Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Event Details


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Poster Session #76
AUT Poster Session
Friday, September 2, 2022
5:45 PM–7:45 PM
Ground Level; Forum
98.

An Evaluation of Reinforcer Magnitude and Echoic Prompts on Vocal Requesting of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEM MUHARIB (Texas State university ), Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have communication support needs and many rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to communicate. Previous research suggests that AAC use does not preclude the acquisition of spoken language and, in some cases, may facilitate improvements in spoken communication in children with ASD. This study systematically applied echoic prompting and manipulated reinforcer magnitude in an effort to increase the spoken requests of three children with ASD ages 10–12 years who used iPad-based Speech Generating Devices (SGD). The spoken language (vocal requests) of all three participants increased in frequency and one participant began using spoken language exclusively, even when the SGD was an option. In this poster, we will present the results and discuss the implications for practitioners and provide directions for future research.

 
99.

Increasing Play and Decreasing Stereotypy in Children With Autism on a Playground Using a Lag Schedule of Reinforcement

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEM MUHARIB (Texas State university )
Abstract:

Play is critical for healthy development of children (Lifter, Foster-Sanda, Arzmarski, Briesch, & McClure, 2011). Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often do not engage in appropriate play and tend to display stereotypic behaviors (Cunningham & Schreibman, 2008; Lang et al., 2009). In this study, we examined the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement on play and stereotypy of three children with ASD (ages 9 to 12 years old) on a playground during recess in a summer camp. During intervention, children were reminded to engage in a variety of play behaviors and received praise that emphasized change in play behavior. All children remained in a Lag 1 schedule throughout intervention. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, the results indicated an increase of the frequency and variability of appropriate play using the playground equipment and a concurrent decrease of stereotypy of all three children. However, no increases of opportunities for social interaction between the participants and their peers were observed which warrants further research. We will discuss the results and provide recommendations for future research and practice.

 
100.

Using Behavioral Skills Training to Improve in the Graduation and Persistence Among College Students With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALI K. MAHAMAT (Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Abstract:

Despite inclusion efforts in higher education in recent years a growing commitment to educational equity among historically underserved students is required. There is limited support for persistence and graduation of college students with learning disability. These groups of students come from a diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds such as historically Black, Latinx and other subgroups that identify as non-white. Herbert et. al (2014) suggested that learning disability such Autism as one group that should be supported. A more systematic, culturally sensitive approach is essential to connect the educational gaps. There is limited research on successful interventions for underrepresented college students with Autism. Behavior Skills Training (BST) is a method to teach students, staff, parents, and anyone else you are teaching a new skill. BST as “a procedure consisting of instruction, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback that is used to teach new behaviors or skills” (2004, p. 558). This Project utilized a workshop training using behavior skills training, modeling, rehearsing, feedback to teach college students with disability selected skills including time management, self-advocacy, job interview skills and other daily living. Early data suggest that there’s a significant difference in the success of students early in the semester, compared to past graduations rates. 5 out of 8 students showed an increase of overall GPA. 3 students reported increased in social skills. Although this project is currently underway, promising significant outcomes are anticipated.

 
101. Reducing Problem Behavior in Autistic Children by Implementing a Relaxation Exercise Intervention at the Onset of Precursor Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jessica Padover (Pepperdine Graduate School of Education and Psychology), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University), CATHERINE LUGAR (Claremont Graduate University), Katherine Emery (Scripps College), Brianna Waterbury (Claremont Graduate University ), Jaime Diaz (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract: Severe problem behaviors are highly prevalent in autistic children (Schreibman, 2005). Relaxation exercises have been successful at decreasing problem behaviors (Charlop & Kelso, 1997; Loomis, 2013) but using such procedures with precursor behaviors has not been explored. Research demonstrates treating precursor behaviors, or mild problem behaviors that precede those that are more severe, may be effective in reducing severe problem behaviors (Dracolby & Smith, 2012). The present study used a multiple baseline design across four autistic children (aged 7-11 years) to assess the efficacy of a relaxation intervention on reducing precursor and problem behavior. During an observational functional analysis, researchers identified precursor behaviors and antecedents of problem behaviors. In baseline, participants worked on their typical therapeutic tasks. If problem behaviors occurred, researchers implemented the participant’s behavior plan. During separate relaxation training sessions, children were taught deep breathing relaxation exercises. Following this relaxation training, researchers cued relaxation exercises when precursor behaviors occurred during the children’s typical therapy sessions. Frequency of precursor, problem, and on-task behavior were recorded. Results indicated that problem behaviors decreased for all participants following intervention. Precursor behaviors decreased and on-task behaviors increased for 3 of 4 participants. Results suggest future research is needed on precursor behavior.
 
102.

Video Self-Modeling and Prosocial Behavior among Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Nisveta Velic (Walden University), STEVEN G. LITTLE (Walden University), Angeleque Akin-Little (Walden University)
Abstract:

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children has significantly increased since it was first identified. To address this increase, many behaviorally-based treatments have emerged, including video self-modeling (VSM). VSM has demonstrated efficacy as an intervention in treating a variety of ASD symptoms, ranging from communication deficits to maladaptive behaviors. VSM uses edited video clips that allow a child to watch him or herself successfully performing the targeted skill. To classify VSM as evidence-based practice, research is generally recognized as the most valid source of evidence for determining efficacy especially when synthesized across multiple, high-quality, experimental studies. This meta-analysis focused on the available literature to determine the efficacy of VSM as an intervention to increase prosocial behaviors in children diagnosed with ASD.. This meta-analysis used Cohen’s d and percentage of nonoverlapping data as metrics of effect size. Cohen’s d results (Intervention d = 1.0; Maintenance d =1.5), supports VSM as an effective intervention for children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD. While analysis of PNDs failed to provide equally robust findings this can be accounted for by variability of baseline data is some studies. Results are discussed in terms of implications for ABA practice.

 
103. Teaching to Respond to Stop Across Languages and Settings Using a Matrix Training Strategy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BELEN INARAJA LOPEZ (Mohamed Bin Rashid operated by the New England Center for Children Abu Dhabi)
Abstract: Elopement is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can lead to fatal accidents. In a parent survey, Anderson et al. (2012) found that children who went missing, due to elopement, were less likely to demonstrate certain skills (e.g., responding to name, providing address or phone number if questioned). Function-based treatments have been found to be effective at treating elopement (e.g., Jessel et al., 2017); however, teaching skills incompatible with elopement (e.g., stopping upon a cue, orienting to the speaker when called, etc.) may prove to be beneficial. This study used a multiple probe design to evaluate the use of a 4x4 matrix to teach a young child with ASD, who spoken English and Arabic, to respond to stop across four locations (classroom, hallway, cafeteria, library) using four instructions provided in English and Arabic (stop, hold on, waggif, terayya). After direct training of four targets, the participant acquired the remaining 12 targets without explicit instruction, and skills were maintained at 4- and 7-week probes (mean interobserver agreement was 96%). Results of the current study provide preliminary evidence that matrix training may be useful to teach safety skills efficiently.
 
104.

CANCELLED: Comparing the Effectiveness of Group Discrete Trial Training to Individualized Discrete Trial Training

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLINE DUCLAUX (McNeese State University, GulfSouth Autism Center), Garet S. Edwards (GulfSouth Autism Center)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to expand current literature by comparing the effectiveness of discrete trial training to individualized trial training for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers taught 12 different target skills. Half of the skills were randomly assigned to individualized teaching and the other half were randomly assigned to group teaching. The dependent variable of interest includes the participants’ percent correct of skills post-teaching. The experimental design that was used for this study was a multiple baseline design. Results from this study vary from participant to participant.

 
105.

Promote Self-Control in A 12-Year-Old Boy With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLA CEFALO (Data Driven ABA), Francesca Siciliano (Aliter - Cooperativa Sociale)
Abstract:

Self-control occurs when it is chosen a larger delayed reinforcer instead of a smaller immediate one. Individuals who exhibit low self-control are commonly referred to as “impulsive” and are at increased risk for behavioural problems (e.g.: poor academic performance; addiction; excessive risk-taking; etc.). Concurrent schedules force the “impulsive” person to allocate a disproportionate number of responses to the smaller reinforcer immediately delivered. In this study we conducted a conventional delay tolerance assessment to evaluate: waiting time; magnitude sensitivity; sensitivity to delay; and impulsivity assessment. We then applied an intervention based on: rule, forced choice, concurrent activities, delay fading. The participant is a 12-year-old boy with autism, he follows an ABA treatment of 15 hours a week in a therapy center. In the baseline, the participant always chose the smaller immediate reinforcer and showed a waiting time of 0 seconds; after training he started choosing the larger delayed reinforcer and in 22 days, he reached a waiting time of 85 seconds. We used a changing criterion design to show internal validity.

 
106.

CANCELLED: Effects of Reinforcing Other Behavioral Differentiation on Incontinence Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder With Severe Behavioral Disorders

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MINAMI KATO (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of other behavioral differentiation reinforcement procedures for inappropriate defecation in a target child with ASD for behavioral problems. The participating child is a 17-year-old girl attending a high school implementation facility for third-year students of an integrated elementary, middle, and high school special needs school; she was diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder at the age of 3 years and 9 months. Participant's behavior of incontinence, which is inappropriate defecation while clothed in a non-toilet area, was defined as the target behavior. In the intervention, other behavioral differentiation reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcers were presented when incontinence behavior did not occur for 30 minutes. As a result, while the frequency of incontinence increased at baseline, the frequency of incontinence decreased during the intervention. Even after returning to baseline, the frequency of incontinence remained reduced. Based on the results, a discussion of the effects of reinforcing other behavioral differentiation and the balance between staff burden and effectiveness is discussed.

 
107.

Social Skills and Autism: A Telehealth Service to Improve Conversation Skills in Adults With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GIULIA FERRAZZI (AARBA), Alessia Mantovani (AARBA), Alessandro Rebuttini (AARBA), Giada Cavazza (AARBA), Martina Rossetti (AARBA)
Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder shows deficit in social skills (SINPIA, 2011). Barale et al (2003) argue that more than 90% of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder remain with those deficit all life long. The aim of this studies is to improve social reciprocity evaluating a treatments to improve the quality of life of children with autism. Recent evidence (Jonsson et al., 2019; Otero et al., 2015) validates Social Skills Training as an effective treatment for social skills. However, the lack of literature supporting this training persists only in children and teenagers (Hotton & Coles, 2016). This study involves four people with autism aged between 19 and 27, who attend an Italian Social Promotion Association called "Il Tortellante”. We evaluated their conversation skills acquired through an online Social Skills Training. The data analysis shows a significant statistically improvement in interpersonal skills. Social and Communication skills improved in both subjects of the treatment couple. The obtained results validate the use of Social Skills Training with young adults with autism. Telehealth service, used to support the entire procedural package, produced results that are comparable to in-presence training.

 
108.

Evaluating Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior With Asymmetrical Magnitude of Reinforcement

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LINDSEY M HRONEK (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a widely recognized reinforcement schedule used in behavior analytic procedures aimed at decreasing challenging behavior. DRO commonly includes a programmed reinforcer delivered on an interval-based schedule dependent on the omission of a target behavior, and the reinforcer is withheld following the occurrence of the target behavior (i.e., extinction). Although interventions employing DRO can be an effective, procedures that include extinction can, at times, be impractical or potentially lead to undesirable side effects. A DRO schedule can be implemented without extinction, but previous research has shown limited utility of this tactic. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate an asymmetrical DRO arrangement in which meeting the omission requirement resulted in a greater magnitude of reinforcement than the target behavior that continued to produce a lesser magnitude reinforcer. We examined DRO with and without asymmetrical magnitude of reinforcement for the omission and emission of the target response in a human-operant arrangement with nine adult college students. None of the participant’s exhibited a greater reduction in responding reliably during the higher magnitude DRO condition in comparison to the equal magnitude DRO condition.

 
109.

The Effect of Discrete Trial Training Combined With Fading, Shaping, and Chaining on Acquisition of Social Communicative Skills of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YOUNGHEE KIM (Korean Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis), Eunhee Paik (Kongju National Univ.), Joon Pyo Hong (Chung-Ang University, Seoul)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Discrete-Trial Training (DTT) combined with prompt-fading, shaping, and chaining procedures on acquisition of social communicative skills of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Four participants with previous diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) were selected from the list of children receiving services from the Korean Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (KIABA). Target behaviors of this study were: ? eye contact when his name is called, ? gaze shift following simple direction, such as "look here" or "look there", ? pointing the item related when the usage or function is explained, ? imitating vowels "Ah, Eoh, Oh, Uh, Eeh", ? telling a story after arranging a set of three serial picture cards in order. According to the ME book written by Lovaas (1981), the first three targets were assigned to early language, and remaining two targets were assigned to intermediate and advanced language respectively. Five DTT programs were developed to teach each of the target behaviors on the basis of prompt-fading, shaping, and chaining procedures, and tested the effectiveness through the experimental intervention. The multiple-probe design across training steps was conducted with 4 participants receiving discrete trial training (DTT). The results showed that all of the five discrete trial training (DTT) programs designed on the basis of prompt fading, shaping, and chaining procedures were highly effective to teach social communication skills to children with ASD and PDD. Furthermore, the maintaining effects over relatively short period of time were observed. For the long lasting effects, the author suggested that future research on participation of parent and significant others should be conducted by teaching them how to implement the discrete-trial training programs.

 
110.

The Effects of Individualized Positive Behavior Support on Challenging and Alterative Behavior of a Middle School Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Special School

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EUNHEE PAIK (Kongju National Univ.), Gyeshin Park (Korean Nazarene Univ.), Surnhee Lee (Kongju National University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an individualized positive behavior support on challenging behavior(self-injurious/aggressive behaviors and transition refusal behaviors) and alterative requesting and transition-related obedient behaviors of a middle school student with autism spectrum disorder in South Korea. The subject of this study was a student with autism spectrum disorder in 9th grade who was enrolled in a special school in South Korea. The individualized positive behavior support intervention was implemented utilizing multiple baseline design across behaviors. The collected data were analyzed to examine the effects of PBS intervention through visual analysis(the mean and range of behavioral performence, the trends of data using the split-middle line and percentage of non-overlapping data points; PND). The results of this study were as follows: First, individualized positive behavior support was effective reducing the self-injurious/aggressive behaviors and transition refusal behaviors of the target student. Second, the individualized positive behavior support was effective increasing the requesting and transition-related obedient behaviors. The results of the study were discussed in terms of PBS intervention based on functional behavior analysis, assessment and multi-element intervention strategies.

 
111.

Stimulus Control in Applied Work With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder from the Signaling and the Strengthening Perspective

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
ALEKSANDRA WOOD (University of Agder), Carsta Simon (University of Agder, Norway)
Abstract:

Experimentally and theoretically oriented behaviour analysts have predominantly debated the usefulness of the 'response strength' concept. We analysed applied studies to open the discussion on the usefulness of 'response strength' versus an alternative view on understanding how the past controls current behaviour in applied contexts. This review examined five studies that focused on evaluating an intervention using stimulus control Applied Behavioural Analysis-based techniques to teach skills to children with Autism. The review aims to understand if behaviour change in applied studies is most straightforwardly understood as driven by the most recent past events or by likely future events extrapolated from more extended past patterns of events. The former is the basis of the concept of response strength. In the latter view, behaviour is exhaustively accounted for by identifying an extended pattern of events in the environment, which signals to the organism which behaviour will most likely produce a reinforcer. The findings of each study are analysed separately from both the signalling and the strengthening perspective. The results suggest that the signalling view provides a more comprehensive understanding of behaviour modification interventions in children with Autism. Implications for future research are also discussed

 
112.

Evaluation of a Telehealth Coaching Program for Families of Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE GEROW (Baylor University), Kristina McGinnis (Baylor University), Marie Kirkpatrick (University of Texas at San Antonio ), Tracey Sulak (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Stephanie Fritz (Baylor University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience skill deficits that can impede independent living, social interactions, and employment. Caregiver-implemented interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) lead to improvements in targeted skills. The purpose of this study was to expand on current research that evaluated the efficacy of a caregiver training program, delivered via telehealth technology. A sample of 30 children with ASD and their caregivers (e.g., parents, grandparents) participated in all phases of the study. The effect sizes based on time series data indicated large or very large improvement for more than half of the goals addressed. Caregivers typically implemented the program with higher than 90% fidelity on average, indicating the coaching resulted in caregivers’ accurate implementation of the interventions. Caregivers reported high levels of acceptability for the telehealth coaching model. These results, along with the results of previous studies, provide preliminary support for the feasibility and social validity of using telehealth to provide ABA services.

 
113. Using a Reversal Design to Assess the Effectiveness of an Electronic Daily Behavior Report Card
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN SCOT RIDEN (James Madison University), Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract: An ABAB reversal design was utilized to examine the effects of an electronic daily behavior report card on non-compliant, off-task, and disruptive classroom behaviors of a 16-year-old with autism spectrum disorder and a 17-year-old with an intellectual disability. In addition to visual analysis procedures, effect sizes (i.e., Tau-U) were calculated. The research questions were: (1) What are the effects of electronic daily behavior report cards on participants’ disruptive and challenging classroom behaviors, (2) To what extent do preservice teachers implement electronic daily behavior report cards with fidelity, and (3) Are electronic daily behavior report cards a socially valid intervention? Upon completion of our study, the electronic daily behavior report card was effective in reducing non-compliant, off-task, and disruptive behaviors. We found that preservice special educators can implement a complex behavior intervention to support the outcomes of their learners during the student teaching experience. Additionally, we suggest electronic daily behavior report cards are an acceptable intervention for students with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities.
 
114.

Assessment and Treatment of Ritualistic Behaviors in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GUIDO D'ANGELO (DALLA LUNA - BARI), Federica Ruggeri (I Corrieri dell’Oasi ONLUS, Enna), Simona Schinocca (I Corrieri dell'Oasi ONLUS, Enna)
Abstract:

Autism is often associated with repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, which may include adhering to a sequence to perform tasks and activities, arranging objects in a specific way, persisting in a special interest. In some cases, such behaviors can be a challenging, if blocking the access to the rituals evokes problem behavior. Only a few studies have conducted a functional analysis on this idiosyncratic function of behavior and carried out a treatment consistent with its function. This work involved three autistic children, who emitted problem behaviors maintained by accessing to rituals. A standard and two precursors functional analysis were conducted to identify the function of problem behaviors. The results of the assessment identified that for all three participants, access to the ritual was the main function for problem behaviors. An intervention coherent with behavioral function was implemented. Namely, treatment consisted in functional communication training (i.e., manding for the access to the specific ritualistic behavior) and progressive delay to reinforcement (i.e., postponing reinforcement on the occurrence of the communicative response). The results indicate that this approach can be effective in reducing problem behaviors maintained by access to rituals.

 
115.

Functional Communication Training to Reduce Problem Behaviors of a Young Girl With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
FRANCESCA SICILIANO (Aliter - Cooperativa Sociale), Nicola Cefalo (Data Driven ABA)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most common and effective interventions for the treatment of severe behavioral problems. FCT is a differential reinforcement (DR) procedure in which an individual is taught an alternative response that results in the same reinforcement class identified as maintaining the problem behavior. This study introduced FCT as a procedure to reduce problem behaviors of a 15-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participant started an ABA intervention at the therapy center less than a year ago. The problem behaviors were high in frequency and magnitude. The behaviors consist of self and hetero-aggression and destruction of the environment. In the baseline whenever we asked to return a reinforcer or we interrupted an activity or we proposed a dif-ferent activity rather than the one she asked, she engaged in aggressive behaviors. We selected a recognizable and easy-to-learn functional response (i.e. “I do not want to”) to teach her how to ask appropriately instead of engaging in challenging behaviors. We arranged multiple learning opportuni-ties with prompting, extinction, and reinforcement procedures. The functional response was taught using a direct vocal prompt with prompt fading. After training the participant demonstrates to engage the functional response with mastery, recording a drastic decrease in problem behaviors.

 
116.

Parents' Mental Health and Parenting Outcomes From the Incredible Years for Autism: What Improves Most?

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TINA DU ROCHER SCHUDLICH (Western Washington University)
Abstract:

Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have significantly more stress and depression than parents of children without ASD (Cohrs & Leslie, 2007). Additionally, parenting stress correlates with and exacerbates future child behavior problems (Lecavalier, Leone, & Wiltz, 2006). Although limit setting for parents of children with ASD can reduce parental stress, their limit setting tends to be lower than the population mean (Osborne & Reed, 2010). Involving parents in their child’s ABA program may be one strategy to address these issues. This study examines whether completion of Incredible Years for Autism parent-training program (IYA-P; Webster-Stratton, 2014) improves parenting, parents’ mental health, and child behavior. Fifteen parents of children with ASD (ages 2-10) attended the 12-week IYA-P group, employing video-based discussions and practice. A pre- and post-test within-group design was used. Self-report measures assessed parental depression, stress and parenting skills. The IYA-P assessed children’s behavior. Parents reported improvements in supporting positive child behavior and limit setting, and less problems in parenting (see Figure 1). Parents reported decreased depression but increased parenting stress upon completion of IYP-A (see Figures 2 & 3). Results indicate that IYA-P may be a promising new parent-training program for parents and their children with ASD.

 
118.

Outpatient Treatment for Problem Behavior in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities in Italian Healthcare System

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICCOLÒ USL VARRUCCIU (Public Local Health, Bologna), Guido D'Angelo (DALLA LUNA - BARI), Anna Di Santantonio (Disability and Health Integrated Program, Local Health Unit, Bologna), Giulia Papa (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Sara Del Grosso (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Valentina Agnello (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Maria Teresa Tolu (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Rita Di Sarro (Disability and Health Integrated Program, Local Health Unit, Bologna)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to exam the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment four adolescents with problem behavior in the context of the Italian public healthcare system. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior is well documented in private and publicly funded settings in the United States; however, to our knowledge, there are no studies reporting effective treatments in the Italian healthcare system. Our study included four participants with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities that were referred for services for aggression, crying and self injurious behavior. Parents and caregivers reported that problem behavior interfered with skill acquisition and social interaction.¬ A functional analysis and a corresponding behavioral treatment were carried out for all participants. Functional communication training (FCT) was implemented in one weekly for two participants and two weekly sessions for the third participant. All sessions lasted 90 minutes in duration. Significant outcomes were reported for all participants in terms of reduction of problem behaviors and increase of alternative responses, and for three participants results were generalized to people and settings, differently from the original training conditions. Namely, an 80% or greater reduction in problem behavior was reached for all participants, as well as an increase higher than 80% the functional alternative response, with respect to the baseline level. These findings suggest that an outpatient model is feasible and effective in the Italian public healthcare system. Specific adaptations of functional assessment and treatment in public health system are discussed.

 
119.

Parents' Experiences in Implementing a Community-Based Challenging Behavior Program Among Their Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZAKARIA MESTARI (Université du Québec à Montréal), Grace Tusevo (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec à Montreal), Diane Morin (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract:

Challenging behaviors (CB) are among the comorbidities that have repercussions on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; McGill et al., 2018), and have been shown to affect parents’ well-being (Lindsey et al., 2020). Moreover, community-based professionals have expressed a need for a CB program involving the parents (Rivard et al., 2015b). The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children (PTR-YC; Dunlap et al., 2013) was developed specifically for early childhood settings and could very well meet parents’ needs and demands. Part of a larger study that assesses the implementation of PTR-YC among community-based services in Québec, this communication aims to present the main barriers and facilitating factors to implementation according to the parents who used the program with their children with ASD. Twenty parents’ interviews were analyzed qualitatively using Chen’s (2015) program evaluation logical model. This model categorizes barriers and facilitating factors by six components: 1) the organization, 2) the facilitators, 3) the intervention, 4) the targeted population, 5) the partners, and 6) the ecological context. Content and thematic analysis allowed for an inductive approach to categorize recurrent sub-themes and summarize qualitative data into an insightful parental view of the strengths and challenges regarding the implementation of a behavioral program at home.

 
120.

Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Missing Out on Early Intensive Behaviour Intervention While Going Through a Pandemic

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHARLOTTE MAGNAN (University of Quebec in Montreal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Céline chatenoud (Université de Genève), Manuelle Beuchat (Université de Genève)
Abstract:

No study has documented the impact of Early Intensive Behaviour Intervention (EIBI) interruption due to the pandemic of COVID-19 which led children and their families to miss out on intervention at a critical timeframe for child's development and prognosis. Thirty-six families with children aged between five and six years old with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) living in a metropolitan area of the province of Quebec were recruited in a larger study evaluating the quality of the transition from EIBI to kindergarten. Families completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire evaluating their trajectory (ETAP 2*COVID) in which they answered four open questions discussing the impacts of EIBI interruption for their child and family. This poster aims to present quantitative and qualitative data documenting perceived quality of EIBI before and after the onset of the pandemic and the impact of EIBI interruption on the child development and the family adaptation. Results indicate a drop in EIBI intensity, an impact on children development (e.g. social and communication skills, challenging behaviours, etc.) and emotional difficulties for parents (e.g. stress, sadness, tiredness, guilt, worries, etc.).

 
121.

Improving Access to Evidence-Based Interventions via Teleservice Delivery: Engaging Part C Service Providers

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Jeffrey Hine (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Mary Fleck (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Tori E. Foster (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Amy Nicholson (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), KATHLEEN SIMCOE (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center 's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (VKC-TRIAD); Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Abstract:

This study demonstrates the benefits and impact of a novel teleservice delivery model engaging Part C early intervention (EI) providers as facilitators of early identification and intervention services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Through this ongoing partnership in our state, our early assessment and mentorship team supported 52 EI providers across 5 EI resource agencies. Training was provided via virtual learning communities focused on applied behavior analysis (ABA) and other evidence-based strategies. Targeting continuity of care, EI providers also received training around early identification of ASD and participated in telediagnostic evaluations for over 100 of their families. Results show high levels of caregiver fidelity in use of strategies introduced by EI providers (Figure 1), positive outcomes for children across several domains of child functioning as recorded by EI providers and caregivers (Figure 2), high levels of caregiver satisfaction with tele-services (Tables 1 and 2), and increased caregiver confidence and competence using ABA strategies to address the needs of their child (Table 3). Overall, data suggest that leveraging existing service systems can improve access to ASD services for families, especially those in under-resourced communities where specialty care (e.g., tertiary evaluations and intensive ABA therapy) can be difficult to obtain.

 
122.

Effect of Brief Parent Training for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAKUYA ENOMOTO (Tokushima University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract:

In this study, we conducted Brief Parent Training, which consisted of short-term intensive comprehensive support (2 months, about once per week) for five parents with children aged 1;8 to 5;1 years old who had autism spectrum disorder. The training consisted of on-job training, video feedback via an iPad, a record of family care at home, and video recording. The on-job training and video feedback were supported by a specialized agency. The record of family care at home and video recording were overseen by experts at specialized agencies, and the parents provided support at home. After the training, the parents’ skills related to interacting with their children improved greatly. This was generalized not only to interactions at the special institution but also to family care at home. In addition, the time devoted to such interactions at home also increased significantly before the start of support. These two improvements were maintained even after the Brief Parent Training was over. The results suggested that effective support can be provided to parents with children on the autism spectrum by comprehensively combining training at professional organizations and within family care.

 
123. The Application of a Treatment Package to Reduce Prompt Dependency on Daily Living Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA NOGUERA (Ascend Learning and Behaviour Support.)
Abstract: The use of prompts and prompt fading strategies are common tactics used in the field of applied behaviour analysis to teach a wide range of novel skills to learners, including those related to daily living skills. Although research has demonstrated that prompts are successful in occasioning correct responding during instruction, problems with prompt dependence may arise, which can lead to a faulty transfer of stimulus control from the prompt to the discriminative stimulus (Clark & Green, 2004). Oppenheimer et al. (1993) described prompt dependence as the learner consistently waiting to engage in a response until a prompt is provided, even though the skill may already be in the participant’s repertoire. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment package including the use of a token economy, visual schedules and preference assessments for decreasing prompt dependency during daily living skills. The participant was an eleven year old with a diagnosis of autism. Results of the study will be presented using an adapted multiple baseline design across behaviours, with latency and duration of each behaviour serving as the main dependent variables. Data on intermittent probes on different conditions to test for generalization will also be conducted, therefore considering them as another dependent variable for the study.
 
124. Use of the Four-Term Contingency for Preparing and Supporting a Neurodiverse Workforce
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
THERESA J BROWN (Georgian Court University), Kenneth Sumner (Montclair State University)
Abstract: Neurodiversity is a term that evolved from the advocacy movement on behalf of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and has been embraced by other groups of individuals with neurologically-based disabilities (e.g., intellectual disabilities). It suggests that these disabilities are a natural variation in brain differences and that the workplace should adapt to them. Here, we consider application of the four-term contingency for preparing the workplace for neurodiverse individuals and nuerodiverse individuals for the workplace. For example, we discuss how antecedent interventions, such as the effective use of prompt hierarchies and choice may support these individuals in structuring their workday. We also examine how the four-term contingency can be used to enhance the job performance of neurodiverse workers. Here, we explore how teaching interventions, such as video self-modeling and peer-mediated (i.e., coworker-mediated) interventions, might be implemented to train neurodiverse workers. We also examine the role of effective contingency management such as the use of behavior specific praise and corrective feedback in enhancing job performance.
 
125.

The Use of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviour (DRO) to Reduce Inappropriate Contact With Others

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LARA MARTINEZ (Ascend Learning and Behaviour Support)
Abstract:

Inappropriate contact with others, whether in the form of aggression or sexualised behaviour can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s social opportunities and academic placement. As such the development of effective interventions to address these behaviours is of huge social significance. The current study examined the use of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviours (DRO) to reduce inappropriate contact with others. The participant was a nine-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism. An AB design was implemented. Prior to the experiment, the participant was emitting high levels of inappropriate contact in the form of pressing his groin area against and hugging other people. Initially, the DRO was implemented in order to address the aforementioned topographies, resulting in an immediate decrease in frequency to near zero levels even with reinforcement being delivered every 1.5 hours. When an additional topography of biting emerged, this was also successfully addressed with DRO. As the DRO does not teach alternative behaviours itself, the functional components of the inappropriate contact were also addressed during the course of the study, though with less success than the DRO.

 
126.

Reducing Restraint in Public Schools Through Universal Protocols, Practical Functional Assessment, and Skills-Based Treatment

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CORY WHELAN (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC), Heather Dawn Eigen (Andover Public Schools), Karen Butkovich (Andover Public Schools)
Abstract:

Students with autism who attend public school are expected to cooperate with a wide range of difficult instructions throughout the day. Students who engage in severe problem behavior might require physical management and physical restraint of those instructions lead to episodes of dangerous behavior. Rajaraman et al. (2021) suggested that physical restraint should be considered potentially traumatizing for the student and that clients in ABA programs might regularly experience such trauma. We evaluated the extent to which trauma-informed ABA practices could minimize the need for restraint in a public school ABA program. Data suggest that the adoption of a universal protocol for new students, the practical functional assessment process, and skill-based treatments lead to fewer physical restraints.

 
127.

Effects of a Multicomponent Telehealth Intervention on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes for an Adolescent Male With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY GREGORI (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display academic challenges. Numerous variables, including the COVID-19 pandemic, present behaviors to families accessing high-quality reading intervention. The present study aimed to improve reading comprehension for a 12-year-old boy with ASD using an adapted shared reading intervention delivered via telehealth in the participant's home. Effects of the adapted shared reading intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across reading content areas (i.e., science, social studies, and English Language Arts). Additionally, generalization data were collected with the participant's mother. Data on challenging behavior were also collected as a secondary dependent variable. The results showed that the adapted shared reading intervention resulted in increases in reading comprehension across all content areas. Challenging behavior data remained consistently variable in the intervention phase. Major findings, limitations, and implications for practice are discussed.

 
128.

Effective Approaches to Bedwetting in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YEARIN KIM (Seoul National University Hospital), Bung-Nyun Kim (Seoul National University Hospital), Dongjoo Chin (Seoul National University Hospital), Soomin Jang (Seoul National University Hospital)
Abstract:

People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities has found a higher prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (also referred to as bedwetting). However, there have been relatively little research on behaviorally based interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. The purpose of this study is to investigate and examine the effects of behavioral approaches to the treatment of nighttime incontinence for a 11 years old boy with ASD. A treatment package included (a) controlling the environment (an antecedent manipulation), (b) rewarding morning dryness with verbal praise and (c) using a reward chart with preferred tangibles. A component analysis was attempted to determine which part of an independent variable or component is responsible for behavior change and the result documented a clear pattern of decrease in frequency of nocturnal enuresis episodes following the implementation of a reward chart with preferred tangibles. This study shows that effective treatment of nighttime incontinence should be adapted and modified to the specific needs of child.

 
129.

Grandparent-Implemented Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior of an Adult With Autism: A Pilot Telehealth Study

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY GREGORI (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in challenging behavior that requires individualized intervention. However, access to high-quality services is limited for adults, and caregivers often assume primary responsibility for behavior management. This study addressed the needs of a 22-year-old man with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) who lived with his grandmother and engaged in tangibly maintained challenging behavior. The interventionist coached his grandmother via telehealth in the implementation of two behavior analytic interventions: signaled multiple schedule arrangement and a modified contingency contract. The effects of the interventions were evaluated using an alternating treatments design with baseline. While both interventions were effective at decreasing challenging behavior when compared to baseline, the signaled multiple schedule arrangement resulted in zero instances of challenging behavior. Both the participant and the grandparent completed post-intervention social validity assessments and reported overall positive satisfaction with the interventions. Practice recommendations are presented.

 
130.

Online Social Peer Group Promotes Social Communication in Two Months for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HYE RYEON LEE (Ascent Autism), Faraz Fadavi (Ascent Autism), Young Shin Kim (University of California San Francisco), Bennett Leventhal (University of California San Francisco)
Abstract:

Background: Little is known about the maintenance of long-term change and generalization outside of ASD interventions. Utilizing an online group platform for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we investigates the improvements of social communication via social skill practice. Objectives: 1. Organize personalized online peer social groups for individuals with ASD to implement and exercise social skills acquired from ASD interventions. 2. Offer new methods for assessing alterations in social communication skills at an individual and group level. Methods: 40 participants with ASD completed 5-8 sessions of social groups over an 8 week period. Each participant was pre-screened by parent-child interview, and grouped with others, based on similar communication level. Participants joined their 60-minute online peer group of neurotypical and ASD youths (3-5 youth/group), led by a trained facilitator. They freely engaged in conversations and activities. Sessions were recorded and individually analyzed to evaluate social engagement and emotional health. Results: Youth (median age = 15.2 years, IQR 8-22; 82% male) took part in the groups. 80% of participants exhibited significant improvement in social communication, as measured by equity of speech production. Conclusions: These results with novel objective measurements show that our online peer groups provide an opportunity for individuals with ASD to effectively practice and apply social skills acquired in interventions. Long-term follow-up is planned to determine the stability and persistence of acquired skills.

 
131.

Comparing Parental Involvement in Applied Behavior Analysis Services of Mothers and Fathers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CARLOS ALEJANDRO SANCHEZ-MEZA (University of Quebec at Montreal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Nadia Abouzeid (UQAM), Marjorie Morin (Université du Québec à Montréal), Diane Morin (Universite du Quebec a Montreal)
Abstract:

Introduction. The few studies that have described parental involvement in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a key factor to the success of the interventions, do not seem to investigate the family context. Moreover, the existing literature shows limited data discriminating maternal contributions in ABA intervention and the family, from paternal ones. While taking into account systemic factors, our study describes and compares the type and frequency of paternal and maternal involvement in ABA. Method. Twenty-one mother-father dyads (42 parents) of a child with ASD participated to the study. The families received on average, 13 hours of ABA for 13 months. We measured and analyzed: (1) sociodemographic information, (2) parental involvement in ABA (PIQ), (3) the parent’s satisfaction of the ABA services (CSQ-8), and (4) the family’s quality of life (FQoL). An interview on paternal and maternal involvement in the family during the ABA services was also conducted with each parent. Results. The quantitative results of the study demonstrate associations between paternal and maternal involvement in structured ABA sessions and correlations between paternal PIQ and both ABA satisfaction and family QoL. Qualitative data brings precision on the direction and interpretation of those results.

 
132.

Procedures to Reduce Stereotyped Responses in a 12-Year-Old Boy With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARTHA COSTA HÜBNER (University of São Paulo), Rita Gonçalves (Oficina do Comportamento, Lda.), Luiza Hübner Hübner (BAHC - Behavior Analysis Hübner Center), Denise Carvalho (Oficina do Comportamento Lda), Mariana Santos (Oficina do Comportamento)
Abstract:

In attending children with ASD, the application of procedures to decrease the frequency of inappropriate behavior must be necessary, besides strategies to increase appropriate behavior. The present paper describes the application of Non Contingent Reinforcement (NCR), Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) and the use of biker’s gloves procedures with a 12 years old boy with ASD. The objective was to reduce stereotyped responses (flapping), which produced disturbance in child’s control by the relevant stimulus, as well as being precursor of tantrums. Stimulus control of appropriate and inappropriate behavior (cards with red thumbs down and green thumbs up) were also presented. In NCR, during blocks of 10 minutes, the child was engaged in a free activity, without demand. Every 30 seconds on average (VI30 seconds) a tray with high magnitude reinforcers was presented to him and he could pick up one of the items. Also, contingent upon proper behavior, a green card was also presented (DRO). If he emitted inappropriate behavior, the green card was replaced by the red one and the reinforcement tray was removed, until the inappropriate behavior stopped for 3 seconds. Results showed an immediate reduction in stereotyped responses with gloves, as well as without it.

 
134.

Pain in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Impact of Pain Based on a Caregiver Report

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHEL FITZPATRICK (National University of Ireland, Galway), Helena Lydon (National University of Ireland Galway), Brian McGuire (National University of Ireland, Galway: Centre for Pain Research, School of Psychology. National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract:

Introduction: Examining pain in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is largely un-explored. Due to the communication difficulties that exist within this population, most often pain goes unrecognised and untreated. Aim of Investigation: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pain among individuals with ASD with or without Intellectual Disability(ID).This study examined 7 key areas on the impact of pain; demographic information, presentation and frequency of pain, challenging behaviour and pain, locations of pain, health problems, daily functioning and health related decision making. Methods: This research consisted of a cross sectional study (caregiver report) that examined the impact of pain in individuals with ASD and ID from children aged 5 years and above and adults aged 18 years and above who required caregiver support in Ireland. Results: Abdomen pain was reported the most common location of pain. Challenging behaviour increased significantly during painful episodes. The results also reported that 68% never reported pain independently and over 74% was not involved in treatment received. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate that pain has a significant impact on individuals with ASD/ID who experience pain. It is critical that individuals with ASD/ID who experience pain must be taught the communicate pain in order for pain to be recognised and treated.

 
135.

Implementing Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Ritualistic Behaviours; Individual Diagnosed With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Virge Connery (PSI graduate member), MEGAN H. GRAHAM (Psychological Society of Ireland Graduate Member), Eimear Mary Kelly (Psychological Society of Ireland), Steven Dooley (BPS)
Abstract:

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder includes repetitive behaviours such as compulsions and rituals that can inhibit a persons daily life. Interventions to decrease repetitive behaviours for a comorbid diagnosis obsessive compulsive disorder and autism mainly focus on a persons thought process such as using cognitive behavioural therapy. Research incorporating both inner thoughts and manipulating environmental variables has not been researched as an intervention to decrease repetitive behaviours. Differential Reinforcement is an environmental strategy used in in this case to decrease inappropriate behaviours and increase socially significant behaviours determined by the function of the behaviour. The participant for this case has a diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder and autism. The individual was discharged from a psychiatric inpatient unit after 9 months of being non responsive to treatment to a natural non-restrictive environment to facilitate transition to home setting. The purpose of this poster is to provide evidence that environmental strategies such a differential reinforcement should be implemented alongside cognitive behavioural therapy for persons with a comorbid diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder and autism to decrease ritualistic behaviours. Data collection is still occurring, therefore, no conclusion have been discussed.

 
136.

Caregiver-Mediated Naturalistic Communication Intervention for Young Children With Developmental Disabilities Via Telehealth

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIC SHANNON (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Mehreen Zehra Hassan (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Interventions to support individuals with developmental disabilities have been effectively taught to caregivers via telehealth. Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) is a naturalistic communication intervention that focuses on arranging the environment, following the child’s lead, and imitating and modeling language use during naturally occurring play routines. The present study utilized a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across dyads to train caregivers to implement EMT via online modules and weekly coaching sessions. The study adapted methods to fit the needs of families with children newly diagnosed with autism and related disabilities, including immediate data collection following recruitment, flexible scheduling of sessions, and little time commitment. Results indicate that low-intensity naturalistic communication interventions may increase caregiver strategy use and child communication during play routines, but that families require different levels of support, particularly if they do not have experience navigating special the education and early intervention systems. Future implications of caregiver-implemented naturalistic communication interventions for families of newly diagnosed children are discussed.

 
137. Decrease Inappropriate Touching in Public by Using Non Contingent Reinforcement and Token
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DONGJOO CHIN (Seoul National University Hospital), Yearin Kim (Seoul National University Hospital, Autism Center)
Abstract: Some adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted manner. Such problematic behaviors have significant negative consequences such as restricted community access, decrease opportunities for appropriate social interaction and legal ramifications. Purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioral treatment to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in adolescent with ASD. Participant was 15-year-old boy with ASD and target behavior was pulling down pants and touching his own penis in public. Following a functional analysis of his target behavior, we identified he wanted to check his underwear and get an attention from others at the same time. During the intervention, we taught him alternative behavior, which was to ask to use washroom or find an empty room to check his underwear. When he did the alternative behavior instead of disrobing, he was reinforced by tokens which could be exchanged to the preferred items later. During Non Contingent Reinforcement (NCR), he received positive attention from practitioners every 10 minutes. NCR reversal design was conducted for the component analysis. The results showed that it was the most effective when NCR and token system were both applied.
 
138. Collaboration in Action Across State Agencies: Improving & Providing Support for Individuals with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIN FITZGERALD FARRELL (Behavior Analyst/Professor/Policy Maker/Student)
Abstract: In this session behavior analysts from two different state agencies will outline and review the collaboration process for successful development of systems of support across school, home, and community settings for individuals and families impacted by Autism Spectrum Disorder. The presenters will discuss the need for multidisciplinary collaboration to bring comprehensive services and supports to all individuals seeking support across one state. Materials that have been developed to support the collaborative process and support for individuals will be presented and discussed.
 
139. Parent training in discrete trials through Behavior Skills Training (BST)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VALERIA MENDES (University of Sao Paulo), Isabelli Sabino (University of Sao Paulo), Martha Costa Hübner (University of São Paulo)
Discussant: David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: Parents training to apply Applied Behavior Analysis knowledge to their children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a variable that increases the probability of treatment generalization and maintenance. Teaching discrete trial skills can be used for this purpose. Extensive research demonstrates that learning discrete trials through behavioral skills training (BST) for parents is effective and performed in short periods of time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of parent training using BST in a public service for children with autism at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Five mothers of children with ASD participated in the instruction, modeling, rehearsal and feedback steps of a weekly motor imitation program. A multiple-baseline design was conducted in order to demonstrate changes in the parents' repertoire after the introduction of the independent variable. Results presented here demonstrate that BST was effective for teaching discrete trials to parents of children with ASD, as indicated by other authors. Data also confirmed the literature that children's performance is better when parents improve their own performance. Throughout the BST applications, a decrease in the emission of incorrect accomplishment by children was observed.
 
140.

Enhancing the Conversation Skills of Young Adults With Autism Using Technology-Based Self-Monitoring and Visual Supports

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LESLIE ANN BROSS (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Jonathan Michael Huffman (University of Florida College of Medicine Department of Psychiatry)
Abstract:

This study used a technology-based self-monitoring application and visual supports to improve conversation skills of three males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 19 to 26. The conversations were audio recorded to accurately measure the dependent variable which was number of questions asked during structured conversations with same age peers. The technology-based self-monitoring application was I-Connect (Wills & Mason, 2014). I-Connect uses customizable prompts, intervals, and alerts to assist users to self-monitor on handheld devices (e.g., smart phones, tablets). The visual supports were graphic organizers in which participants generated a list of topics and questions to ask their partner prior to the structured conversation. A single case multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the efficacy of the self-monitoring intervention alone versus self-monitoring plus visual supports. All three participants demonstrated an immediacy of change upon introduction of the self-monitoring intervention. There was little difference between the self-monitoring alone versus self-monitoring plus visual support conditions, which indicates evidence-based practices may be combined to best meet the needs of learners with ASD. Confidence in a functional relation is high given visual analysis of the graphed data. Implications related to improving the social and communication skills of young adults with ASD is discussed.

 
 

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