Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #292H
CBM Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 26, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
75. Factors Promoting Social Behaviors for Health Promotion in Older Adults: Relationship Between Behaviors and Nutrition
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
TAKUHIRO OKABE (Tokyo Kasei University, Faculty of Health Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design; Kodaira Chuo Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Rehabilitation), Yuki Iwata (Kodaira Chuo Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Rehabilitation), Makoto Suzuki (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Kazuo Saito (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; 3Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Naoki Iso (Tokyo Kasei University, Faculty of Health Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design), Kilchoon Cho (Tokyo Kasei University, Faculty of Health Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Objective: Promoting social behaviors in the community would be important for the prevention of health problems in older adults. However, there is little research on comprehensive assessment and intervention to promote social participation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the social behaviors and nutritional status necessary for a range of social participation within the home, outside the home, neighborhood, town, and out of town. Methods: Participants were 23 homebound older adults undergoing home rehabilitation. The Life-Space Assessment (LSA) (Bker et al., 2003) was assessed as a measure of range of daily behavior, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (Vellas et al., 2003) as a measure of nutritional status, the 2-step test as a measure of mobility, and the Vitality Index (VI) (Toba et al., 2002) as a measure of motivation. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that the 2-step test influenced the within-home score and the MNA influenced the within-town score. Conclusions: In the social behavior of older adults, mobility is important in the more familiar behavioral domain and nutritional status is more important in the moderate behavioral domain, suggesting that interventions should be tailored to the behavioral domain.
 
76. Improving Behavioral Fluency in Older Adults Through Behavioral Skills Training and Daily Practice
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YOSHITSUGU OMORI (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yuji Morio (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yoshimi Sakurai (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Satoru Sekine (The University of Tokyo; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Mikayo Omori (St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Study Objective: In rehabilitation, the fluency of the new compensatory behavior needs to be improved to acquire and use them practically. This study examined the effects of behavioral skills training and everyday practice on the improvement of behavioral fluency for chopstick manipulation with non-dominant hand in older adults. Participants: Twelve right-handed individuals (ages 71-86) without motor impairments participated in this study. Research Design: Pre-post comparative design was implemented. Independent Variables: The intervention consisted of behavioral skills training (instruction, modeling, rehearsal and feedback) and daily practice for actually eating at least one meal and moving plastic chips for 4 weeks using chopsticks with their left hand at home. Dependent Measures: The number of plastic chips moved between 2 bowls in a minute using chopsticks with the left hand, and Likert Scale Scores (1-10) concerning “difficulty” and “fatigue” were measured at pre- (Time1) and post (Time2, Time3) assessments. Standardized fine motor skills were also evaluated. Results: The number of chips moved significantly increased, while “difficulty” and “fatigue” decreased in Time3. The number of chips moved increased even when only participants over 80 years old were analyzed. The behavioral skills training and daily practice was effective for behavioral fluency in older adults.

 
77. Improving Actual Eating Using Chopsticks By Non-Dominant Hand Through Behavioral Self-Recording In Older Adults
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JUN'ICHI YAMAMOTO (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design), Satoru Sekine (The University of Tokyo; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yuji Morio (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yoshimi Sakurai (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Mikayo Omori (St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital), Yoshitsugu Omori (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Study Objective: The integration of behavior analysis and rehabilitation technologies is effective in improving the quality of life of older people. The use of chopsticks is important for independent eating. This study examined whether the intervention of behavioral skills training, daily practice with self-recording would improve chopstick manipulation with the non-dominant hand during actual eating. Participants: Five individuals aged 71-79 and seven individuals aged 80-86 participated. All were right-handed and had no motor deficits. Research Design: A pre-post comparative design was used. Independent Variables: First, participants received behavioral skills training to build fine motor skills. Next, they were required to practice of actually eating at least one meal (breakfast, lunch, or dinner) per day and moving plastic chips with chopsticks with the non-dominant hand at home every day for 4 weeks. Dependent Measures: Likert scale (1-10) score for “satisfaction,” “difficulty” and “fatigue” were measured at pre- (Time 1) and two post-assessments (Time 2, Time3). Response topography using chopsticks and posture were also assessed. Results: Satisfaction scores increased significantly, and “difficulty” and “fatigue” decreased at Time 2 and Time 3 in both under 80 and over 80-year-old. Fine motor skills improved, suggesting the effect of behavioral rehabilitation.
 
78. Assessing the Content Validity of a Survey on Prerequisites, Procedures, and Challenges in Seeking Child Assent for Research
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JAVIER VIRUES ORTEGA (The University of Auckland), Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Michelle P. Kelly (Emirates College for Advanced Education (ECAE)), Shannon Ward (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by The New England Center for Children), Victoria Nguyen (Toronto, Canada), Shaza Mohamed Attia (Dubai, UAE)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

We present a content validity analysis process intended to enhance the relevance and clarity of a research assent survey. We designed the survey to provide an overview of current research assent practices in children. The survey focused on: (1) types of research assent, (2) assent prerequisites skills, and (3) challenges associated with seeking assent. Survey development followed an iterative improvement process involving: (1) literature search and initial development, (2) group and stakeholder feedback, and (3) content validity analysis and final revisions. The content validity analysis included both qualitative and quantitative feedback from a purposely recruited expert panel with expertise in professional ethics in behavior analysis, psychometrics, and qualitative methods. The analysis revealed that the preliminary version of the survey had high relevance and clarity. Item format had a slight but significant impact on the perception of clarity (but not relevance), with ranking items of more than five options perceived as relatively lower in clarity. The survey is being deployed through the platform Qualtrics to an international pool of child researchers. The proposed process has the potential of improving survey validity in various applied behavior analysis contexts, including the assessment of ethical practices, intervention social validity, and staff satisfaction, among others.

 
79. Further Evaluation of the Renewal of Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY VELEZ (Children's Specialized Hospital), Jaime Crowley-Zalaket (Children's Specialized Hospital), Kathryn M. Peterson (Rutgers University and Children's Specialized Hospital)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Renewal is a phenomenon in which a previously extinguished behavior reemerges following a context change. When targeting the reduction of inappropriate mealtime behavior (e.g., turning away from food, pushing a utensil away) for children with feeding disorders, examples of context changes that may lead to renewal are changes to the meal setting or the feeder (Ibañez et al., 2019). Researchers have recently begun examining whether other changes to the meal (e.g., food type) evoke renewal, but findings are still unclear (Haney et al., 2021). In the current study, we conducted repeated context changes across different food types for two participants and across different liquid types for one participant during renewal tests. For participants one and two, renewal occurred, but only when the context change was a specific food group (i.e., vegetable or starch). For participant three, renewal did not occur across different liquid types. Therefore, the overall results were idiosyncratic. Interestingly, the two participants for whom renewal occurred also had an autism diagnosis, while the third participant did not. Future researchers should evaluate whether renewal is more likely to occur based on factors such as the child’s history with certain foods or drinks, overall rigidity with meals, or other characteristics related to an autism diagnosis.

 
80. Evaluation of a Mands-Based Intervention to Reduce Aggression in a Psychiatrically Complicated Client
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA CHUNTA (Lehigh University; Kennedy Krieger Institute), Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Problem behavior may function as a pre-current response to increase reinforcement with an individual’s mands, known as a mands function. Mands functions and related interventions have primarily been studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or intellectual disabilities. There is limited research including youth with other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. The current study aims to evaluate a parent-mediated, function-based intervention in reducing tantrum and aggressive behavior in a non-autistic 10-year-old male with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Intervention procedures included differential reinforcement of other and alternative behaviors (DRO and DRA), contingency management, and schedule thinning. A changing criterion design was used to assess reductions in rate, bouts, and duration of problem behaviors across settings. Results showed reductions in the dependent variables across criteria and settings. Modifications to schedule thinning and contingency management procedures were required for intervention generalization. Implications for the clinical use of a mands function-based intervention to reduce problem behavior across a wider range of developmental, psychiatric, and cognitive functioning are promising.
 
81. Cheers and Booze: Developing a Functional Assessment of Alcohol Use
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HAILY TRAXLER (University of Kentucky), Mark Justin Rzeszutek (University of Kentucky), Sean Regnier (University of Kentucky), Mikhail Koffarnus (University of Kentucky College of Medicine)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Nearly 15 million people in the United States age 12 or older have Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Treatments for AUD include medication and behavioral treatments. Function-based treatments are a cornerstone of behavior analysis and are known to improve treatment success. However, no behavior analytic tool exists to specifically assess the function of alcohol use. If developed, this tool may significantly improve treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a functional assessment tool for identifying the behavioral function of alcohol use. Participants were people who used alcohol, recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and Prolific. Participants were administered a 42-question survey developed using previously validated assessment tools measuring motivation for alcohol use and the researchers’ expertise. Participants were asked to rate their agreement with statements listing potential reasons to drink alcohol (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). Each statement corresponded with a potential behavioral function (i.e., social positive, social negative, automatic positive, automatic negative, antecedent stimuli). An initial confirmatory factor analysis resulted in poor model fitting for MTurk and Prolific data. However, endorsement of negative reinforcement was related to increased depression and anxiety. These data represent a first attempt at building a functional assessment tool for alcohol use.
 
82. A Review of Sham Mindfulness as a Control
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JOSEPH VENABLE (Louisiana Contextual Research Science Group), Lara Grace Fair (University of Louisiana at Lafayette ), Matthew David Andersland (Louisiana Contextual Research Science Group University of Memphis), Emily Kennison Sandoz (Louisiana Contextual Research Science Group University of Louisiana Lafayette)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Sham mindfulness control conditions are commonly used in experimental mindfulness research, but manipulation checks for this procedure are sparse. The present study aimed to examine the inertness of a commonly used sham mindfulness exercise. Participants (n = 233) were recruited through the CloudResearch Amazon Mechanical Turk toolkit as part of a larger study and participated in an online experiment via Qualtrics. Participants completed the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a baseline assessment of state mindfulness using the State Mindfulness Scale (SMS). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a mindful breathing intervention or a sham mindfulness exercise. SMS scores were collected again immediately following the intervention. The significant increases in SMS were observed among those assigned to the sham mindfulness intervention t(122)=2.88, p = .005. Median MAAS was calculated, and participants were classified as high or low state mindfulness based on if they were above or below the median. A series of within-subjects t-tests showed a significant increase in state mindfulness among those in the sham condition with greater than median MAAS, but not in those with less than median MAAS. The results of this study have the possibility of informing future studies using sham mindfulness controls.
 
Diversity submission 83. Cultural Responsiveness and Contingency Management for Substance Use Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
BRYNN ANITA FOSTER (University of Florida), Hailey Evelyn Donohue (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: It is important to consider cultural factors in the delivery of behavior analytic services. In fact, practicing cultural responsiveness is required by the Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. We sought to understand the extent to which cultural variables have been discussed in the context of contingency management (CM) interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders (SUDs). We conducted a literature search of APA PsycInfo and PubMed databases. Key search terms included combinations of “contingency management,” and “motivational incentives” with each of “race,” “ethnicity,” “culture,” “cultural,” and “minority.” Literature was included in the review which included discussion of at least one cultural variable in the context of CM related to SUDs (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, generation, education, socioeconomic status, religion or spiritual beliefs, language, nationality, geographic location, disability, gender identity, sexual orientation). Results suggest that CM may be equally effective across sociodemographic categories, and racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities. Few studies have explicitly tailored CM based on cultural variables. Culturally responsive CM interventions may improve uptake, acceptability, and retention, but more research is needed.
 
84. Improvement of Lower Limb and Cardiopulmonary Function Through Home-Based Step Training in Older Adults
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YUJI MORIO (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yoshitsugu Omori (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yoshimi Sakurai (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Study Objective: It is important for older people to continue walking to maintain their physical and cardiopulmonary function. We developed a home-based step training program and evaluated its effectiveness on lower limb and cardiopulmonary function in older adults. Participants: Six older adults (ages 67-78 years old) participated. Research Design: The AB design with multiple measures was used. Methods: Training consisted of a 2.5 cm high obstacle to step over, and the participants were instructed to step forward and backward for 2 minutes and left and right for 2 minutes continuously every day at home. We first counted the step rhythm at which each participant could walk comfortably, and set the target criterion as 120% of the pre-determined step rhythm for home training. Results: After 4 weeks of training, older adults showed increases in knee extensor muscle strength, the number of steps participants could step over an obstacle per 30 seconds, and the 6-minute walk distance as a measure of cardiopulmonary function. Conclusions: This study suggests that a home-based step training, a collaboration of physical therapy and applied behavior analysis, promotes health and prevention of frailty in older adults.

 
85. Improving Urinary Symptoms in Older Adults With Frailty Through Physiotherapy and Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YOSHIMI SAKURAI (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yoshitsugu Omori (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yuji Morio (Shonan University of Medical Sciences; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Objective: Urinary symptoms inhibit activity and decrease quality of life. This study examined the effects of home-based strength training, feedback on voiding, and performance records on muscle strength, incontinence frequency, and health views of older adults with frailty and lower urinary tract referral symptoms. Participants: Three men (76-84 years old) and four women (75-88 years old) participated in the study. Study Design: A single-subject design was used. Intervention: A physiotherapist visited the participants' homes every two weeks to teach lower limb strength training and provide feedback on their urinary diaries and strength training performance records. Dependent variables: Lower limb muscle strength, incontinence frequency, and King's Health Questionnaire were measured. Results: Three months after the start of the intervention, five of the participants increased muscle strength, reduced incontinence frequency, and improved sense of well-being and activity. They showed participation including eating out with friends and relatives and resuming hobby activities. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions in the familiar home environment in improving not only physical function but also activity, participation, and quality of life in older adults with frailty. The study suggests the effectiveness of integrating physical therapy and applied behavior analysis for health promotion.

 
86. A Look Into Patients Served by Behavior Analysts in a Medical Setting
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
BARATHI CHINNAPPAN (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

While there is a plethora of behavior analytic research in outpatient healthcare settings, there is limited research related to the utility of Behavior Analysts in an inpatient medical setting. The purpose of the current descriptive report is to better understand the patient populations that Board Certified Behavior Analysts are consulted to assess and treat in an in-patient children's hospital setting. The data included were compiled by recording patients with at least one inpatient hospital admission in the 2022 calendar year, and for whom there was at least one assessment, behavior plan, or data collection file in an internal computer drive. These data may better inform hospital hiring practices for behavior analysts, and future lines of research in this setting. Additionally, these data have potential to aid in dissemination of behavior analysis to medical and psychiatric providers within a hospital setting. Limitations include lack of documentation for consultations provided directly to medical teams, and for patients who received best practices strategies, or participate in a unit-wide token economy.

 
87. How Exposure to Death, Alcohol Use, and Suicidal Behaviors Interact Within a Contextualized Reinforcer Pathology Model
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARK JUSTIN RZESZUTEK (University of Kentucky), Julie Cerel (University of Kentucky College of Social Work), Mikhail Koffarnus (University of Kentucky College of Medicine)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Alcohol use and exposure to suicide are both risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs). However, pathways of how these risk factors influence STBs are not entirely clear. Within the contextualized reinforcer pathology model, reward valuation and access to different reinforcers (i.e., substances, social) can increase the likelihood of addiction and may influence the development of STBs. Reward valuation can be influenced by loss of social reinforcers (e.g., suicide/overdose death of a friend), which could then influence preference for substances such as alcohol, further constraining allocation to alcohol use and potentially increasing preference for immediate rewards and alcohol demand. Two crowdsourced samples (Amazon Mechanical Turk and Prolific) were assessed on behavioral economic measures (i.e., delay discounting, demand), exposure to death, alcohol and other substance use, and STBs. Alcohol use and discounting were positively related to the level of closeness of participants with suicide decedents, and generally more exposure to death increased alcohol and substance use. Furthermore, alcohol use severity and delay discounting were related to suicide risk in both samples. Taken together, death exposure can be an important factor in understanding both alcohol use and STBs, as well as how each might influence and be influenced by reward valuation.

 
88. Effects of a Freedom of Movement Restriction Removal Protocol to Treat Challenging Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON MARS (Western Michigan University), Jessica Detrick (Western Michigan University ), Kelsey Stapleton (Western Michigan University), Erin Michelle Joy Isola (Western Michigan University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Some individuals with severe challenging behaviors require restrictions to ensure the safety of the individual and others. A freedom of movement restriction can be used to prevent an individual from engaging in elopement, substance abuse, and other unsafe behaviors in the community. We evaluated a protocol to fade a freedom of movement restriction contingent on the absence of challenging behaviors exhibited by a 69-year-old male diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and alcohol use disorder in a residential facility. Bipolar disorder patients are more prone to violence, especially when correlated with substance abuse (Kammoun & Halouani, 2021). This individual's challenging behaviors include aggression, substance abuse, and elopement. The restriction removal protocol is meant to systematically remove restrictive procedures in the individual’s plan as he engages in more appropriate behaviors and less challenging behaviors. Specifically, as the individual engages in community engagement, the restrictions are faded to facilitate more independence. The process of getting the restrictions removed and relocating to alternative/less restrictive housing has been effective at decreasing challenging behaviors and increasing appropriate behaviors in the community.

 
89. Don’t Believe the Hype: When the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) Authors Hyper-Claim Results Beyond the Data
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER POSEY (Endicott College), Emma Isabel Moon (Endicott College | Contemporary Behavior Consultants), Craig A Marrer (Endicott College), Allyssa Minick (Endicott College), Fina Robertson (Endicott College, Gardner Public Schools), Jacob A Sadavoy (Committed Behavior), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University; Endicott College)
Discussant: PEIQI LU (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

In research, single-subject designs highlight the intricacies of individual experiences. However, this project offers an analysis of a phenomenon observed in publication – the inclination of some researchers to occasionally overstate their findings and extrapolate beyond the scope of single-subject research. This is referred to as hyper-claiming in the context of this project. We reviewed a decade's worth of data from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, employing six expert raters to assess hyper-claiming in single-subject research. Each rater scored the final paragraph of each article screened on a scale of 0-2, in which 0 indicated no instances of hyper-claiming, a score of 1 indicated implied hyper-claiming, and a score of 2 indicated explicit hyper-claiming. Patterns that emerged illuminate reporting practices within the field, indicating mean scores across publication years from 4.0 to 6.9 (max 12). These findings highlight challenges researchers face when reporting outcomes of single-subject research. We delve into the inherent limitations of single-subject designs and consider the role that group design research may play in furthering the goals of the research community. This topic touches upon the heart of research ethics and practice, fostering a balanced approach in the pursuit of knowledge and dissemination

 
92. A Behavioral and Feminist Review of Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnosis
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
Rebeca Pardo Cebrián (Universidad Europea de Madrid), Diego Rico (Universidad Europea de Madrid), Atala Jacobo (Universidad Europea de Madrid), CONCEPCION SERRADOR DIEZ (Universidad Europea de Madrid)
Discussant: Arturo Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is defined as a pervasive pattern of emotion dysregulation, impaired interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and identity dysfunction. The controversial nature of this diagnostic label has prompted criticism for its perceived bias. This theoretical work conducts a thorough review of these critiques, presenting the diagnosis of BPD as a potential instance of institutional and health violence inflicted upon those diagnosed. The conceptual foundations of psychological and diagnostic theories that support this disorder were reviewed and the consequences that this social and scientific construction has had and still has for women and for society were obtained, and can even be understood as a case of cultural iatrogenesis. From a behavioral perspective, the analysis of this psychological disorder has to be related to the social context of inequality and abuse that is common to the learning history of most people labelled as BPD. The emphasis on emotional dysregulation and other symptoms erases the role of the environment and thus the contextual nature of BPD. The work encompasses a historical review of health violence, alongside a conceptual analysis based on behavioral analysis to delineate the specific repercussions of these diagnostic biases, particularly on women. Ultimately, the work suggests alternatives for addressing gender-related challenges, proposing psychological interventions from a feminist perspective and a radical behaviorist philosophy.

 
 

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