Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #96E
EDC Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 25, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
39. Interteaching: Timing of the Clarifying Lecture on Student Retention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE JIMENEZ (University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown), Catherine M. Gayman (Troy University), Juliana Butz (University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract: Interteaching is a strategy that shifts the emphasis from passive student learning to active engagement through the use of prep guides, small group discussions, clarifying lectures, and frequent testing. Several classroom studies have demonstrated that interteaching leads to better student comprehension and higher test scores. However, the specific strategy used in these studies vary slightly. The goal of the present study was to compare the timing of the clarifying lecture to determine which led to higher academic success. A group design was used in one Psychology of Learning course over two semesters. One group experienced the standard interteaching method, where students experienced the clarifying lecture after the group discussion. The second group experienced a modified version where the clarifying lecture occurred before the group discussion. Although there were no significant differences in exam scores across groups, students who experienced standard interteaching rated the methodology as more preferable than the students who experienced the modified version of interteaching. Results from this study should allow for more effective implementation of interteaching.
 
40. A Single-Case Meta Analysis on Performance Feedback for Teacher Effectiveness
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SHANA LEVI-NIELSEN (Temple University), Art Dowdy (Temple University), Renée Tobin (Temple University), W. Joel Schneider (Temple University)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Performance feedback is widely used in single-case literature to train teachers to implement classroom strategies. This study examined collective single-case effects of performance feedback on teacher skills that promote teacher effectiveness. A literature search and qualitative coding process yielded 52 single-case studies examining the influence of performance feedback on teacher implementation of 13 categories of generalizable skills. Included studies used multiple baseline and multiple probe designs and were coded for a variety of characteristics. Studies were rated for quality using adapted two-level standards from Ganz and Ayers (2018) and the What Works Clearinghouse standards. Log response ratios were calculated for effect size estimates. Effect sizes were synthesized in three sets of multi-level models with random effects for studies and cases within studies. Overall, teacher performance feedback was found to result in a 227% change in teacher skill implementation in classrooms. When multi-level models were subset by skill, seven of the 13 dependent variable groups demonstrated significant results. Twelve predictors included in an overall model revealed non-significant moderating effects, including publication status and study quality. This meta-analysis supports performance feedback as an evidence-based professional development practice in the context of single-case research, although results may vary depending on teacher target behavior. characteristics. All studies were rated for quality using adapted two-level standards from Ganz and Ayers (2018) and the What Works Clearinghouse standards. Log response ratios were calculated for effect size estimates. These effect sizes were then synthesized in three sets of multi-level models with random effects for studies and cases within studies. Overall, teacher performance feedback was found to result in a 227% change in teacher implementation of skills or strategies in the classroom. When multi-level models were subset by teacher skill, seven of the 13 dependent variable groups demonstrated significant results. Twelve predictors included in an overall model revealed non-significant moderating effects, including publication status and study quality. The present meta-analysis supports teacher coaching with performance feedback as an evidence-based professional development practice in the context of single-case research, although results may vary depending on teacher target behavior. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
 
41. Special Educators’ Training and Preparedness to Write Individualized Education Programs
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ALYSSA BLASKO (Lehigh University), Kristi Morin (Lehigh University), Grace Murphy (Lehigh University )
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract: Over the last decade, there has been ample evidence reporting the lack of high-quality and compliant Individualized Education Programs (IEP) in the United States. This problem has many consequences, including poor student outcomes and failure to follow legal due process. Despite these consequences, research has not thoroughly examined the perspectives and needs of special educators on IEP development or the role of pre-service training on special educators’ ability to write high-quality, compliant IEPs. To address this gap, we surveyed 218 Pennsylvania special educators to examine their perspectives on the sufficiency of their pre-service training to write high-quality IEPs. We also gathered data on the types of training and support special educators need to successfully write IEPs. Results provide information on needed teacher preparation program components, supports for in-service special educators when writing IEPs, and areas for future professional development. Implications and future directions for training on writing IEPs are discussed.
 
42. Burnout in Board-Certified Behavior Analysts
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
CASEY KANE (Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine; Saint Josephs University)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Burnout is a pervasive phenomenon that affects individuals across various professions and industries. However, in the field of behavior analysis, the issue of burnout is particularly salient given the high demands and intense nature of the work. Board-certified behavior analysts are required to provide evidence-based interventions to individuals with a wide range of developmental disabilities, often within complex environments. The stress and pressure associated with behavior analytic work can have significant negative consequences on the well-being and job performance of board-certified behavior analysts. This poster aims to explore the concept of burnout in the context of board-certified behavior analysts. Specifically, it seeks to understand the prevalence, risk factors, and impacts of burnout on board-certified behavior analysts, as well as the strategies and interventions that may help mitigate burnout in this population. By examining these issues, this review will contribute to a better understanding of the unique challenges faced by board-certified behavior analysts, and help identify effective ways to support their well-being and job satisfaction.

 
43. Introducing Precision Teaching by Peer Tutoring in Schools in Norway
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARTIN RASMI KRIPPENDORF (Oslo Metropolitan College)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract: Precision Teaching is not widely used in Norwegian schools, and when it is, it is typically used only in special needs classrooms or in one to one sessions between a special education trainer and a student with learning difficulties. This study combined Precision Teaching with Peer Tutoring, in order to make Precision Teaching more readily available to normally functioning students in ordinary mainstream classrooms in Norwegian schools. After a 3 months introductory training period, where teachers and students were familiarized with the methods, a number of participating classrooms were randomly assigned to intervention versus control groups, and students were tested on subject matters before and after a 3 month period of intervention with Precision Teaching, delivered through Peer Tutoring. Intervention groups used these two new methods to learn measurable skills in chosen subjects, while the control groups used standard teaching methods in the same subjects. Results within and between groups are presented for each subject matter, thus comparing the effect of using Precision Teaching with Peer Tutoring versus standard methods of teaching in ordinary mainstream classrooms in Norway.
 
Diversity submission 44. The Effects of Heritage-Language Instruction on Decreasing Rates of Challenging Behaviors for Children With Disabilities: A Review of Current Literature
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
BHABIKA JOSHI (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

As of 2021, around seven million children in the United States have been diagnosed with a disability. Of these children, almost 12% of these students are also categorized as an English Learner (EL). Although research in the area advocates for bilingual education to accommodate the evolving student body, the language of instruction in schools across the United States remains primarily English, and parents are advised to speak only in English at home to their children. Further, while many children with disabilities display challenging behaviors, breadth of research on heritage-language instruction and challenging behaviors for children with disabilities remains narrow. Few studies examine this relationship, and no formal critique of these interventions exist. In this literature review, I review and critique four articles for the following research question: Is there evidence to suggest that heritage-language instruction decreases rates of challenging behaviors in early elementary-aged children with disabilities? In the review, selected single case research studies are described and evaluated in terms of internal and external validity, and recommendations for future research and current practice are discussed.

 
45. The Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on Reading Performance and On-Task Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARY MAZZELLA-SCHOENER (Mount Pleasant Central School District), Holly Barszcz (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Amanda Mahoney (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Kelly McElrath (Bucks County Schools Intermediate Unit #22)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract: Disruptive behavior in a classroom setting has the potential to interrupt the learning for all the students and s the volume of behavior increases, teachers are required to spend more time managing behaviors instead of implementing quality instructional practices. Interdependent group contingencies are an evidence-based intervention that can be implemented within classrooms to improve student behavior. Despite the expansive literature on the effectiveness of using interdependent group contingencies to improve student behavior, there has been limited research conducted on the impact on student academic performance. This study used a combined design to evaluate the effects of an interdependent group contingency on academic performance and on-task behavior by implementing a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants of kindergarten, first, or second-grade students. The results indicate that the interdependent group contingency was effective at improving on task behavior in each classroom. Assessments of academic performance indicated that many students made gains in their performance on curriculum-based measures and on teacher rating scales. Early Literacy components of the assessment were measured overtime as the intervention was implemented during the literacy instruction period of the school day. Additionally, students showed generalization effects to improved math performance on the Early Numeracy subtest.
 
46. Improving the Intervention Fidelity of Students Conducting Latency Functional Analyses via Remote Behavioral Skills Training
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BRENDON NYLEN (Joybridge Kids), Seth King (University of Iowa), Alexander Pauls (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Lexy Walgren (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Telehealth, the provision of services via information technologies such as computers, may increase the reach of applied behavior analytic services to underserved populations living in remote areas. An important applied behavior analytic service is performing a functional analysis, which aids in determining the variables that evoke and maintain dangerous behavior. To be proficient in any applied behavior analytic procedure, one must be trained to a criterion deemed acceptable, and behavioral skills training is a training procedure that can sufficiently train individuals to reach proficiency in multiple behavior analytic interventions. A participant underwent behavioral skills training via telehealth to improve their intervention fidelity in conducting a latency functional analysis in a study using a concurrent multiple probe design across behaviors design. Following behavioral skills training, the participant improved in intervention fidelity for each condition of the latency functional analysis. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed following a presentation of results.
 
47. ParaImpact: Professional Development With Teacher-as-Coach to Increase Paraeducator Implemented Treatment Fidelity
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN AUGUSTINE (University of Missouri - Columbia), Rose A. Mason (University of Missouri), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Virginia), Charissa Donn Richards (University of Missouri- Columbia), Amanda M Borosh (Purdue University)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract:

Special education teachers and paraeducators have reported barriers to effective training for training and coaching paraeducators. Built-in time for teacher-paraeducator collaboration with specific training and feedback have been requested by key stakeholders. Practice-based coaching (PBC) is a job-embedded coaching model and incorporates a non-hierarchical and collaborative relationship between the coach and coachee. ParaImpact is a multi-component professional development (PD) package. The package includes online instructional modules and PBC framework with teacher-as-coach to increase implementation fidelity of evidence-based practices by paraeducators. ParaImpact is designed to support the ongoing training of special education teachers to coach paraeducators to implement systematic instruction with high fidelity. We evaluated the effectiveness and accessibility of the ParaImpact PD package in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a treatment and control condition. We utilized pre-post measures for teacher and paraeducator cohesion and improvement of IEP. Additionally, we measured 4 waves of outcome data for paraeducator and target student behavior. Two-level multilevel modeling (MLM) was used to analyze repeated data. Multiple regression model was used to analyze pre-post measures with the pre-test scores as a covariate. We measured the social validity of ParaImpact from treatment teachers and paraeducators. Implications for future research and practice will be discussed.

 
48. Literature Review: Training Matters: The Impact of E-Learning Training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SHARI L. SCHATZMAN (Eden II Programs)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Training opportunities allow the workforce to enhance career growth, develop skills and knowledge, and deliver excellent service for individuals they serve. Traditional training such as lecture, group discussion, and role playing have typically been the most widely used formats (Grampesheh, et. al., 2010). ELearning training has become more mainstreamed which can be both challenging (Bughun, et.al., 2018) and innovative. Online training allows trainees to customize their trainings based on individual time and location. Due to the development of information technology and the Internet, people are replacing traditional training with eLearning to better manage their workforce (Lim, et.al., 2007). If planned appropriately training programs can provide important benefits to organizations which can include an increase in job satisfaction, better morale among the employees, increased motivation, better understanding of concepts, reduce turnover, and enhance company image (Gutterman, 2023). The focus of this research is to provide a literature review on the impact of eLearning trainings within applied behavior analysis programs.

 
49. Effect of Teachers' Feedback on Students' On-Task Behavior: Examination in One New School in Iceland
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland), Erla Sif Sveinsdottir (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract:

Research has shown that positive feedback can increase students' on-task behavior and reduce problem behavior in the classroom. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of teachers' verbal feedback in one school in Iceland and measure its association with students' on-task behavior. The participants in this study were 31 teachers and approximately 650 students of theirs, aged five to 16 years. Direct observations were carried out three times during the school year. Ninety-two measurements took place in classes from the first to the tenth grades. The main results were that students received more negative feedback than positive. Most of the negative feedback was on social behavior and positive on academic performance. Positive feedback on social behavior was rarely given. The students' on-task behavior was 83%, a higher proportion than in the previous study in Iceland. Peer distraction was the most common reason for students being off-task. The study results showed a significant positive correlation between positive feedback on academic performance and students' on-task behavior and instructions, explanations, expositions, and on-task behavior. A significant negative correlation was between negative feedback on social behavior and students' on-task behavior.

 
50. Typing as a Differential Observing Response
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE MILLER (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alexandria Brown (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Taylor Lewis (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract: A differential observing response (DOR) is a response that requires a participant to respond to all relevant features of a stimulus and can be utilized to increase stimulus control and improve efficiency of teaching procedures. Recent research has described several DOR types, although no comparison of the efficacy or efficiency of DORs has been conducted in the extant research. The present study compared the efficiency of a touching and typing DOR during sight word instruction for four elementary-age participants exhibiting reading deficits. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of the touching and typing DORs on the number of words read correctly and the number of correct independent DORs. The typing DOR required fewer sessions to mastery for three out of four participants; however, the touching DOR required fewer minutes to mastery for all participants. Participants’ preference for DOR type was assessed using a concurrent chains procedure. Participants preferred the touching DOR or showed no preference. Implications for individualizing reading interventions are discussed.
 
51. Influence of Face-to-Face and Online Lectures on University Students' Note-Taking
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MASAKO YOSHIOKA (Aichi University), Ken'ichi Fuji (Ritsumeikan University)
Discussant: Craig A Marrer (Endicott College)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of face-to-face and online lectures on university students' note-taking. The participants included 38 university students. The same lecture was conducted three times, consisting of a practice trial and two main trials. Two conditions were implemented: face-to-face instruction and simultaneous online delivery in a separate classroom. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the lectures. The participants' note-taking responses were recorded using a device created by the authors, capable of detecting note-taking responses in terms of stroke count. Cumulative records were then plotted based on this data. Overall, online participation generally exhibited a higher response rate compared to face-to-face, with many participants maintaining a consistent response rate without a decline in the latter part of the lectures. Based on responses from a post-survey, considering the higher note-taking response rates online, it was suggested that in the online condition where participants' field of vision is constrained to the computer screen and information is limited, making judgments about when to stop note-taking and allocate time to listening, thinking, or engaging in other responses might be challenging. This difficulty could lead to a tendency to continue writing.
 
52. Self-Management for Young Children Using a Digital Activity Schedule
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (David Yellin Academic College; Kinneret Academic College )
Discussant: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Regulation and self-management are two essential factors for young children's readiness for the expectations and demands they face in kindergarten and school, and for coping with the world. Self-management is a cluster of learned skills that are mediated, modified and encouraged in early childhood through parents. An activity schedule is an intervention strategy developed to promote children's self-management, and to increase independent engagement in completing activities. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the use of an electronic activity schedule on the independent completion of a morning routine. The participants were two sisters, aged 4.5 and 6.5 years. The dependent variable, independent completion of the morning routine, was directly observed and measured using event recording and graphically presented as percentage of steps of the morning routine completed independently. Social validity data were collected from the participants and their mother. The findings showed that independent completion steps of the participants were low and variable during baseline and immediately improved to 100% during intervention. The participants were satisfied with the intervention's procedures and findings. The study concluded that an electronic activity schedule may improve the quality of the morning routine.

 
 

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