Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #292J
DDA Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 26, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Dean Reid (Ulster University Northern Ireland)
107. Using the SEED Method to Engage Stakeholders to Improve Interventions for Severe Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
SACHA T. PENCE (Western Michigan University), Katie Brown (Utah State University), Jim Corbin (Perrigo), Wendy Ernzen (Let’s Plant Houses)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: Optimizing positive long-term outcomes for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) with co-occurring severe problem behavior is a complex challenge that needs to be analyzed from the perspectives of stakeholders of individuals with IDDs. Unfortunately, stakeholders in the IDD community are rarely incorporated and shared in the development and identification of research priorities. Engaging stakeholders to inform research can result in the development of higher-quality research focused on critical themes identified by the relevant community and may help to facilitate a wider dissemination of results. The purpose of this poster is to discuss the Stakeholder Engagement in Question Development (SEED) method as a way to engage stakeholders of individuals with IDDs and severe problem behavior. The SEED method is a multilevel model that uses focus groups to gain broad-based insights from stakeholders and uses conceptual modeling exercises to identify future research priorities and research questions. We will discuss the benefits of engaging stakeholders to gain information on treatment regiments to address severe problem behavior, barriers to treatment, strategies to mitigate barriers, and how we can improve communication with stakeholders.
 
108. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Competing Stimulus Assessments Targeting Mands Rather Than Socially-Mediated Challenging Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARGARET E.W. CAVANAUGH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sagar Patel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Valeria Beatriz Macuare (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Drew E. Piersma (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract: Competing stimuli can be combined with functional communication to reduce challenging behavior during schedule thinning when caregivers are not available to deliver reinforcement for the functional communication response. During competing stimulus assessments (CSA) for socially-maintained challenging behavior, challenging behavior is reinforced with access to the functional reinforcer during the control and test sessions, and the degree to which the test stimuli compete with challenging behavior is measured. An alternative to reinforcing challenging behavior during the CSA may be to reinforce mands for the functional reinforcer instead, thereby identifying stimuli that not only compete with mands but may also prevent challenging behavior from occurring. The current study evaluated the utility of a CSA targeting mands instead of challenging behavior in identifying high competition stimuli (HCS) and then validated those findings by comparing the efficacy of a HCS and a low competition stimulus (LCS) in an extended treatment. Functional communication was effective in reducing challenging behavior; furthermore, mands were lower when the HCS was present compared to the LCS during periods of signaled unavailability. These findings can be used to inform individualized treatments, as well as support the use of CSA that target mands when treating socially-maintained challenging behavior.
 
109. A Collaborative Approach to Early Intervention for Children With Autism and Developmental Delays
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
MATTHEW A. DAVIDSON (University of Memphis), Rebekah Williamson (University of Memphis), Charmaine Sego (University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Shelby Cook (University of Memphis)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract:

This poster will describe a multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach to an early intervention service delivery program titled, PM-Ready. The present model utilizes evidence-based interventions in the field of developmental therapy and applied behavioral analysis to teach social and communication skills to children with identified developmental delays in group setting. This is a novel approach for early intervention services in the urban metropolitan area of Memphis, Tennessee using a Naturalistic developmental behavior intervention (NDBI) model. The purpose of this poster presentation will be to demonstrate how a collaborative early intervention program was created to improve the well-being of children and their families in underserved communities by improving language and developmental milestone acquisition to achieve preschool readiness. We will highlight how we infused multiple disciplines, included families, and tracked developmental progress using naturalistic behavior interventions in a small, modified classroom setting to create socially valid change. The final objective of the presentation will be to provide steps needed to replicate this model, discuss the need to collect qualitative and quantitative data to measure the impact, and to discuss future research ideas. This poster will contribute to the work of others in the Naturalistic Developmental Behavior special interest group (SIG) at ABAI.

 
110. Use of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Assessment of Feeding Challenges
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LORI BETH VINCENT (University of Cincinnati), Kathleen Ann King (University of Cincinnati ), Elaina Cohen (University of Cincinnati), Meg Stone-Heaberlin (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Annie Kalomiris (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Hannah McIntire (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Sarah Vitale (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract: Despite the many benefits of using functional analyses to determine the function of challenging behavior prior to intervention, functional analyses are not commonly used in applied clinical settings due to time and resource restrictions. The current study will present data from an outpatient clinical setting using trial-based functional analyses to determine the function of inappropriate mealtime behaviors prior to selecting and implementing behaviorally based feeding interventions. Two different trial lengths were piloted in the current study (10 each of test and control, and 5 each of test and control). Based on preliminary trials, it was found that trial-based functional analyses can be an effective and efficient means to determine the function of inappropriate mealtime behaviors prior to intervention. Benefits and limitations of using fewer trials to determine the function of behavior will be discussed as well as supplemental assessments of feeding behavior that may be useful in addition to a functional analysis.
 
111. Applied Behavior Analytic Assessment and Intervention for a Child With Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Clinical Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL OLSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Becky Barall (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Colin Wehr (UNMC), Caitlin Fulton (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Alexandra Cicero (University of Nebraska Medical Center- Munroe Meyer Institute ), Jasmeen Kaur (University of Nebraska Medical Center - MMI)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract:

An individual diagnosed with Encephalitis and Other unspecified disruptive disorder was referred to an outpatient clinic for the assessment and treatment of aggressive, disruptive, and self-injurious behaviors. The clinical team conducted assessments prior to any treatment, including a Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment and a Functional Behavior Assessment to identify the function of her problem behavior. Results of the functional analysis determined a mand compliance function. Following the assessments, the clinical team moved to Functional Communication Training to teach an alternative response while placing the above problem behavior on extinction. Although progress was made during treatment, the patient’s behavior occurred at a high intensity level and an interdisciplinary approach was taken to address symptoms associated with encephalitis (i.e., self-injury, aggression, and property destruction) and the patient was admitted for an in-patient administration of plasmapheresis (PLEX). Following PLEX, the client returned for behavioral treatment. More significant progress was observed during functional communication training and the intensity of problem behavior decreased. This case study highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and treatment of problem behavior and influence on biological variables on problem behavior.

 
112. A Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Implemented With Fidelity Errors
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SOFIA E. ABUIN (Salve Regina University ), Sarah Sudhoff (Salve Regina University), Jacob P. Oliveira (Salve Regina University), Stephanie Hope Jones (Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract:

A Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Implemented with Fidelity Errors Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is an evidence-based treatment that typically involves reinforcing alternative behavior and withholding or degrading reinforcers following challenging behavior. DRA results in increased alternative behavior and decreased challenging behavior when it is implemented as designed (i.e., with high procedural fidelity). Outside of research contexts, DRA is likely implemented with fidelity errors. To identify if DRA is still a robust treatment with these errors occurring, we conducted a systematic review of articles that manipulated levels of DRA fidelity. We identified seven translational and applied articles that included a comparison of full-fidelity to at least one level of reduced-fidelity DRA. Across applied and translational articles, DRA was less effective at increasing alternative behavior and suppressing challenging behavior when fidelity errors occur. However, there are nuances related to error type and programmed DRA intervention that are discussed. Considerations for researchers and practitioners using DRA are summarized.

 
113. Efficacy of Environment-Specific Preference Assessments to Enhance Clinical Decisions
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE A. FRANK-CRAWFORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lucas Capobianco-Hogan (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University )
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: Preference assessments are used to determine potential reinforcers for inclusion in treatment. However, preference assessments may not always be conducted in contexts that match those in which the stimuli will be used in treatment. The current case study investigated paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA) outcomes across two contexts for a child who engaged in severe problem behavior during bathing. The dry-PSPA was completed at a table with no water present; the wet-PSPA was completed at a water table. The purpose of the two PSPAs was to determine if the patient preferred different leisure items in the presence of water than in the absence of water to inform clinical decisions when creating a bathing protocol involving the noncontingent use of tangibles. Results from the preference assessments indicated that two of the top three highest preferred items in the wet-PSPA differed from those in the dry-PSPA. During a noncontingent reinforcement treatment in the bathtub, the patient was given a choice of the top three items identified in both PSPAs. He selected the items identified in the wet-PSPA more often than the items identified in the dry-PSPA. Results suggest that preferences can differ across settings, and this should be considered during clinical decision-making.
 
114. Telehealth Delivered Social Skills Interventions Among Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KELSEY MARIE SPARKS (Baylor Univerisity), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Renming Liu (Baylor University), MacKenzie Raye Wicker (Baylor University)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract:

Research has linked effective social skills with positive developmental outcomes, increased mental health, self-determination, successful employment, and overall quality of life. Yet, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities often experience deficits in social communication skills, limiting opportunities to socialize, establish and maintain friendships, which increase the risk of social isolation. The use of behavior analytic and educational interventions has demonstrated to be effective methods in teaching various social skills to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Recently, there has been an increase in the utilization of telehealth to deliver such interventions as it allows for increased accessibility to services, while decreasing the time and cost related to service delivery. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the literature regarding the use of telehealth in social skills training for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Articles identified via a systematic search of the literature are summarized according to (a) participant characteristics, (b) social skills targeted, and (c) intervention characteristics. In addition, the included studies are analyzed according to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC; 2022) Single Case Research Design Standards. Results will be further analyzed and discussed.

 
115. An Evaluation of Fixed Ratio 1 Reinforcement on the Diversity of Activity Selections and the Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interrupted Routines
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YU-CHEN LIN (University of North Texas), Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are the majority of population in residential settings. Many clients in residential settings engage in problem behavior that interferes with their daily routine and work requirements. Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) are one of the features of ASD diagnosis, typically in the form of invariable responding and predictable responses. Differential reinforcement, using a lag schedule, has been used to produce and maintain response variability. Lag schedules may be difficult to implement in the everyday environment. Additioanlly, there may be limited activities in which one can engage, which limits the utility of a lag schedule. Therefore, I evaluated the utility of a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule on activity selections, with a goal of increasing the diversity of activity selections in the treatment of problem behavior occasioned by the interruption of fixed routines. Results demonstrated a reinforcement-based treatment increased both variable and novel selections while decreasing the rate of SIB.
 
116. Evaluating the Use of Behavioral Skill Training With Parents of a Young Woman With Intellectual Disability to Reduce Challenging Behaviors and Promote Effective Interaction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Martina Mosca (A.S.P. LAURA RODRIGUEZ Y LASO DE’ BUOI, Distretto Savena Idice, Servizio Sociale Adulti con disabilità ), GUIDO D'ANGELO (DALLA LUNA - BARI)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract:

Behavioral skills training (BST) typically includes a combination of instructions, modeling, rehearsal, praise, and corrective feedback (Miltenberger, 2016). BST has been used to teach a variety of behaviors, such as social, safety, and working skills. Wacker and colleagues (Wacker et al. 1998; Berg et al. 2004; Gerow et al., 2021) reported that behavioral procedures can be adapted and used effectively by parents when on-site coaching is made available under the guidance of a behavior analysts. This may result in increasing new skills in the participants repertoire, as well as in a reducing challenging behavior. In this study a behavior analyst use BST and written instructions to coach parents of a young autistic woman with intellectual disabilty on how to interact effectively with their child. A brief functional analysis with an extended no-interaction condition (Slanzi et al. 2021) revealed attention as the main function of the challenging behaviors. Therefore, parents were trained on how to maximize reinforcement for appropriate attention requests, minimize the attention on the occurrence of challenging behaviors and increase the ammount of engagement during leisure activities. The treatment was implemented in a residential center for young adults with disabilities located in a care services of Bologna. Coaching from the behavior analyst was progressively faded. Results shows that the amount of challenging behavior of the young woman decreases as the result of the correct implementation of the behavioral procedures by caregivers, also when BST was gradually faded.

 
117. Data-Based Decisions: Using Mulitelement and Withdrawal Designs to Compare Intervention Options
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JON ORVARSSON (Melmark New England ), Kinsley E Dovey (Melmark New England), Julianna Ethel Pelkey (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: Treatment analyses are used to examine variables that alter the target behavior allowing clinicians to identify the most effective intervention. The current case used a multielement design to evaluate the following conditions: (A) baseline, (B) helmet, (C) padded surface, and (D) combined helmet with padded surface on the frequency of head-directed self-injury hypothesized to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. Interobserver agreement (IOA) was collected across 20% of all sessions and at least once per condition. Mean IOA was 100%. All treatment conditions resulted in lower levels of self-injury as compared to baseline with little differentiation across treatment conditions. In contrast, the longest durations were observed in conditions that included the helmet (B and D). Following the treatment analysis, condition D, combined helmet and padded surface was implemented across the day to reduce the level of self-injury and to further examine the effects of this intervention with repeated exposure. Finally, a withdrawal design was utilized to further examine the component effects of the combined intervention. Results will be discussed in terms of utilizing different experimental designs to evaluate treatment options and the importance of ongoing evaluation of selected interventions.
 
118. The Effects of a Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement on Decreasing Challenging Behaviors Maintained by Escape
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
FRANCES DIPROSPERO (Melmark), Sheila Ann Ann Klick (Endicott College)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract:

In this case study reflecting applied practice with a day student, the effects of a concurrent schedule of reinforcement on challenging behaviors maintained primarily by escape was evaluated. A functional communication response for break, “all done”, was available during programming. When the student made either a prompted or an independent response to be “all done” with a task demand, a sterile break was provided at their desk. This condition allowed for a break from the task demand until the student demonstrated a ready response (e.g., closed hands, stating “ready”, stating “yes/no”, or pointing to a “yes/no” board) to indicate they were ready to resume the task. When the task was completed, the student was provided access to positive reinforcement. All mands for escape informed future programming and modification to a multi-element behavior support plan. The results demonstrated increased independent functional communication and decreased rates of challenging behavior and restraints. Importantly, reading, a behavior cusp skill, increased.

 
119. Pediatric Behavioral Dentistry: An Updated Scoping Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KENDRA WHITE (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University), Kelley L. Harrison (Kansas Behavior Supports), Brittney Mathura Sureshkumar (Brock University), Nicole Bajcar (Brock University), Amanda Sottile (Brock University)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract:

Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay, is the most chronic infectious disease in childhood, causing immediate and long-term decreases in children’s quality of life (Çolak et al., 2013). Globally, dental caries is responsible for approximately 60% to 90% of cavities among children, and almost 100% of cavities in adulthood (Canadian Dental Association, 2017). Given the widespread prevalence of dental caries across the lifespan, the American Dental Association (2023) recommends decreasing sugar and high-acid food intake and regular brushing with fluoride toothpaste to increase or maintain oral health. However, noncompliance with dental routines is a commonly reported problem, especially amongst children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD; Kupzyk & Allen, 2019). This is particularly concerning given that children with IDD are also at an increased risk of acquiring dental disease and experiencing unmet dental needs relative to their typically developing counterparts (Abraham et al., 2018). The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the updated results of a scoping review of behavior management strategies to treat dental fear, anxiety, and noncompliance of children with IDD during regular dental checkups. Results will be discussed within the context of practical implications and suggestions for future research.

 
120. Using Video Modeling to Increase Accessibility When Teaching Adults Empirically Derived Assessment and Treatment Procedures
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA MARTINEZ MUNOZ (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), William J. Higgins (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Medical Center), James Gehringer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract:

Behavioral Skills Training is an effective approach to training a variety of skills across multiple contexts. (Slane & Lieberman-Betz, 2021). However, this approach typically relies on in-person and synchronous training, which can be limiting due to a shortage of qualified trainers and the vast need for services for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research has shown that video modeling can effectively teach skills to individuals without the need for trained individuals and can be experienced asynchronously. Weldy et al. (2014) demonstrated an efficient and effective training approach using video modeling to teach adults to conduct a stimulus preference assessment. The current study aims to replicate and extend Weldy et al. by improving content accessibility and evaluating social acceptability. We used a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effectiveness of a video model training on conducting a free operant preference assessment. Participants demonstrated an increase in skills after the training.

 
121. Correspondence of Tangible and Pictorial-Based Preference Assessments via Speech-Generating Device
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JOANNE LI (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the correspondence of a pictorial-based paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA) delivered via a speech-generating device (SGD) with a tangible PSPA (Fisher et al., 1992). The participant was a 9-year-old boy with a genetic disorder and severely limited motor ability who had access to an SGD controlled by eye gaze (Tobii Dynavox). We conducted two sets of PSPAs with the same tangible reinforcers. The dependent variable for both assessment formats was eye gaze, which was informed by the calibration methods used on his SGD (i.e., 2 s of uninterrupted eye gaze). During the SGD PSPA, pictures of the tangible items were presented in pairs on the screen. During the tangible PSPA, the physical objects were presented in pairs on a tray. Selection responses produced 1 min of access to the item across both assessment formats. Each assessment format was conducted twice with counterbalanced stimulus presentation to allow detection of a position bias. Results showed that eye gaze was a reliable DV during the tangible PSPA (i.e., consistent selection across both presentations). However, a strong position bias was observed during the SGD PSPA.
 
122. Examining Social Interactions for Children Undergoing Behavioral Feeding Therapy
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA BEATRIZ DEZAYAS (University of Florida ), Ronald J. Clark (University of Florida), Angie Van Arsdale (University of Florida), Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract: Intervention based on applied behavior analysis and in the context of multidisciplinary care has been highly successful for the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders (Sharp et al., 2017). More specifically, differential reinforcement and extinction procedures are well established and frequently implemented (Volkert & Piazza, 2012). However, research has not assessed the degree to which participation in this type of treatment impacts a child’s social interactions with their feeding therapists. Given the social implications of eating, exploring this topic is critical. Recently, sociability testing in children has been shown to be effective in assessing whether social interactions function as reinforcing, neutral, or aversive stimuli (Morris & Vollmer, 2020). Therefore, the current study will extend the literature by examining the social interactions between children with feeding disorders and their feeding therapists throughout their admission in an intensive, day-treatment feeding program. Results of this study will be discussed in the context of the child’s time allocation across adults with various interaction histories and considerations related to social validity.
 
123. Evaluating the Impact of Naturally Occurring Delays on Classes of Challenging Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHLOE M. LEWIS (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Rachel Fitzpatrick (Univeristy of Galway, Ireland)
Abstract: Delays to reinforcement are commonly associated with socially maintained behavior. However, less is known about the impact of naturally occurring access delays after reinforcer delivery. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the order and timing of individual classes of challenging behavior (e.g., destruction, self-injury [SIB]) relative to reinforcer delivery and access displayed by a nonvocal, 14-year-old girl with Pierre Robin Syndrome during functional analysis (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) phases. For this participant, a 10-30 second naturally occurring delay occurred between reinforcement delivery (i.e., turning on the TV) and reinforcement access (i.e., observing the TV show image). High rates of destruction were observed throughout the tangible condition of the FA, which subsequently decreased in FCT. In contrast, SIB did not emerge until the last 5 sessions of the FA, which continued to increase during FCT. Upon further examination of the FA, destruction generally occurred during the establishing operation, resulting in reinforcer delivery, whereas SIB occurred during the delay to reinforcer access. This pattern continued in FCT, wherein following manding and reinforcer delivery, SIB continued to occur during the delay to reinforcer access. Implications for treatment and future research directions will be discussed.
 
124. Evaluation of Response Variability Under Treatment Disruption
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER ROY CHILD (The University of Iowa), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Dean Reid
Abstract: Extinction is often used as the treatment disrupter when evaluating for long-term maintenance of functional communication. Although challenging behavior may reemerge under this condition, extinction can also induce variability of desirable and/or undesirable responses. However, little is known about the occurrence of these varied responses in relation to the long-term maintenance of treatment effects. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the varied responses of both desirable and undesirable behavior displayed by two young children with developmental disabilities during extinction. Novel occurrences of challenging behavior and manding were scored and evaluated across three study phases: functional analysis (FA), functional communication training (FCT), and extinction. For one participant, FA results only showed novel occurrences of challenging behavior in the functional context (i.e., tangible condition), whereas manding did not occur. FCT results showed occurrences of novel manding without an increase in novel challenging behavior. This trend continued during initial extinction sessions. As the extinction phase continued, novel challenging behavior emerged before leveling off, while novel manding continued to occur across sessions. For this participant, results suggest that manding may be a more robust response under treatment disruption than challenging behavior. Results and implications will be presented for both participants.
 
 

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