Association for Behavior Analysis International

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11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Event Details


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Poster Session #66
EAB Poster Session
Friday, September 2, 2022
5:45 PM–7:45 PM
Ground Level; Forum
2.

Review of the Study of Rule-Governed Behavior in Japan

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SHINJI TANI (University of Ritsumeikan), Yuki Shigemoto (Kyoto Bunkyo University; Mukogawa Women’s University ), Kazuya Inoue (Waseda University)
Abstract:

Background: Rule-Governed Behavior (RGB) is a closely related topic to clinical study. Persistence to a rule increases psychological sufferings and gets in a way of behavior which moves toward to well-being or QOL. Pliance, which is one of the subclasses of RGB, plays critical roles for psychological sufferings. However, the experimental study of RGB is limited. Kissi et al., (2017) and Harte & Barnes-Homes (2021) reviewed studies of RGB. Purposes: The current study reviews studies, which are not included in Kissi’s and Harte’s reviews and conducted in Japan. Methods: The similar key words are used to select the papers. Japanese databases (CiNii and J-stage) are used. After searching a paper, the same criterion as Kissi's study is utilized to select the experimental study. Results: The 1965 papers were found. However, there was no study satisfying with Kissi’s criterion. Finally, while these were not satisfied with Kissi’s criterions, 10 studies (six experimental, two clinical and two review) were selected as the related study. Conclusions: 1) No study of RGB investigating the subclasses of RGB (Pliance, etc.). 2) In the six experimental studies, authors investigated which factors affected rule following behaviors. 3) No experimental study treating RGBs as relational responses.

 
3. Immediate and Delayed Reinforcer Congruence Influences Human Temporal Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Syeada Imam (Southern Cross University), STEPHEN PROVOST (Southern Cross University)
Abstract: Temporal (delay) discounting is an important measure of impulsivity associated with a variety of behavioural problems. Sosa and Santos (2018) proposed that impulsivity demonstrated in a temporal (delay) discounting task may reflect the overlap between the primary and secondary reinforcers for the immediate and delayed choice. If so, they argued that less discounting should be observed if the immediate and delayed reinforcers were different than if they were the same. University students (n =320) completed an online discounting task in which the immediate and delayed reinforcers were either the same or different to each other in a 2x2 fully randomised between-groups design. The two reinforcers employed were a subscription for varying lengths of time to either a music streaming (music) or food-delivery service (meal). When the delayed reinforcer was a meal, shallower discounting was obtained when music was the immediate reinforcer as predicted by Sosa and Santos. However, there was no difference between the two conditions in which music was the delayed reinforcer. These results provide some support for Sosa and Santos, but suggest that a more detailed consideration of cues associated with reinforcement in humans may be required before this account can be fully evaluated.
 
4.

Identity Matching Procedure With Compound Stimuli for Financial Education

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Ana Paula Hornos (University of São Paulo), Gabriel Terhoch (University of São Paulo), Guilherme Hoffmann (University of São Paulo), Luisa Jotten (University of São Paulo), PAULA DEBERT (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract:

The identity matching procedure with compound stimuli is an alternative to standard matching-to-sample procedure to establish emergent relations between abstract stimuli. The present study is the first to investigate whether this procedure would be effective to produce emergent relations among some stimuli that are important to provide financial education considering the high population indebtedness. Stimuli were the following printed word: debt (A1), buy with credit card (B1), pay in installments (C1), acquittance (A2), buy with debit card (B2), cash payment (C2), investment (A3), buy credit bills (B3), and buy treasury bonds (C3). Seven adults were exposed to nine phases: (1) Pretests, (2) AB-AB Training, (3) A-B Posttest, (4) B-A Posttest, (5) AC-B Posttest, (6) A-C Posttest, (7) B-C Posttest, (8) C-A Posttest, and (9) C-B Posttest. The results showed that all participants achieved the learning criteria and five of them showed the emergence of all the tested relations only after training. These results suggest that the identity matching procedure with compound stimuli is efficient to rapidly establish derived relations that may be important to produce financial education.

 
5.

The Effects of Scene Ambiguity on Social Contact Behavior: A Re-Examination Using Online Experiment

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Yuna Miyazawa (MEISEIUNIVERSITY), TAKAYUKI TANNO (Meisei University, Department of Psychology)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to re-examine, through an online experiment, whether high ambiguity in a scene enhances social contact behavior.The participants were 28 university students.The experiment was conducted online.Experimental participants were randomly assigned to either a condition in which they were instructed to perform an ambiguous activity (ambiguous condition) or a condition in which they were instructed to perform an unambiguous activity (unambiguous condition).They were then asked to choose between social contact, in which they waited in a web room where someone was waiting, or asocial contact, in which they waited in an web room where no one was waiting, and were asked how confident they were in their choice.The level of confidence ranged from 1 (low) to 10 (high). As a result, the number of experimental participants who chose social contact was 1 out of 28 in the ambiguous group and 0 out of 28 in the non-ambiguous group.In terms of confidence, the ambiguous condition was higher than the unambiguous condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (Figure1).In conclusion, the ambiguity of the scene did not have a significant effect on social contact behavior in the online experiment.

 
6.

CANCELLED: Analysis of Pigeons' Movement Behavior Under Multiple Ratio Yoked Interval Schedules using Video Tracking System

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MASANORI KONO (Ritsumeikan University)
Abstract:

In reinforcement schedules, subjects engage in behaviors toward the manipulanda such as keys and levers (target behavior) as well as behaviors other than the target behavior (other behaviors). In this study, we measured movement behavior as the other behavior and analyzed the differences among reinforcement schedules. The movement behavior of the subjects under the multiple ratio yoked-interval schedules was measured by a video tracking system. The distance, speed, and direction of the movement were calculated based on the coordinate data. The distance traveled per hour, i.e., the speed of movement, was higher in FR than FI and there was no difference in the speed between VR and VI schedules. The speed was higher in variable schedules than fixed schedules. In terms of movement direction, there was no difference between FR, FI, and VR. In the VR schedule, movement toward the left and right wall (180° and 0°) was common. Therefore, it was suggested that there may be systematic differences in movement behavior between reinforcement schedules.

 
7.

Derived Ranking Responding With Fictitious Names of Martial Artists From Japan and Russia

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AIKO TAKANO (Hosei University), Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract:

In recent years, a large amount of basic research on Relational Frame Theory has been undertaken. The present study used fictitious names of Japanese and Russian martial artists and explored whether trained comparative responding between pairs of fighters' names would generate ranking responding within and between the two nationalities. Sixteen Japanese undergraduates participated as test subjects. In the training, they were asked to guess who between the two names presented on the screen is the stronger/heavier fighter. Half of the participants worked on determining the “stronger” fighters, while the other half worked on the “heavier” fighters. Feedbacks showing the correctness of their responses followed each training. Comparative responding was trained under two conditions, namely the “within-nationality training” (WNT) where each set of choices showed two fighters from the same country, and the “between-nationalities training” (BNT) where the choices showed one Japanese and one Russian. One participant's data was excluded from the analysis due to a procedural error. In the result, regardless of the comparative condition (i.e., stronger or heavier), all the 15 participants showed correct ranking responses after the WNT, and 14 participants showed correct ranking responses after the BNT, particularly when they operated with the assumption that the strongest and heaviest Japanese fighters are inferior to their weakest and lightest Russian counterparts. This demonstrated that among adults with enough verbal repertoire, establishing minimal comparative relational responding within and between stimulus classes generates ranking responding within and among those stimulus class members even without direct training.

 
8.

Meaningful Stimuli Enhance the Formation of Equivalence Classes and Their Resistance to Changes

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
GIOVAN WILLIAN RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Deisy De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

This study investigated whether using abstract or meaningful stimuli would interfere with equivalence class formation and reorganization. Experimental sessions were conducted using remote access software. Undergraduates were divided into two groups. For the Faces Group (N=10), set A stimuli were faces expressing happiness (A1) and anger (A2). All stimuli were abstract pictures for the Abstract Group (N=11). Both groups trained AB (A1B1; A2B2) and AC (A1C1; A2C2) relations and tested the formation of equivalence classes (A1B1C1; A2B2C2). All participants from Faces Group and eight from Abstract Group completed the training and formed the classes. When the choice speed of these participants was compared, Faces Group responded significantly faster than ABS Group in the formation tests. They were then submitted to AC reversals (A1C2; A2C1) followed by tests that assessed class reorganization (A1B1C2; A2B2C1). Three (out of 10) participants from Faces Group and five (out of eight) from ABS Group completed the reversal training and reorganized the classes. Logistic regression showed reduced odds of reversing AC relations for the Faces Group. Speed in reorganization tests was higher for the ABS Group. These results indicate that meaningful stimuli not only enhance class formation but also increase class resistance to changes.

 
9.

Effects of Reinforcer Devaluation on Resurgence

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SHUN FUJIMAKI (Waseda University), Michiyo Sugawara (Waseda University), Yutaka Kosaki (Waseda University)
Abstract:

Resurgence is the recurrence of previously extinguished response when reinforcers for an alternative response is reduced or removed. The present study assessed the effects of reinfocer devaluation on resurgence in rats. The experiment consisted of three phases. In Phase 1, a target lever-press response produced a 45mg food pellet (O1) on a variable-interval (VI) 30-s schedule. In Phase 2, the target response was placed on extinction while an alternative chain-pull response produced 0.1 ml of a 20% sucrose solution (O2) on a VI 30-s schedule. In Phase 3, the alternative response was extinguished for testing resurgence. Immediately before testing, one group of rats (O1 Devalued) was fed O1, another group (O2 Devalued) was fed O2, and the control group was fed lab chow for 60 minutes. Resurgence was observed only in the O2 Devalued group. The results suggest that reinforcer devaluation for the target response weakens resurgence, whereas reinforcer devaluation for the alternative response enhances resurgence.

 
10.

Advisor-Teller Money Management Treatment for Co-Occurring Household Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Disorders

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SADIE LYNN KLASSEN (Student), Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

When people are physically or economically unable to obtain or consume a nutritious and plentiful diet there are many various consequences, two of them being poor mental well-being and substance use. Despite this fact, it becomes complicated when you look at the bi-products of substance use or poor mental health. They are all interchangeable, giving this issue bi-directional properties. By using a financial management treatment, like Advisor Teller Money Management Therapy (ATM), patients would be able to create a personalized functional plan that could fit their specific needs and change behavior. Because it is usually implemented on a large time scale, 30-50 weeks, this experiment explores what aspects of the treatment can be pulled and implemented in smaller periods of time. By using a modified version of ATM in the context of delay discounting and behavioral economics, this experiment could decrease impulsive behaviors associated with alcohol-related expenses and encourage expenses being allocated to reduce a food-insecure state. The results in longer-term studies have been highly effective, which can potentially be reflected in the results of this study. With more participants, this experiment is hoped to yield successful results on a shorter timeline.

 
11.

Duration and Interval Between Events in Position Sequence Learning

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Jairo Ernesto Tamayo Tamayo Tamayo (Universidad Veracruzana), Maria Elena Elena Rodriguez Perez (University of Guadalajara), FABIOLA MERCADO RODRÍGUEZ (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract:

In order to evaluate the effect of the duration of events and their interval between occurrences on learning and recall of sequences of positions, an experiment was carried out using a recall task. Twenty four undergraduate students participated. The task consisted of the presentation of a 4x4 and 5x5 matrix of squares. Different sequences of lighting of squares were presented and participants had to recall that sequence. They were divided into two groups. The first group was exposed to a condition in which the duration of events (square illuminated) increased while the interval between occurrences was kept constant. The second group was exposed to the inverse condition by increasing the interval between occurrences and keeping the event duration constant. No substantial differences between groups were identified in the results. However, in both conditions, participants required fewer trials to learn and recall sequences compared to a previous study in which the same recall serial task and procedure was used. This suggests a facilitating effect of increasing the durations which can, in turn, favor the establishment of attentional processes.

 
12. Perceptive Learning of Color-Left and Color-Right Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ROSALVA CABRERA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Marcela Lugo (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: Discriminative tasks involving responses based on the relations between stimuli features in a perceptive learning experimental preparation had been scarcely evaluated. Lugo & Cabrera 2020, 2021) had observed that students pre-exposed to Color 1-Top and Color 2- Bottom relations were capable to discriminate about to these relations in testing phase. The present experiment evaluated if pre-exposition to composed stimuli Color1-Left side and Color 2-Right side facilitates the discrimination of two involved relations. In Experimental Group, pre-graduated students (n=12) were pre-exposed to both relations (Phase 1) and exposed to discriminated items (Phase 2) in which they must choice stimuli involving the relations pre-exposed (correct). In Control Group the students (n=12) were exposed only to Phase 2. Experimental Group showed a percent of correct responses higher that Control Group. This results are consistent with our previous data and suggest that relational learning effect is obtained with a perceptive learning preparation. Lugo, M. y Cabrera, R. (2020). Evaluación de dos relaciones color-posición en aprendizaje perceptivo. Revista Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta, 46 (2), 32-56. https://dx.doi.org/10.5514/rmac.v46.i2.77873 Lugo, M., & Cabrera, R. (2021). Discriminación basada en una relación color-posición en una preparación experimental de aprendizaje perceptivo. Revista Mexicana de Investigación en Psicología, 12(1), 57-68.
 
13. Variations in Absolute and Relative Stimuli´s Features in Perceptive Learning
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ROSALVA CABRERA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Bernardo Jimenez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: The intermixed pre-exposure promotes the reestablishment of the salience of the target similar stimuli, facilitating subsequent discrimination between them (Hall and Rodriguez, 2019). The present study evaluated the effect of changes in the configuration of the stimulus components in pre-graduated students (n=10). AX was composed of two minimum values (A) and BX by maximum values (B), the common feature X was composed by intermediate values of a continuum. Compound CX were composed by a minimum and an intermediate value (C) and DX were composed by maximum and an intermediate value (D), X had the remaining values. In Phase 1, Experimental Groups were pre-exposed to intermixed stimuli; Group E1 was pre-exposed to AX/BX and Group E2 to CX/DX. In Phase 2, both groups were evaluated using a discrimination task involving pre-exposed stimuli. Two Control Groups were exposed only to Phase 2, CG1 was evaluated with AX/BX and CG2 with CX/DX. The results showed a better performance in the groups pre-exposed to stimuli configured with targets whose values were distal, it allows to suggest that the configuration of the stimuli, even using the same elements, is decisive factor even in conditions of reestablishment of the salience of the target elements (intermixed pre-exposure).
 
14. Contribution of Neuroscience-Based Measurements for the Field of Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARCELO SALVADOR CAETANO (Center for Mathematics, Computing and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition, and Teaching (INCT-ECCE)), Marcelo Vitor Silveira (Center for Mathematics, Computing and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition, and Teaching (INCT-ECCE))
Abstract: The field of experimental analysis of behavior has traditionally refrained from using measures typically employed in the field of behavioral neuroscience. Here, we argue that such measures could contribute to the understanding of fundamental principles of behavior, and describe an experiment in which electrophysiological measures contributed towards the understanding of the origins of equivalence relations. Participants (undergraduate students) were trained in a matching-to-sample procedure to establish a set of conditional discriminations. Next, some participants were tested for emergent relations with equivalence probe trials (symmetry-transitivity tests), while others were not. Then, all participants went through a priming task in which they judged whether two stimuli presented sequentially were related or unrelated. During the priming task, electroencephalography (EEG) measurements were recorded. The N400, an event-related potential typically associated with unexpected/unrelated events, had a larger amplitude when the two stimuli presented did not belong to the same equivalence class when compared to stimuli that were part of the same class, regardless of whether participants were exposed to equivalence probe trials or not. This suggests that experience with equivalence tests is not necessary for the emergence of equivalence relations, a conclusion that is theoretically relevant for the field of experimental analysis of behavior.
 
15. Laboratory Model of Physical Activity: Relapse Following an Incentive-Based Intervention
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE CUCINOTTA (West Virginia University), Brianna Sarno (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Physical inactivity is increasing in the United States, and the annual cost of health-related expenses from physical inactivity is as high as $117 billion in the United States (Department of Health and Human Services, 2018). Previous research has demonstrated efficacy of monetary incentives for increasing physical activity; however, treatment gains often subside when incentives are withdrawn. The purpose of the current study was to model an incentive-based intervention in a brief, one-session laboratory arrangement. We evaluated relapse of sedentary behavior in a three-phase arrangement. Adult participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Participants in the Incentive Group experienced a no-incentive baseline, monetary incentives for treadmill use during the second phase, and a relapse test in which the incentives were discontinued in the third phase. There were two control groups: (a) one without incentives and (b) one group that experienced incentives in the last two phases to control for fatigue. We collected data on heart rate, time spent on the treadmill, and alternative topographies of behavior (e.g., leisure activities). Physical activity generally increased in the incentive phases compared to baseline and discontinuing the incentives tended to result in relapse of sedentary behavior.
 
16.

CANCELLED: Teaching Multistep Requesting to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder by Using an iPad

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
DERYA GENC TOSUN (Eskisehir Osmangazi University), Onur Kurt (Alpaslan Autism Foundation), Esin Pektas (Anadolu University)
Abstract:

Speech generating devices (SGD) are one of the most widely used augmentative and alternative communication systems in teaching communication skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SGDs are electronic devices that provide sound output by a computer or by recording the voice of an individual. To date, a great deal of software has been developed to use tablet computers as SGDs. Research supports the use of tablet computers as SGDs to teach various communication skills to individuals with ASD. However, there have been limited number of studies on teaching multi-step requesting by using tablet computers as SGDs. Therefore, in this study it was examined whether children with ASD can acquire, maintain, and generalize multi-step requesting using an iPad with the Dokun Konus application. Three children with ASD, aged 4–5 years, participated in the study and a multiple-probe-across-participants design was used. The intervention was carried out by adapting the PECS protocol. Findings showed that the iPad with the Dokun Konus application as an SGD and the intervention package were effective in teaching multi-step requesting to all participants. Furthermore, the target skill was maintained and generalized to different materials and individuals.

 
17. Using the SCARF (Single Case Analysis and Review Framework)
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LEDFORD (Vanderbilt University), Brittany Paige Bennett (Vanderbilt ), Sienna Windsor (Vanderbilt University), Kara L. Wunderlich (Rollins College)
Abstract: As the evidence base grows in the field of applied behavior analysis, synthesis of outcomes across studies becomes more important so that we may identify more readily what works, for whom, and under what conditions (and conversely, what does not work, for whom, and under what conditions). The SCARF (Single Case Analysis and Review Framework) is a unique tool for assessing single case designs in the context of systematic reviews. The SCARF addresses weaknesses of other frameworks by using visual analysis to asses the consistency of outcomes across sources and the relation of outcomes to study rigor (i.e., internal validity) and other potentially influential variables. This poster will identify the processes for using SCARF and show examples from a systematic review of interruption and redirection interventions.
 
18. Assessing the Psychometric Validity of the Sexual Choice Questionnaire--A Brief Measure of Delay Discounting for Sexual Outcomes
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JAYLAN ALIEV (Idaho State University), Steven R. Lawyer (Idaho State University)
Abstract: Sexual impulsivity is associated with sexual risk behavior. This study examined the content validity of a brief measure of impulsive sexual choice based on the delay discounting paradigm, which is a behavioral-economic transdiagnostic measures of impulsive choice. Undergraduate students (N = 172) completed the Sexual Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and several other measures of sexual and non-sexual outcomes. Findings indicated partial support for convergent validity, full support for discriminant validity, but no support for concurrent validity. The current findings suggest modest support for the content validity of the SCQ, but also suggest that more research on the psychometric properties of this measure are warranted.
 
19. Gender and Menstrual Cycle Correlates of Monetary Gain-Loss Asymmetry in Behavioral Choice
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARCIA M. VENTURA (Brigham Young University), Blake Hansen (Brigham Young University), Rebecca Lundwall (Brigham Young University ), Harold Miller, Jr. (Emeritus Brigham Young University )
Abstract: The asymmetrically greater effect of losses on behavior, compared to gains of the same objective value, is known as loss aversion and results in a preference for avoiding loss rather than pursuing gains. We examined whether women and men experience differential degrees of loss aversion in choice with actual money and the possibility that the menstrual cycle influences the relative values of gains and losses. Unlike cognitive methods that employ hypothetical scenarios, we used a computer game to directly measure behavioral allocation in 6-ply interdependent concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement (gain US+10¢) and punishment (loss US-10¢). We used the generalized matching law to derive sensitivity and bias parameters and calculated gain-loss differentials using a pairwise contrast of bias parameters from gains-only and gains-plus-punishment conditions. Sixteen college students (8 women), aged 18-25, completed 44 sessions with men acting as matched controls. We replicated findings that loss has an asymmetrically greater effect on choice behavior and that women experienced loss as more punishing than men. Mean gain-loss asymmetry ratios for women and men (8.36 and 6.58, respectively) varied across three points of the menstrual cycle (menses-onset, peri-ovulatory, and mid-luteal) but we found no evidence that the ratios varied with these points.
 
 

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