Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Event Details

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Poster Session #68
EDC Poster Session
Friday, September 2, 2022
5:45 PM–7:45 PM
Ground Level; Forum
22. The Experiences, Practices, and Needs of General Education Teachers Including Autistic Students in High-Poverty Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MELISSA MELLO (University of California Davis)
Abstract: Inclusion of autistic students in general education classrooms is becoming increasingly common, however, teachers consistently report a lack of adequate knowledge, training, and resources to effectively educate these students. These barriers are compounded in districts where large percentages of students live in poverty, as the quality of instruction tends to be lower, teachers tend to be less qualified, and inclusion of autistic students in general education is often more common. Examining general education teachers’ perceptions and experiences with inclusion and their use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for autistic students is important for providing targeted training and support that fits the context and needs of teachers working in high-poverty schools.
23. To Change or Not to Change: That is the Question. An Analysis of the First Instinct Fallacy and Rule-Governed Behavior on Answering Changing During Multiple Choice Practice Examinations
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: As recent Masters in Applied Behavior Analysis graduates start the process of studying for the Board-Certified Behavior Analysts exam, decisions regarding study habits need to be made. These decisions are often made on the advice from study-preparation companies and may include that the individual should stick with their “first-instinct” and not change their answers on multiple-choice exams. Yet, previous research has shown the opposite is true and demonstrated the benefits of answer changing, although often unknown to examinees. This study replicated Ouyang et al., 2019 within behavior analysis to evaluate if the first-instinct fallacy “rule” impacted answer changing behavior during practice exams. Participants, all whom had a master’s in applied behavior analysis, were provided with two 50-question practice exams. Before starting exam two, the benefits of answer changing and the first-instinct fallacy rule was told to all participants to compare the rate of answer-changing between exams. Initial data indicates the first-instinct fallacy “rule” did increase the rate of answer changing for 6 of 8 participants, but minimal increases in the number of correct answers were observed. Of the participants whom’ s answering changing did increase, more answers were changed from incorrect to correct, thus indicating an initial positive behavior-change effect.
24. Teacher-Directed Self-Regulated Strategy Development Implementation: Addressing the Reading Comprehension Needs of Youth in Secure Juvenile Facilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARA SANDERS (University of Alabama), Kristine Jolivette (University of Alabama), Lauren Rollins (University of West Georgia)
Abstract: Youth served in juvenile justice facilities frequently display significant deficits in the ability to comprehend written text, a necessary skill for success in school and beyond as well as comorbid behavior excesses and/or deficits. To provide youth with the education programming necessary for literacy growth, it is critical that facilities identify and implement high-quality evidence-based practices. Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) is one evidence-based approach to teach reading comprehension strategies by combining strategy instruction with self-regulation instruction. This presentation will present the results of a underpowered randomized control trial conducted in a secure juvenile justice facility serving adjudicated adolescents males. The treatment group was taught the TRAP reading comprehension strategy using the SRSD approach, while the control group received regular classroom instruction. The treatment group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in reading comprehension probes. Additionally, four youth participated in a focus group, sharing their views on reading comprehension instruction, the TRAP strategy, and motivation and self-efficacy related to reading. Implications for future research in these facilities, as well as recommendations for practitioners will be discussed with an emphasis on the interconnectedness between the self-regulation skill acquisition, academic growth, and behavioral principals.
25. Implementation of a University-Wide Preference Assessment to Increase First-Year Student Retention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Morris Council (The University of West Georgia), RACHEL SEAMAN (University of West Georgia)
Abstract: Although preference assessments are widely researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of preference assessments outside of a k-12 or clinic-based environment. In the current study, we developed a novel forced-choice preference assessment that examined preferences for four categories (i.e., material, experience, social, attention) with each category having two sub-categories. The preference assessment is the initial phase of a larger campus-wide token economy system developed to increase student engagement and retention. This poster will discuss the results of a novel university-wide preference assessment that was used to inform programming for University student retention efforts. Results will be presented in terms of how race/ethnicity, sex, and first-generation variables influence preference among first generation students. Implications for assessment design, analysis, and distribution will be discussed.
26. A Modified SAFMEDS (Say, All, Fast, Minute, Every Day, Shuffled) Procedure for French Vocabulary Acquisition
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LEE (University of Detroit Mercy), Tyra Burley (University of Detroit Mercy), Aaron Frontiera (University of Detroit Mercy)
Abstract: SAFMEDS stands for, “Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled” and it is a fluency-based intervention typically involving the use of flashcards. Many variations of the SAFMEDS procedure have been compared, and the procedure has previously been successful when used with English-speaking adults seeking to learn foreign language (Chinese; Russian) vocabulary. The current study was designed to extend prior studies by examining whether a modified SAFMEDS procedure can be effective in increasing vocabulary fluency in a foreign language (French) with high-achieving (i.e. gifted and talented), English-speaking students. Participants included two boys receiving accelerated elementary school programming. A changing criterion design was used to measure the effects of providing “practice” SAFMEDS 1-minute timings with error correction on vocabulary acquisition. Data collection is in initial phases and final results will be presented. Results from this study will help educators make decisions about what types of interventions to use with high-performing students and students seeking to learn additional languages other than English. Limitations, social validity, implications for educators, and additional resources will be provided.

Program to Reinforce Paraphrase in University Students

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA LUISA CEPEDA ISLAS ISLAS (FES Iztacala UNAM), Hortensia Hickman (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), J.Jesus Becerra (FES Iztacala UNAM), David Ruiz (FES Iztacala UNAM)

Paraphrasing is a skill that which is fundamental in academic training, especially at a university level. This ability is considered as a study strategy. Starting from the fact that paraphrasing is a skill that can be trained, the objective of the present study is to evaluate a program to reinforce this skill. The program was developed through the Moodle platform, consisting of the phases of: Welcome, Instructions, Pretest, Intervention and Posttest and Acknowledgment. Both in the pretest and the posttest, an instrument was presented to evaluate with closed response options. In the Intervention phase, a phrase was shown to the participant and they had to press a key to continue, later the same phrase and three response options were shown, which alluded to different types of paraphrasing. The phrases could be from methodology, biology or psychology. Once the student selected the phrase, he could earn 1 or 5 points depending on the type of paraphrase. The program recorded both the selection and the latency in the responses. A non-probabilistic sample was used, made up of 90 students belonging to the online Psychology career. The design was Pretest-Posttest. The results were analyzed descriptively, the main measure was the selection by the participants of the type of paraphrase and the correct answers. The main finding is correct execution in training. A change was also observed in the selection of paraphrases, from basic to complex. It is concluded that the educational platform is a good tool for learning the skill of paraphrasing.


Student Opinion of Teacher Performance During the Curricular Transition Stage

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HORTENSIA HICKMAN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM), Martha Alarcón (FES-Iztacala, UNAM), Maria Bautista (FES-Iztacala, UNAM)

Teacher training and performance are closely linked in the fulfillment of the curricular objectives set out in the proposed curriculum, so it is necessary to consider their influence during its implementation, however, there is almost no research in this regard. Objective: to evaluate the opinion of the students regarding the teaching practice in the two curricula (1976 and 2015), of the psychology career of a public university at the time when both plans were in force. Method: The COPDE (Student Opinion Questionnaire on Teaching Practice ) was applied in its digital version in three different academic periods. In total, 2651 were collected questionnaires. Results: Almost 50% of the teaching staff were evaluated. A factorial analysis of variance measuring the individual and joint effect of curricula (1976 and 2015) and application periods (2018-1, 2018-2 and 2019-2), on the dependent variable was performed. The data indicate significant interaction effects between the plan and the application of 2018-1 and 2018-2 (Sig. = 0.004) and between the plan and the application of 2018-1 and 2019 (Sig. = 0.001). Discussion: The performance evaluation allowed us to assess the impact of the process transition between both plans.


Workshop Evaluation: Introduction Into Positive Behavior Support

Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
JUSTÝNA DOČKALOVÁ (Palacky University Olomouc), Radka Hájková (Palacky University Olomouc), Lucie Jeníčková (Palacky University Olomouc)

In this contribution, we aim to talk about Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in the context of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). We will introduce the workshop and its content, show examples of activities, and used tools for an assessment, and we will discuss the evaluation of the workshop. The evaluation will focus on the competencies of our participants, particularly problem definition, and functional behavioral assessment. Next, we will talk about the need for continual education in teachers and non-teaching employees in the field of PBS. We will start a discussion on possible next steps, focus on our future education and upcoming research.

31. Increasing On-Task Behavior Using I-Connect at Home for an Individual with Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN AUGUSTINE (Purdue University), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Megan A. Boyle (Upstate Cerebral Palsy), Rose A. Mason (Purdue University), Taylor Janota (Emergent Learning Center), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Abstract: This study assessed the effects of the research-based strategy, I-Connect self-monitoring application, with an individual diagnosed with autism to self-monitor attention during homework activities. I-Connect is an electronic self-monitoring application that was utilized with an electronic device to monitor academic engagement (on- and off-task behavior) behavior in the home setting to complete academic homework assignments. The participant was taught to discriminate between operationalized on- and off-task behavior prior to the introduction of the self-monitoring application. Data were collected using direct observation of academic engagement and permanent product for academic accuracy. A single-subject withdrawal design (Kazdin, 2011) with a generalization phase was utilized to assess the effects of the I-Connect application on academic engagement and academic accuracy for one participant with autism. After a session, the participant was provided with self-determined reinforcers if they were to meet their self-monitoring goal. Both academic engagement and academic accuracy increased at the conclusion of the study.

An Investigation of Primary Teachers' Causal Perspectives of Disruptive Behaviour in Irish Classrooms

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHAUNA DIFFLEY (National University of Ireland Galway), Aoife McTiernan (National University of Ireland, Galway)

The present study explored mainstream primary teachers, teaching in the Republic of Ireland, causal perspectives of disruptive behaviour in the classroom. It also explored teacher stress, self-efficacy, and years of experience and how these variables relate to causal perspectives of disruptive behaviour. A total of 109 mainstream primary teachers rated the likelihood of four causes (1. parental, family, home factors, 2. access to something in the immediate environment, 3. student difficulty, 4. developmental phase) to be the cause of nine disruptive classroom behaviours. The results found that teachers in the Irish primary education system believed that student difficulty such as “student disability, student personality, health issues or emotional issues” was the most likely cause of disruptive behaviour and developmental phase was the least likely cause of the disruptive behaviour. There were no significant differences on stress, self-efficacy and years of experience between teachers when they were grouped by primary causal perspective. There were however significant relationships between causal perspectives and self-efficacy and causal perspectives and years’ experience. These relationships, implications for practice and future research will be discussed.


Reading Instruction Using Direct Instruction and Fluency Building in a Typical Icelandic Classroom in 1st and 2nd grade

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HARPA ÓSKARSDÓTTIR (University of Iceland), Zuilma Gabriela Sigurdardottir (University of Iceland)

Direct Instruction (DI) is an evidence-based and empirically tested teaching method that has been found to be very effective in English-speaking countries. DI has been especially effective when combined with fluency building methods. These methods are not generally in use in Iceland although dozens of single-case experiments have indicated that they are very effective when psychology students have used the methods with special ed students. In this project, a group comparison was undertaken to study the effects of reading instruction with DI and fluency building by trained teachers on reading performance of students in 1st and 2nd grade in a traditional classroom. Participants were in total 72 students in 1st grade and 75 students in 2nd grade in two comparable elementary schools in Iceland, one had the experimental group, the other school had the comparison group. Performance in reading was evaluated and comparisons were made within the experimental and comparison groups at the beginning and end of each school year and between the experimental and comparison groups. Results show that students in the experimental groups showed more progress than students in the comparison groups and scored higher on 10 of the 11 variables tested at the end of the study.

34. Innovative Online Training for Special Education Preservice Teachers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (Kinneret Academic College; David Yellin Academic College), Hagit Inbar-Furst (David Yellin Academic College), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: Preservice special education teachers require high-quality training and field experiences to successfully serve students with disabilities. The COVID-19 pandemic which interrupted field experiences and advances in educational technologies led to the development of innovations in the preparation of special education teachers (Ayvazo et al., 2021; Inbar-Furst et al., accepted). One example is the use of online training modules that could supplement traditional training to master evidence-based behavioral teaching strategies (Meadan et al., 2020, Ayvazo et al., 2020). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of online training modules designed to teach caregivers strategies that promote social-communication skills of children with disabilities on nine preservice special education teachers’ (a) knowledge of the targeted teaching strategies, (b) confidence level, and (c) competence in applying the strategies. Data were collected using (a) knowledge and confidence questions, (b) analyses of video vignettes, and (c) recording of video applications. Findings show an increase in knowledge after the online training, an increase in self-reported confidence level, and improvement in applying the targeted strategies. Overall, the innovative online training was found to be effective in all measured dimensions.
35. Analysis of Practical Readiness of a Teaching Assistant in the Czech Republic
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
JUSTÝNA DOČKALOVÁ (Palacký University Olomouc), Radka Hájková (Palacký University Olomouc), Lucie Jeníčková (Palacký University Olomouc), Jana Kvintová (Palacký University Olomouc)
Abstract: The number of teaching assistants is growing in the Czech Republic, there were a total of 5,951 teaching assistants in the Czech education system in the school year 2011/2012, later, this number increased to 21,039 teaching assistants in the school year 2018/2019. This profession requires certain personal prerequisites, quality education and put it into practice. Education is one of the most discussed area, because this profession can be performed by people with different types of education in the Czech Republic. However, they must always have an education in the field of Pedagogy (at least a course as a teaching assistant). The aim of the study was to analyze the practical readiness of the teaching assistant from the point of view of applied behavioral analysis. We were inspired by the task list of a behavioral technician to examine their practical readiness. The results show that their readiness is not sufficient. Specific recommendations for better practical readiness for the profession of teaching assistant in the Czech Republic are also mentioned.
36. The Impact of Adaptive Leadership on Burnout in Special Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
BRITT W. SIMS (Integrated Behavior Solutions, Inc.), Robin Lock (Texas Tech University), Renee Matos (Uniformed Services University; San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium)
Abstract: Occupational burnout among special education teachers results in increased attrition, and lower student and teacher outcomes. While there are many factors influencing burnout, leadership style has not previously been explored. Adaptive leadership is a shared leadership model that engages stakeholders to address complex problems, but is infrequently used in education. Convenience and snowball sampling were used to survey Texas K-12 special education teachers who taught during the COVID-19 pandemic (AY19-20, AY20-21). Sixty-seven eligible respondents completed the online survey that included demographics, Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey (MBI-ES), Adaptive Leadership with Authority Scale (ALAS), and selections from the Pandemic Experiences and Perceptions Survey (PEPS). There was a correlation between occupational burnout and adaptive leadership in one’s supervisor, p=0.001. Supervisors with more perceived adaptive leadership had less attrition (p=0.034), and a correlation between nearly every subsection of the PEPS (p<0.05). In this sample of special education teachers in Texas, adaptive leadership in their direct supervisors was associated with less emotional exhaustion (occupational burnout), reduced attrition, and lower levels scored in most aspects of the PEPS. This has implications for leadership training among school administrators, especially during periods of uncertainty and high stress, which may lead to improved teacher and student outcomes.

Effect of Ludic Didactic Activities on Content Learning in a High School Course

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CATALINA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Andrea Mercado Rodríguez (University of Guadalajara)

Ludic activities can promote learning in different contexts and ages. To evaluate the impact of ludic activities on content learning in a psychology course in high school, a didactic planning centered in ludic activities was implemented. One hundred and fifty-three students (83 women and 70 men) between 15 and 17 years of age from a public high school in the north of the State of Jalisco in Mexico participated. This area is characterized by the presence of an important population of indigenous inhabitants. A quasi-experiment was carried out with 2 experimental groups and 2 control groups. Content learning was evaluated through a traditional exam administered at the beginning and at the end of the course. Results showed high performances in the experimental groups and in a control group. Only the control group where there were more students of indigenous origin did not show high performances in all the test items. It is suggested to evaluate in a subsequent experiment the effect of a didactics focused on ludic activities in school contexts with a high degree of cultural diversity.

38. Evaluation of a Function Informed and Mechanisms Based Framework for Treating Challenging Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH MICHAEL LAMBERT (Vanderbilt University), Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Lee Paranczak (Vanderbilt University), Margaret Jane Macdonald (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Torelli (Western Kentucky University), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Individualization and iterative design are essential components of the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Currently, there are few validated frameworks for engaging in iterative processes. Due to the nature of single-case design, empirically rigorous evaluations of decision-tree processes are particularly prohibitive. Notwithstanding, evaluations are needed. In this paper we first described a function informed and mechanisms based (FIMB) framework for selecting treatment components employed by a university-based practicum experience designed to expose pre-service practitioners to a valid treatment process for challenging behavior. Then, we completed a retrospective controlled consecutive case series across a six-year period in which we conducted a technique analysis to identify which procedures were most commonly selected in the practicum, and the impact of those choices on client outcomes. Results suggest the the model can be highly effective for some, but not all, cases. Implications are discussed.

Teaching with Acoustical Guidance: A Scoping Review

Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
SAMANTHA PAIGE KUNO (Brock University ), Arezu Alami (Brock University), Nicole Bajcar (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)

Teaching with acoustical guidance (TAG) is a behavioural intervention that involved the delivery of an audible stimulus contingent on the performance of the desired response (Stokes et al., 2010), and may also be used in intervention packages, such as TAGteach (TAGteach International, 2004). TAG, TAGteach, or both, have been evaluated in a variety of domains including sports (e.g., Ennett et al., 2020; Harrison & Pyles, 2013; Quinn et al., 2015), gait rehabilitation (Baram & Miller; 2007; Cassamassima et al., 2014), and daily living skills (Wertalik et al., 2018); however, the terms TAG and TAGteach have been used somewhat inconsistently in the literature. The purpose of this poster is to discuss the findings of our scoping review on TAG and TAGteach interventions, and to explicitly differentiate these two interventions. This scoping review followed the systematic methodology guidelines outlined in PRISMA-SR. In doing so, we searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and ERIC to locate peer reviewed articles written in English that incorporated an audible stimulus to provide feedback during skill acquisition. Two independent reviewers screened the articles and extracted and synthesized the data. The results will be discussed within the context of practical implications and suggestions for future research.

40. Effects of Coaching with Performance Feedback on Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Embedded Teaching
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SALIH RAKAP (University of North Carolina Greensboro; Ondokuz Mayis University ), Serife Balikci (University of North Carolina Greensboro )
Abstract: Purpose of this study was to investigate impacts of coaching with performance feedback on early childhood special education pre-service teachers’ implementation of embedded instruction trials within context of naturalistic teaching and examine corollary relationships between teachers’ implementation and child learning outcomes. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three pre-service teachers and three children with autism. Following baseline, each pre-service teacher individually participated in a training session on embedded instruction. The training included a short manual describing embedded instruction, a power point presentation, video examples, case studies, role play, and discussion. During intervention, the coaching sessions lasted 60 minutes/week (45 min observation and 15 min debriefing with performance feedback). The first pre-service teacher entered into intervention phase while others remained in baseline. Once the first pre-service teacher reached criterion (i.e., 80% correct implementation across three consecutive sessions), the second pre-service teacher entered into intervention phase and same procedure were applied until the last pre-service teacher reached criterion. Three sessions of maintenance data were collected from all participants. Results of the present study showed that it took 5-6 coaching sessions/weeks for pre-service teachers to reach criterion level of correct implementation of EMITs. All pre-service teachers maintained levels of correct implementation during follow-up sessions conducted 1 to 14 weeks after the coaching ended. The young children with autism learned target skills though embedded instruction and maintained them over time.
41. Impact of Professional Development on Preschool Teachers' Use of Embedded Teaching Practices in Inclusive Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SALIH RAKAP (University of North Carolina Greensboro), Serife Balikci (University of North Carolina Greensboro), Sinan Kalkan (Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University ), Burak Aydin (Ege University )
Abstract: Number of children with autism receiving developmental and educational services in inclusive preschool classrooms has gradually increased. Main purpose of this study was to investigate relative effectiveness of two professional development programs (Workshops only and Workshops + Practice-Based Coaching) in increasing preschool teachers’ frequent and accurate use of embedded teaching practices while working with children with autism. The study employed a randomized controlled trial with a total of 36 teachers and 36 children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Thirty-six teachers were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: Control Group, Workshops only Group and Workshops+Practice-Based Coaching Group. Findings of the study indicated that teachers in the experimental groups used embedded teaching practices more frequently and correctly than teachers in the control group; teachers who received practice-based coaching support in addition to the workshops demonstrated better performances on implementing embedded teaching practices than teachers who attended workshops only. With respect to child outcomes, children whose teachers were in the Workshops+Practice-Based Coaching group showed larger increases in target behavior performances in comparison the children in Workshops only or Control groups. Findings arediscussed in the light of relevant literature.

ParaImpact: Practice-Based Coaching with Teacher-as-Coach to Improve Fidelity of Implementation of Systematic Instruction for Paraeducators of Students with Autism and Moderate to Severe Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ROSE A. MASON (Purdue University), Amanda M Austin Borosh (Purdue University), John Augustine (Purdue University), Jennifer Smith (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Catharine Lory (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

The educational outcomes and quality of life of students with moderate-to-severe disabilities (MSD) are often dependent on the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs), such as systematic instruction (SI). However, paraeducators are often tasked with serving students with MSD despite prior knowledge or training in instructional strategies. Furthermore, special education teachers are often unprepared to train paraeducators’ to deliver instructional practices with a high degree of fidelity. ParaImpact, a coaching intervention package, seeks to address this need by training teachers to implement practice-based coaching (PBC), a model grounded in adult learning, to provide on-the-job training for paraeducators. Two multiple-baseline designs across skills were conducted with two teacher-paraeducator dyads to determine if there is a functional relation between implementation of ParaImpact and increases in fidelity of implementation of the components of SI for paraeducators. The four SI components included: environmental arrangement, prompting, error correction, and reinforcement. Results of both studies including social validity will be reviewed. Additionally, implications for future research and practice will be discussed.

43. Effect Size Reporting Practices in Single-Case Research: A Content/Trend Analysis of Two Major Special Education Journals
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
SERIFE BALIKCI (University of North Carolina Greensboro)
Abstract: Although the use of effect sizes in in single-case research (SCER) to supplement visual analysis is recommended, there is little known about effect size reporting practices used in studies employing SCER designs. It is not known how often effect sizes are reported in such studies focused on special education and what effect size indexes are used to calculate effect size estimates in these studies. The purpose of this content analysis is to examine the effect size reporting trends in special education research using SCER designs by examining published articles in two major special education journals, the Journal of Special Education (JSE) and Exceptional Children (ExC). Findings suggest that (a) the amount of SCER studies published in two major special education journals increased over the last two decades, (b) the percentage of SCER studies reporting effect size estimates increased over the years, (c) the Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data is the most frequently reported effect size followed by Tau-U, and (d) studies including individuals with autism have increasingly reporting effect size estimates.
44. Learning from Implementation: An Analysis of FBAs & BIPs in the Public Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CAROL ANN DAVIS (University of Washington), Annie McLaughlin (Annie McLaughlin Consulting, LLC), Kathleen Meeker (University of Washington)
Abstract: The 15-component, systematic analysis of 80 public school FBAs & BIPS revealed there is much variability despite the empirical literature, federal mandates (IDEA), and state laws requiring the use of them. Eighty FBA & BIPs were evaluated using the Technical Adequacy Tool for Evaluation (TATE) and indicated several important findings. While it appears functional assessments and behavior plans scored higher when clearly identifying Antecedents, Behavior, and Consequences that lead to the determination of an appropriate function, clearly written hypothesis statements and matching interventions to the function of behavior scored lower indicating a need for continued training and support. Even though behavior analysis has methods for Functional Assessments and Behavior Plans, ensuring quality within schools remains difficult. Behavior Analysts can use the results of this study to lead school district training to ensure behavioral principles within ABA and IDEA requirements. With limited resources in the public schools, Behavior Analysts can increase their value to the school system by being efficient and effective by focusing on components most likely to include errors within a functional assessment and behavior planning.
45. Reading performance of a child with ASD in a program with critical differences of vowels.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LUIZA HÜBNER HÜBNER (BAHC - Behavior Analysis Hübner Center), Martha Costa Hübner (University of São Paulo)
Discussant: Melissa L. Olive (Cultivate Behavioral Health & Education)
Abstract: One of the challenges in teaching a child with ASD to read in Portuguese is his bilingual repertoire (English and Portuguese). The challenges increase when the child is diagnosed with disabilities in immediate memory processes, as well as attention disorder. From a behavior analysis reading program perspective, the main measure should be the simple and conditional discriminations showed by the child to the reading stimulus. The present study presents a discrete trial program applied to a 11 years old child, with the objective to maximize the discrimination among vowels in Portuguese, when isolated and/or in combination with syllables in words or phrases. Minimal verbal units control analysis was applied to identify the correct and incorrect controls in the child repertoire, as well as equivalence classes formed. The teaching procedures included planned minimal differences in words taught and equivalence-based arrangement of stimulus. Baseline results indicated indiscrimination among vowels with same topography but different sounds in both language, also producing errors in understanding. During the intervention, although performance was above 80% of correct reading, simple discrimination procedures (among vowels) and re- introduction of trials were applied to reach 100%. Errorless teaching procedures and performance with precision were prioritized.

What's a Teacher to Do When the Tokens and Backup Reinforcers Are Not Motivating the Targeted Elementary School Students? A Middle School Student Perspective Derived Systematic Assessment Tool

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
EMILY COOK (Bishop Mcdevitt High School, Harrisburg, PA Londonderry School, Harrisburg, PA), Richard Cook (Applied Behavior Medicine Associates of Hershey), Matthew Gross (Shippensburg University)

When a token economy is not appearing to create the desired degree of motivation and reinforcement of desired behaviors for its targeted elementary school students, the 'automatic' response of "Just go get better backup reinforcers!" is often not an option, and arguably, shouldn't be. Other aspects, including individual components, and the strengths of associations between behavior, token, and backup should be assessed systematically. Similarly, the extra effort of assessing for, in a systematic fashion, alternate (especially non-material, no cost) backup reinforcers can identify intangible social and attention based reinforcers that middle school kids might actually really want far more than yet another plastic spider ring or cartoon character pencil sharpener. This poster presents a framework for systematically evaluating the salience of tokens and back up reinforcers currently in use in an elementary school token economy, prompting teacher ideas for additional tokens and reinforcers to add, and improving the impact of both the new and currently used ones. Noteworthy aspects of THIS proposed framework include integration of systematic guidelines for such evaluation, including those in Foxx's fundamental "Increasing Behaviors.." text, the "Components, Connections, Consequences, and Context" model, as well as the fundamental "Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence" 3 part contingency, Donabedian's "Structure-Process-Outcome" model, and behavioral analysis modifications of Haddon's Injury Control Strategies and Matrix. Additionally, and very importantly, this rubric is powered by its grounding in and development by the perspectives of the middle school student first author.




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