Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

Event Details

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Symposium #277
CE Offered: BACB
From Virtual to Reality: Tablet-Based Interventions to Induce Preverbal Foundational Cusps
Sunday, May 26, 2024
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Marriott Downtown, Level 4, Franklin Hall 1-2
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Yifei Sun (Teachers College Columbia University/ Fred S. Keller School)
CE Instructor: Yifei Sun, Ph.D.

Establishing early observing responses to adult faces, adult voices, 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, and 3-dimensional (3D) stimuli as conditioned reinforcers is a crucial first step to children's development. It allows children to contact reinforcement in ways they could not before, and thus contact new contingencies in their environments. Without consistent and reliable observing responses, the development of discrimination and identification skills would be impossible. Researchers have developed interventions and protocols to condition those observing responses as reinforcers. However, the complexity of accurately implementing these interventions has limited their widespread use among students with such needs. In this symposium, we will explore how we assessed the presence of foundational preverbal skills and discuss three new procedures designed to teach the conditioned reinforcement for observing adult voices, adult faces, and 2D stimuli delivered using tablet-based programs and teacher-delivered reinforcers. We explored if faces, voices, and 2D stimuli presented in real life also acquired reinforcing value for participants who mastered those tablet-based interventions.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): conditioned reinforcement, observing responses
Target Audience:

Practitioners working with pre-verbal foundational students with limited observing responses

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will: (1) Identify the absence of CR+ Observing 2D stimuli and utilize a tablet-based intervention to establish the missing cusp (2) Identify the absence of CR+ Observing adult voices and utilize a tablet-based intervention to establish the missing cusp (3) Identify the absence of CR+ Observing adult faces and utilize a tablet-based intervention to establish the missing cusp
Effects of Tablet-Based Visual Tracking Procedure on the Conditioned Reinforcement for Observing Pinted 2D Stimuli
TIANYUE SUN (Teacher College, Columbia), Yifei Sun (Teachers College Columbia University/ Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: With the growing access to electronic devices such as tablets, smartphones, and computers, children have increased exposure to two-dimensional (2D) stimuli presented via virtual platforms. Children will spend extended amount of time watching televisions or playing games on tablets instead of observing printed 2D stimuli such as books. In this paper, we explored the correlation among children's (a) observing responses to printed 2D stimuli, (b) observing responses to virtual 2D stimuli, (c) engagement with books, and (d) correct responses to 2D match-to-sample (MTS) of printed stimuli. Preliminary results found a significant correlation between observing responses for virtual 2D stimuli and MTS responses, indicating the potential of employing a tablet-based intervention to induce conditioned reinforcement for observing printed 2D stimuli which improves students' MTS responses. We then explored the effects of a virtual visual tracking procedure on the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement for observing printed 2D stimuli and correct MTS responses.
Conditioning Voice as a Reinforcer
TANIA NAINANI (Teachers College Columbia University Fred S Keller School), Yoojin Yeo (Teachers College Columbia University), Lilian Morales (Teachers College, Columbia University), Shiyi Wang (University of Columbia Teachers College)
Abstract: We used a multiple probe design across participants to test the effects of the voice conditioning protocol on 1) the rate of acquiring objectives across curricular areas, 2) observing responses for faces to the presence of adults in the environment, 3) observing responses for voices to the presence of adults in the environment, 4) preference assessment for voices, 5) orienting to a storyteller probe, 6) hear to say (echoic) responses across three settings (i.e., lunchtime, free-play setting, and 1:1 instruction setting). Three preschoolers with a disability participated in this study. During the intervention, we used a conjugate stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to condition adults' voices as a reinforcer. During the post-intervention probe, the participants who received the voice conditioning protocol demonstrated an increased number of correct responses in observing responses for voices, observing responses for faces, and preference assessment for voices. The participants also demonstrated a decreased number of learn-unit-to-criterion. However, there was a limited effect on orienting to a storyteller probe and hear-to-say probe.

Conditioning Faces as a Reinforcer Using Face Filters for Children With Disabilities

YOOJIN YEO (Teachers College Columbia University ), Yifei Sun (Teachers College Columbia University/ Fred S. Keller School), Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University), Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)

Looking at human faces is the most important prerequisite skill for social and academic development. As technology has arisen as a tool for the next generation education, virtual training to increase observing responses for children has advanced and developed. The objective of this pilot study is twofold. First, we attempted to condition virtual faces as reinforcers using the videos of faces presented on an iPad screen. Second, we assessed whether the stimulus control of virtual faces gained from the conditioning procedure transferred to the live faces. During the virtual face conditioning procedure, the researchers provided 7 phases of intervention. The phases consisted of different levels of facial effects that gradually faded out across the intervention. We used a delayed-multiple-probe design across participants and measured the effects of the intervention on the observing responses for faces during the virtual face probe, live face probe, generalized non-instructional setting probe, and joint attention probe. The researchers found that the virtual face conditioning procedure increased observing responses for faces during the virtual, live, and generalized non-instructional setting probe. However, the results were limited during the joint attention probe.




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