Attention and Tangible Contexts of a Multiple Schedule to Treat Escape-maintained Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN PHILLIPS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wendy Strang (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Functional communication training in combination with multiple schedules are commonly used to treat problem behavior. Naturalistic contingencies may be better approximated when alternative activities are embedded into, and demands are gradually introduced at the end of, the extinction interval of the multiple schedule. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of systematically increasing the response requirement for compliance with demands at the end of the extinction interval following the introduction of a multiple schedule to treat problem behavior maintained by both social positive and social negative reinforcement for one participant with severe problem behavior. During the extinction interval, the participant initially had noncontingent access to either low-preference toys or therapist attention until the onset of target demands. Compliance with demands resulted in the onset of the discriminative stimulus (SD) interval during which FCRs resulted in access to a highly preferred tangible item. The number of demands was gradually increased, access to the alternative activities was decreased, and this process continued until demands were presented throughout the extinction interval. Gradual introduction of demands successfully maintained low levels of problem behavior across sessions while fading out the use of alternative activities during the extinction interval of the multiple schedule of reinforcement.
 
204. Exchange Schedules in Token Economies: Second-order Schedule Effects
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY ARGUETA (Florida Institute of Technology; World Evolve, Inc.), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Andre V. Maharaj (Florida Institute of Technology; Florida International University), Chavelys Valle (Florida Institute of Technology; World Evolve, Inc.)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Basic research shows that token-production and token-exchange schedules in token economies interact as second-order schedules (i.e., the token-exchange schedule’s requirements affects responding toward the token-production schedule). This interaction has not been specifically investigated with children in academic settings despite the widespread use of token economies in this context. This study compared the effects of fixed-ratio (FR) and variable-ratio (VR) token-exchange schedules of equal ratios (2, 5, 10) on responding toward an FR 1 token-production schedule with a child diagnosed with Autism in a free-operant arrangement. A concurrent chains assessment was also conducted to assess the participant’s relative preference for FR and VR token-exchange schedule arrangements within the context of discrete trial training. Results showed no difference in response rates and post-reinforcement pauses between the two schedule types, except at the ratio 2 comparisons. However, the concurrent chains assessment revealed an exclusive preference for VR token-exchange schedule in discrete trial training.
 
205. Evaluation of the Conditioned Reinforcing Properties of Tokens
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ANTHONY CONCEPCION (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland Baltimore County), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Paige Talhelm (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Token systems are considered to be one of the most prevalent technologies used to modify behavior (Doll, McLaughlin, & Barreto, 2013). Token systems can be implemented in many different formats, but, the delivery or loss of a token(s) contingent on a response is a staple feature of any system design. The conditioned reinforcing efficacy of tokens have been thoroughly investigated across various parameters in basic and translational studies (cf. Hackenberg, 2009). However, in applied settings the efficacy of tokens is often synonymous to the efficacy of the token system as a whole (e.g., Tarbox, Ghezzi, & Wilson, 2006). Few applied studies have focused on establishing and validating the effectiveness of tokens. The current study aimed to evaluate the reinforcing efficacy of tokens by presenting tokens previously established as conditioned reinforcers in isolation (without back up reinforcement). A reversal design was implemented and results suggested that tokens can maintain conditioned reinforcing efficacy for at least short periods of time when exchange for backup reinforcers are not available.
 
206. The Effects of Signaled Extinction on High-Rate Mands: A Treatment Analysis
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB ASCH (University of Florida), Jennifer N. Haddock (University of Florida), Vivian Eyssallem (University of Florida)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Multiple schedules have been demonstrated effective in developing stimulus control over high-rate appropriate behaviors. Typically, a stimulus is presented during both components of the schedule, but the use of two separate stimuli may not always be necessary or practical in clinical application. Thus, we evaluated the use of a multiple schedule in which a wristband was used to signal the extinction component of a multiple schedule for one subject who displayed high rates of appropriate mands for attention. Using a reversal design, we compared the effects of the extinction condition, during which mands were not reinforced, to a reinforcement condition in which attention was continuously available. We then thinned the schedule by systematically increasing the duration of the extinction component and conducted probes for generalization. In this ongoing analysis, results suggest that our treatment was effective at reducing mands for attention during the extinction component of the multiple schedule. Interobserver agreement have been collected on at least 50% of sessions and mean IOA is greater than 90% to date. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a relatively simple procedure to reduce excessive but appropriate behaviors, which may be useful in clinical practice.
 
207. The Effects of a Social Story Intervention on the Disruptive Behavior of a Young Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
LINA GILIC (St. John's University), John McKenna (UMass Lowell)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The present study examined the effectiveness of a Social Story intervention on the disruptive behaviors of a young child diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. A multiple baseline design across settings was implemented with the use of one Social Story as the independent variable presented by the classroom teacher and related service provider with direct contact to the participant. The Social Story intervention consisted of the students reading the Social Story and answering three comprehension questions directly connected to the Social Story and the target behaviors. A self monitoring system presented prior to the intervention was continued to maintain the student's routine but the system has not altered the target behaviors. Results showed that the use of the Social Story was effective in decreasing the disruptive behaviors 2.8, 3, and 2.4 times compared to baseline levels.
 
208. Review of Social Communication Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder in School Settings
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
FAHAD ALRESHEED (University of Oregon; Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission), Faisal Alnemary (University of California, Los Angeles), James Lee (University of Oregon ), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Poor social communication skills are one of the many barriers that hinder the ability of students with ASD to learn and interact with peers in school settings. Therefore, this systematic literature review evaluates peer-reviewed single-subject research targeting social communication skills for students with ASD in school settings. Sixty-nine (n = 69) studies located in ERIC, PschINFO, and MEDLINE were published from 1995 to 2014 and met the inclusion criteria. The following variables were examined in each study: the number and the characteristics of participants, diagnosis, settings, dependent variables, independent variables, type of single-subject design, documentation of generalization and maintenance, the person delivering the intervention, rigor of the study, and non-overlap indice (Tau-U score). The mean Tau-U across all the studies was 0.76 (range from 0.00 to 1.00). Findings from this review suggest the availability of a wide range of specific interventions (and intervention packages) to improve different social communication skills for students with ASD in school settings. Suggestions for practical implications will be provided and directions for future research are proposed.
 
209. Interim Behavioral Techniques as a Protocol for a "Wait Program" to Teach Children on the Autism Spectrum
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
JANE YIP (Purdue University and Autism Parent Care, LLC), Jane Yip (Purdue University abd Autism Parent Care)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The concept of waiting is often extremely difficult for some children with autism. Often timers, schedules or even counting to a certain number is used, yet it doesn’t appear that the student is quite grasping the concept of waiting. Some of the factors that may influence the aversion to waiting are anxiety, rigidity, and the denial of a preferred activity or item. In this study, we explore the method of applying diversion techniques typically used in clinical setting to help cope with anxiety. Using a combination of DRA and DRI, we conduct single research subject study on 4 children who exhibit maladaptive behaviors when asked to wait. The diversion consists of "Ninja walking" which is walking in slow deliberate steps while counting ones breath, observing the environment while tacting the objects in the room or auditory stimuli in the vicinity, and tacting body sensations. The results indicate that diversion techniques lead to reduced incidence of maladaptive behaviors (incidence of aggression, elopement, and yelling). The implications of interim behavioral instruction are that if a child wait, he or she can generalize the technique to other activities so that better attention span can be developed in an instructional settings.
 
210. Promoting Delay Tolerance Following Functional Communication Training for Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
REBECA TORRES (Bancroft), Sandra F. Kokolis (Bancroft)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Ritualistic behaviors such as arranging and ordering along with deficits in social communication are defining characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Denied and delayed access to engage in such rituals can evoke problem behavior. Previous research utilized contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) to successfully reduce problem behavior and effectively increase wait time in relation to schedule of reinforcement (Ghaemmaghami, Hanley, Jessel, 2016). In the present study a female diagnosed with Autism who engaged in aggressive and disruptive behaviors maintained by access to ritualistic behaviors was assessed for treatment to decrease target behaviors and to extend delay tolerance. A reversal design was used to illustrate the efficacy of functional communication response (FCR) with extinction, in decreasing problem behaviors following a brief functional assessment. Alternative communication response was then taught to mastery using functional communication training (FCT) and reinforcing each request. The implementation of CBPD was replicated using a geometric progression starting at 1 minute to promote tolerance with delays in the schedule of reinforcement when access to ritualistic behavior was not available. The current study supports the literature of CBPD as an effective treatment for reducing problem behavior to zero rates while delayed tolerance increased from 1 minute to 16 minutes.
 
211. Using a Self-Monitoring System in a Social Setting for Children With Autism
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
MARY BETH WELCH (McNeese State University), Megan Cross (McNeese State University)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Self- monitoring and the comparison of one's own behavior to others in social environments plays a significant role in initiating interactions with peers, making friends, and attending to others in a group environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a token board economy on self- management of pro-social behavior of children with autism in a group setting. The study implemented token economies in two social groups divided by skill level. Participants were twelve children diagnosed with autism, ages ranging from 3-years old to 13-years old, receiving therapeutic services as a part of an early intensive behavior intervention program. A reversal (A- baseline, B- token economy) single subject design was used to support the effectiveness of the self-monitoring procedure. The goal of this procedure was to increase positive behavior towards peers and to generalize these behaviors to other social environments. The results showed a clinically significant increase in interactions with peers, a decrease in problem behavior, and an unexpected increase in on-task behavior. In future research, the study will return to baseline and continue the reversal design with the goal of showing the effectiveness of the token economy on self-monitoring behavior.
 
212. The Whole-Body Synchronization Increases Social Interaction Between Adult and Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
SATORU SEKINE (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Synchrony is claimed as a crucial parameter of social interaction (Prepin & Gaussier, 2010) and has served as a dependent measure. Few studies used synchrony as an independent variable for teaching the social interaction (Srinivasan et al., 2016). No research thus far has examined whether synchrony facilitated the development of social skills. In this study, we focused on the teaching of synchrony with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; CA 4;4, DA 1;8) by imitating him during playing on the floor and studied whether synchrony increased the interaction between the child with ASD and the adult. During baseline phase, the experimenter modeled the play with interaction (e.g. chasing, peepbo). During intervention phase, the experimenter walked stepping on the floor in exact timing with the child. During the child and the experimenter walked together, the experimenter sang the childs favorite song and change the rhythm to the walking rhythm. As a result, eye contact, physical touching and the ratio of smiling with eye contact were increased. This study indicated a condition to facilitate the interaction and developed new intervention method for promoting social skills of children with ASD. This work was supported by CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency.
 
213. What is Polyvagal Theory and How Will it Make You Better?
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN C. NEILL (Long Island University - Post), Diane Grzebyk (Long Island University - Post), Lindsay Margaret Miller (Long Island University - Post), Jonathan Singh (Long Island University - Post), Nicole Zaccone (Long Island University - Post)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Stephen Porges (UNC-Chapel Hill) proposed the Polyvagal Theory: a threatening stimulus predisposes mammals to fight or flight and impairs discrimination of social cues; non-threatening social stimuli increase social receptivity and discrimination. My lab conducted a series of experiments based on Polyvagal Theory. Experiment 1, children on the autism spectrum were unable to tolerate dental procedures. Dental technicians were trained to use procedures that decreased the likelihood of fight or flight, and reinforced compliance with positive social cues. Videos will demonstrate dramatic improvement in dental compliance. In experiment 2, we analyzed the amount of time autistic children engaged in appropriate or disruptive behaviors as a function of whether they were working with preferred or non-preferred teachers. Disruptive behavior was higher in the presence of non-preferred teachers, and appropriate behavior was higher in the presence of preferred teachers. Videos will show the style of teacher interaction of preferred teachers was consistent with reinforcement of responses to positive social cues. In the last experiment, we trained college students who were undergoing final exams in a Polyvagal-based relaxation training procedure, which rapidly trained them to lower their heart rates. In concert, these experiments confirm the proof of principle of the Polyvagal Theory in children on the autistic spectrum and in college students. Polyvagal theory effectively suggested ways to decrease fight or flight responding and to increase the probability of socially-receptive responding in a variety of contexts.
 
214. A Quality Review of Augmentative and Alternative Communication to Improve Communication Skills in Adolescents or Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CHING-YI LIAO (Texas A&M University - College Station, TX)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: One of the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is communication impairment. Some individuals with ASD fail to develop adequate speech and language to initiate conventional communication for their daily needs. It is difficult for them to establish and maintain social reciprocity, which limits their opportunities in the community. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is an alternative strategy by using tools or devices to supplement speech for increasing communicative interactions. Previous reviews have investigated interventions to promote social or communicative behaviors for children with ASD who used AAC; however, very limited published studies or reviews have focused on the use of AAC in adolescents or adults with ASD. For adolescents or adults with ASD, there is a need that the quality of the research base for AAC should be evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant the use within these populations. Therefore, this quality review was to use the revision of Council for Exceptional Children (CEC, 2014) research quality indicators to evaluate the evidence base on the use of AAC in adolescents or adults with ASD. Components of AAC, limitations, and implications for practice and future research were discussed.
 
215. Preference of Prompting Strategies to Increase Compliance
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY SHIRLEY (Marcus Autism Center), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Three-step prompting is a strategy utilized to increase compliance with demands and typically consists of a vocal, gestural, and physical prompt (Piazza, Contrucci, Hanley, & Fisher, 1997). This strategy has been successful at promoting compliance (Wilder, Myers, Fischetti, Leon, Nicholson, & Allison, 2012), however when children engage in severe problem behavior (e.g., aggression, disruptive, and self-injurious behaviors), it may become difficult for caregivers to follow through with this procedure. The current study evaluated three prompting strategies in a multi-element design: three-step, vocal, and initial prompting only, with a 14-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Vocal prompting involved verbally stating the demand and repeating the prompt until the child complied. The initial prompt only involved stating a rule at the beginning of session; compliance was not required. Based on compliance, during each condition, a tangible item was delivered. Results indicated all three prompting strategies were successful at increasing compliance and reducing problem behavior. At the conclusion of the assessment, therapists’ preference across prompting strategies was assessed, which indicated a preference for the vocal prompt. This study expands upon previous research comparing alternative prompting strategies and strategies that could be easier for caregivers to implement in a naturalistic environment. References Piazza, C.C., Contrucci, S. A., Hanley, G. P., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Nondirective prompting and non-contingent reinforcement in the treatment of destructive behavior during hygiene routines. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 705-708 Wilder, D. A., Myers, K., Fischetti, A., Leon, Y., Nicholson, K., & Allison, J. (2012). An analysis of modifications to the three-step guided compliance procedure necessary to achieve compliance among preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 121-130.
 
217. Parent-implemented stimulus pairing training using iPad promoted expressive and receptive language in child with ASD
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child with autism acquired vocal imitation, picture naming and listening comprehension through intensive auditory-motor pairing training using Apple iPad. Participant was one boy who was 4 years 1months old (MA: 1year 10months old). We used multiple baseline design across stimulus sets to evaluate the treatment effect. The child received a 15-minute intervention using iPad and picture cards from the parent every day for 6 weeks at home. Six pictures were presented on the screen of the iPad. When the child touch pictures, he heard the name of the picture. In the intervention phase, when the parent presented the iPad to their child, he was able to touch the picture freely. Next, the parent showed the corresponding picture cards and let the child hear the sound of correct name of the card and then elicited to imitate the name of the card to the child. In baseline and probe, the child was assessed the accuracy of vocal imitation and correct percent of naming. The child also received listening comprehension test. The results suggest that visual-auditory stimulus pairing training increase expressive and receptive language development in children with ASD.
 
218. An Analysis of Treatment Options for Challenging Behaviors Maintained by Mand Compliance
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANA RAMIREZ (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Kattie Guerrero (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Daniel Gonzalez (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Jorge Cantu (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Lorie Zamarripa (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Mand compliance is a modified condition within functional analyses that is rarely evaluated in the literature (Bowman, Fisher, Thompson, & Piazza, 1997; Eluri, Andrade, Trevino, & Mahmoud, 2016; O'Connor, Sorensen-Burnworth, Rush, & Eidman, 2003). Treatment in the literature often includes a token system to reduce challenging behavior. The current study is evaluating two children whose challenging behaviors are maintained by mand compliance and alternative treatments were used to determine the effectiveness in reducing challenging behavior maintained by adult compliance with these mands. An extinction only procedure was used with the first participant. The other participant was treated using a DRO procedure. Both treatments worked to reduce challenging behaviors; however, there were some notable side effects to these treatments that may alter the decision to use them. First, instructions seem to be an important part of treatment for these children and prolonged periods of not having an adult comply with mands can result in increased rates of challenging behavior.
 
219. Evaluating the Mutual Engagement of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders in Parent Training Program
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
HAN TIANYI (Keio University), Masayo Koyama (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit deficits in interaction with the other person. However, there are few studies to evaluate the interaction by using sequential measures of ABC(Whalen et al., 2006). By clarifying the functional antecedents, behavior and consequence, the analysis would be useful for parent and staff training. In the present study, we developed a dependent measure and evaluate the change of interactions between a child with ASD and the mother in pre- and post assessment of a parent training program. A boy (CA4;7, DQ44)and his mother participated in this study. The intervention was conducted once a week at the university laboratory for 1 hour, including parent training. At home, the parent took videos during home-based training sessions. We newly developed a dependent measure using ObserverTM (NoldusTM) to evaluate the interaction with a unit of ABC. The results showed the decrease of mothers nonfunctional indications and increase of appropriate behavior (Figure 1). IOA was above 80%. The result suggested the feasibility of a dependent measure to evaluate the child-parent interaction. Future research should be needed to evaluate interaction using the other dependent measures, such as turn taking and spontaneous utterances. This work was supported by CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency.
 
220. Evaluating Visual Attention to Distal Stimuli in Large Space for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
MASAYO KOYAMA (Department of Psychology, Keio University), Satoru Sekine (Keio Univ.), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulties in visual attention. Previous researches suggested that children with ASD often showed difficulty in proximal attention compared to children with typical development(Sasson et al., 2008). However, it is not studied whether children with ASD show visual attention to distal stimuli. In this study, we developed experimental procedure to evaluate the attention to distal stimuli in larger space. Three children with ASD (CA 6;4, 4;7, 4;0, DQ 45, 44, 73) participated in this study. After the child sat, the experimenter presented a stimulus (a picture card) in various positions in the space of the room, and required to tact a name of the card. Stimulus positions systematically changed in the distance from the child to the card (0.50m, 1.25m, 2.00m) and the visual angle (0,45,90,135,180). As a result, all the children showed correct answers at almost all of trials. In this study, we suggested that children with ASD showed appropriate visual attention to distal stimuli. Systematic replication is needed for the children with ASD in lower developmental age. The research was supported by CREST of Japan Science and Technology Agency.
 
221. The Effects of the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior (DRL) With a Response Cost Procedure on Socially Mediated Vocal Stereotypy in an Adolescent Male With ASD
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
NAOMI LOUISE TAYLOR (Tomorrow's Voices Bermuda Autism Early Intervention Centre), Frances Parkes (Tomorrow's Voices Bermuda Autism Early Intervention Centre )
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: This paper examined the effects of the differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL) with a response cost procedure on the instances of vocal stereotypy (VS) emitted by a 7-year-old male participant with a diagnosis of ASD. A Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) was conducted which determined that VS was lowest during Intensive Table Teaching (ITT), and highest away from ITT. The DRL & Response Cost procedure was therefore implemented during ITT to increase his likelihood of success. The participant met the Long-Term Objective for sitting at the table without emitting more than 4 instances of VS in a 5 minute period. Data were also collected on the instances of VS emitted away from the table where there was no direct intervention in place and these showed that there was a significant reduction in VS away from the table as well as during the table sessions.
 
222. Evaluation of Praise as a Conditioned Reinforcer in Triplets With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Samuel Shvarts (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), COURTNEY HANNULA (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Cassie Maureen Vergason (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Shana Fentress (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Aaron Manzer (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with ASD often have difficulty discriminating and being sensitive to social cues and consequences, such as praise. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the reinforcing effects of praise, often considered a generalized conditioned reinforcer, in three 4-year-old triplet boys diagnosed with ASD. In the present study, we tested for traditional conditioned-reinforcement effects by evaluating whether praise would enhance resistance to extinction of a previously learned response. During baseline, two mastered motor imitation responses were reinforced with food or foodand praise. Next, praise followed correct responses for one response topography, whereas extinction was in place for the other response. For two participants, the response followed by praise was relatively more resistant to extinction, but for the other participant responding was undifferentiated. Lastly, a reversal of contingencies was implemented, with praise now following the other response. Thus far, results suggest the purportedly conditioned reinforcing effects of praise are idiosyncratic and may be more effective for a subset of individuals with ASD.
 
223. Teaching Abduction Prevention to Children With Autism: A Clinical Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY BORDELON (Louisiana State University; The Emerge Center), Philip Richard (Louisiana State University), Jane Morton (The Emerge Center), George H. Noell (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder are particularly vulnerable to abduction from strangers. The current study examined the effectiveness of a group teaching method on six children, age 5-6, diagnosed with autism during a summer camp in a clinic setting. Four lure types (simple, incentive, authority, and assistance request) were baselined with confederates unknown to the participants. Participants were then taught a four-part response to abduction lures (Say, "no! and immediately leave the area, find a trusted adult, and tell the adult, "Help, a stranger!"). Skills were taught in a group format using direct instruction, verbal modeling of the skills, and corrective feedback. Teaching sessions included rehearsal of the skills inside and outside of the classroom setting, depending on participant progression. Probes were conducted with confederates of various ethnic and gender backgrounds to determine the generalization of skills to actual strangers. Data showed that group rehearsal with a known teacher inside or outside of the classroom was adequate for many participants to develop the skills necessary to resist abduction from a stranger.
 
224. Evidence-Based Autism Intervention Training for Therapists in Germany
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DAPHNE HARTZHEIM (Louisiana State University), Alex McCurdy (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) are a widely used evidence-based intervention technique for individuals with autism in the United States (US). Unfortunately, these techniques are widely underutilized in Germany due to a lack of knowledge among therapists. For the purpose of this project we created a training sequence for teachers, therapists and therapists in training (i.e. Speech-Language Pathologists, Occupational Therapists, and Special Educators) on autism including an introduction to ABA. The training comprised of diagnostic criteria of autism, basic principles of ABA, such as the three-term contingency of behavior, reinforcement schedules, antecedent interventions, preference assessments, functions of behavior, data collection and analysis, extinction procedures, teaching replacement behaviors and using functional communication training. A total of 50 individuals participated in the training. A pre-training survey was administered with open ended questions regarding autism and ABA. The survey also included basic information about each individual�s level of experience working with children with autism. At the end of the 2-day intensive, 14-hour training another a follow-up survey was conducted. Data analysis of the survey is in progress and results with be presented in the poster. The poster will further include more details content of the training.
 
225. The Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for a Child of School Age With Autism: Raising Hand and Waiting for Allowing Response
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
HUA FENG (National ChangHua University of Education), Yi-chen Hsu (National Changhua University of Education), Wenchu Sun (National Changhua University of Education)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The research purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior- raising hand and waiting for allowing to response, for one child of school age with autism. Participant in this study was an 8 year-old children with autism in preschool. The reason for choosing him as subject was that he did not have the repertoire of raising hand before talking in the class. In other words, he can?t wait to talk before permission. The independent variable introduced in this study was differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, which was implemented to the subject in order to help him learn to raise his hand and waiting for permission before talking in the class. The differential reinforcement of alternative behavior training package includes simulating class environment, discrimination training, providing activity reinforcement and social praise contingency upon the correct response. The contingency following the appropriate behaviors in the class was arranged as to get social praises and play his favorite game with teacher for 1 min. The results suggest that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior training program produced substantial improvements inappropriate behaviors for this participant. In addition, the positive outcomes were sustained during the maintenance and follow-up conditions after differential reinforcement of alternative behavior training was faded out.Follow-up data showed favor maintenance results. The participant's mother and the school teacher expressed that the participant also displayed this alternative behavior at home and in the regular classroom. The results of the study support the notion that the participant indeed benefits from differential reinforcement of alternative behavior to modify his inappropriate behaviors.
 
226. Exploring Variables Related to Improved Student Outcomes: An Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Young Children At Risk for Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIN KASSON (Saint Louis University), Peggy Hammond (United Services for Children), Suzanne Salmo, LCSW (United Services for Children)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: An evidence-based practice for the early treatment of children with developmental delays or developmental disabilities such as Autism Spectrum Disorders is that of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI). Children exposed to such interventions have shown improved outcomes in relation to symptom reduction and skill development relative to students receiving no treatment or a less intensive form of instruction. This study utilizes a quasi-experimental design to compare student outcomes from two EIBI classrooms with varying treatment dosages and supports. Results showed that both classrooms made substantial progress, while students the classroom with greater treatment dosages and supports made more rapid and marked progress. Variables related to student success in both placements are discussed.
 
227. A Review of Evidence-Based Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders in School Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN JAMESON MARTIN (National Autism Center at May Institute), Cynthia M. Anderson (National Autism Center at May Institute)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges and often require effective and intensive support in schools. Although numerous evidence-based interventions exist for children with ASD, research is limited regarding the extent to which such practices are effective in school contexts. In the present study, interventions for children with ASD that meet criteria to be considered evidence-based practice were examined for corresponding research that examined such interventions in public and private school settings. Across 26 evidence-based interventions, 399 peer-reviewed articles were identified that met inclusion criteria. Of the identified articles, only 32% were conducted in school contexts. The analysis also identified interventions that had been testing in schools with greater frequency, and alternatively, interventions that have not been thoroughly tested in school settings and require additional research. Implications for researchers and school-based practitioners are discussed, as it is critical to provide teachers and other professionals who work with students with ASD in school settings with adequate research to inform educational practice.
 
228. Evaluating the Relationship between the PEAK Relational Training System: Transformation Module Pre-Assessment and the Bracken: Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition for Children with Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DANA PALILIUNAS (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Amani Alholail (Southern Illinois University), Leah Verkuylen (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: As research regarding the effectiveness of curricula designed to establish the ability to derive relations for individuals’ with autism spectrum disorders continues to develop, so too does the need for documentation of the psychometrics of these strategies in applied settings. The current experiment evaluated the relationship between established measures of basic concept development, the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition: Receptive and Expressive assessments, and an evaluation of relational abilities, the PEAK Relational Training System: Transformation Pre-Assessment Receptive and Expressive subtests. Results yielded significant positive correlations between participants’ total scores on the combined expressive and receptive assessments, as well as on the expressive and receptive components of each measure. In addition, the results suggested that lower correlations were obtained between the expressive subtest of the PEAK-T pre-assessment and the receptive subtest of the Bracken, as well as the receptive subtest of the PEAK-T pre-assessment and the expressive subtest of the Bracken. Together, the results have implications for the assessment and treatment of language deficits associated with autism.
 
229. Analyzing the Pre-requisite Skills for Children with Autism to Answer Multiple Questions about Visual Stimuli
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA COHRS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kathryn Glodowski (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jake Pagano (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Verbal behavior often requires control by multiple verbal and/or nonverbal stimuli. For example, Michael, Palmer, and Sundberg (2011) describe responding that requires convergent control by both an auditory (e.g., “What color?” vs. “What shape?”) and visual stimulus (e.g., a blue triangle). We sought to teach this skill by identifying component skills that would result in the emergence of responding under convergent control of auditory and visual stimuli. The component skills we selected were based on previous research (e.g., Miguel, Petursdottir, & Carr, 2005; Sundberg & Sundberg, 2011). In Experiment 1, we evaluated the predictive validity of the component skills by assessing whether children who responded correctly to the target intraverbal tact also responded correctly on the component skills. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether (a) children who did not demonstrate the target skill engaged in the component skills and (b) whether the target skill would emerge following teaching of the component skills. Seven children with autism have participated. Preliminary results indicate that children who demonstrate the target skill also demonstrate all component skills. Children who do not demonstrate the target have deficiencies in the component skills. Data on the emergence of the intraverbal tact following teaching of the component skills is ongoing.
 
230. Evaluating the Relationship between the PEAK Direct Training and PEAK Generalization Assessments and Autism Severity
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSE A CEPEDA (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the convergent validity of PEAK’s Direct Training (PEAK-DT) and Generalization (PEAK-G) assessments with a common measure of autism severity provided by the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2/GARS-3). The PEAK assessments are behavior analytic curriculum development tools that have generated peer-reviewed support in application with individuals with autism, and the GARS is a common screening tool used to evaluate the need for further diagnostic testing. Altogether, each of the three assessments were completed with 50 individuals with autism. The results of the present study suggest that there was a strong relationship between participant scores on the PEAK Direct Training assessment and the PEAK Generalization assessment, and that these measures were a strong predictor of autism severity as identified in the GARS when assessments were completed by classroom teachers familiar with the participants. Taken together, the data provide psychometric support for the PEAK Direct Training and Generalization modules, as well as suggest that a directly trained and generalized language repertoire may be predictive of autism severity.
 
231. Defining Behavioral Cusps: Operational Definitions of Early Social Communication Skills in Interventions on Young Children with Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
SARAH GRACE HANSEN (Georgia State University), Amarie Carnett (University of North Texas), Christopher A. Tullis (Georgia State University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Several early social communication skills are theorized to be behavioral cusps for later more complex social behaviors. These skills, such as joint attention, social referencing, and social reciprocity, emerge very early in young children who are typically developing. For children with ASD and other developmental delays, these skills may not emerge naturally and may need specialized interventions. Luckily, early social communication skills are a growing area of research and there is a developing library of potentially effective practices for intervention on these skills. Across these studies, however, there is considerable variability in the terminology, topographies, and categorizations of these skills that can lead to under or over identification of evidence based practices to address these skills. This systematic review of the literature presents 35 single-case intervention studies that target an early social communication skill and highlights the range of definitions of these pivotal skills. Results suggest that there are overlapping definitions of these early social communication skills that may leave specific skills unaddressed. Synthesized definitions are offered as well as opportunities for future research.
 
232. Preliminary Comparison of Response to Early Behavioral Intervention in Siblings of Multiple Births Diagnosed with Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JODIE ANN JUSTICE (Rowan University), Molly Coyle Jouflas (Rowan University ), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the response to treatment of siblings of multiple births diagnosed with autism receiving Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) or Natural Environment Teaching/Verbal Behavior Approach (NET/VBA). Three-year-old fraternal twin girls and four-year-old identical triplet boys each received 48 center-based sessions over 16 weeks during which they were taught language and related skills using an established DTI curriculum or NET/VBA curriculum as part of a larger treatment outcome study. In each DTI and NET/VBA session, data were collected on rates of problem behavior, frequency and independence of manding, and rates of skill acquisition. These single-subject data will be presented to evaluate the changes in each participant’s behavior over the 16-week DTI or VBA treatment. All participants completing this 16-week treatment acquired new skills, increased frequency of manding, and reduced rates of problem behavior; however, two of the triplet boys were reassigned to the other treatment after they were slow to respond to 8 weeks of the initial treatment. Further, one of the fraternal twins experienced an increase in problem behavior after the first 8-week phase of treatment began. Reasons for the divergent results will be discussed and placed in a larger context of implications.
 
233. Meta-Analysis of Mand Skill Teaching of Single-Case Research for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SANGWEON AUM (Eden II Programs)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the instructional strategies in teaching mand skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disability. Through the use of online search engine, PsycINFO, with the source publication name, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and the subject, mand, 39 articles were identified. Among them, 13 articles which met the following criteria were selected for this analysis: 1) single subject research design, 2) autism and/or developmental disability participants, 3) mand as the major dependent variable. To calculate the effect size, percent of non-overlapping data (PND) statistic was calculated. In calculating PND, the first baseline and intervention phase data were used unless the last intervention was the ultimate intervention phase of the study. Also, treatment quality score was calculated for each study based on the presence of the following treatment components in teaching mands: 1) formal establishing operation (or identifying the mand items through a formal preference assessment, 2) tact training for the items used for mand, 3) prompt and/or other teaching strategies for mand, 4) differential reinforcement of mand. For each criterion, one point was given if the treatment had that component. Among the selected 13 studies, adult participants served only in one study whereas children were participants in all other studies. Treatment quality scores of the selected 13 studies ranged from 1 to 4 and effect sizes ranged from 0.46 to 1. Seven studies showed the effect size greater than 0.8, indicating the behavioral teaching strategies were effective in teaching mand skills. However, scatter plot of the treatment quality score and effect size did not show a significant positive score in their correlation. Future needed studies in this area discussed. Effective teaching components of mand skills for individual with autism spectrum disorder are summarized.
 
234. The Use of a Multiple Schedule to Decrease Repetitive Mands
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CHELSEA MARIE ROCK (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Melinda Cole (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe Meyer - Institue), Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, as well as deficits in social communication (APA, 2013). In the current evaluation, Charlie, a 9-year-old male with ASD admitted to a day treatment program for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior, displayed high rates of repetitive or perseverative mands. These repetitive mands directly interfered with his treatment progress and access to social interactions. In addition, this behavior presented challenges for caregivers when they could not provide access to requested stimuli at the rate or times requested, which resulted in problem behavior. In baseline, therapists collected data on the frequency of mands per six-hour appointment and access to preferred stimuli was provided on a variable interval schedule to approximate access in the natural environment. Next, therapists implemented a multiple schedule treatment consisting of SΔ intervals (red bracelets) in which mands contacted extinction and SD intervals (green bracelets) in which mands resulted in access to the requested reinforcers on the same variable interval schedule as in baseline. Results show a stable decrease in repetitive manding in the presence of the discriminative stimuli and suggest that visual signals may decrease repetitive manding and increase appropriate discriminated language development.
 
235. A Comparison of Antecedent Activities for Increasing Engagement During a Small Group Activity in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Elizabeth Pokorski (Vanderbilt University), ERIN E. BARTON (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University), Abby Taylor (Vanderbilt University), Elisabeth Anna Johnson (Vanderbilt University), Heather Winters (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Jacqueline N. Potter (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Antecedent-based interventions, including sensory integration-based interventions and physical exercise, are regularly used in clinical and educational settings despite the lack of high-quality research documenting their efficacy. This study analyzed the effect of two comparisonswearing headphones and not wearing headphones, and the provision of three structured antecedent activities (sensory based interventions, gross motor activities, and seated work)on the level of engagement, vocal stereotypy, and motor stereotypy in a young child with ASD during a small group setting immediately following each intervention. Two alternating-treatment designs were used to compare variables across conditions (headphones, antecedent intervention); comparisons were conducted concurrently, at different times of the day, across a six-week period. Results indicate that resource intensive sensory-based interventions do not result in higher levels of engagement or decreased vocal or motor stereotypy when compared to structured physical activities or typical classroom conditions. This study contributes to the increasing evidence against the use sensory integration based interventions and has important implications for designing educational programs for students with autism spectrum disorders.
 

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