Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

Event Details


Previous Page

 

Poster Session #292B
EAB Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 26, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Grecia A Gaviria (The Chicago School)
5. An Exploration of Resurgence Under Delayed Reinforcement
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JULIAN CAMILO VELASQUEZ (University of Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract:

Resurgence is the recurrence of previous reinforced behavior by the worsening of current alternative behavior. Jarmolowicz and Lattal (2014) showed that delayed alternative reinforcement could serve as a worsening condition to produce resurgence, but it is unclear if the recurrence obtained was function of the delay or decrease of reinforcement rate. The aim of this study was exploring resurgence under delayed reinforcement without changing reinforcement rate. First, chain-pull was reinforced as target response. Second, lever-press was reinforced as alternative response while target response contacts extinction. Lastly, delays in alternative reinforcement were progressively increasing while the value of the reinforcement schedule were diminished, equaling reinforcement rate. Preliminary results showed that lower target response and decreasing alternative rates were maintained with most of delays. Resurgence was found until the longest delay were introduced for two of three rats but where lower than level exhibit under extinction. Findings suggest that introducing delays with more richer schedules of reinforcement rate could late resurgence of target behavior.

 
6. Contribution of Response Requirement and Trial Duration to Human Procrastination
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAUL AVILA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Oscar Cordero (National Autonomus University of Mexico), Eduardo Fernandez (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract:

The contribution of different response requirements with or without a deadline to the occurrence of procrastinating behavior was evaluated. Specifically undergraduate students clicked on either of three buttons, presented on the screen of a smartphone, to earn points according to the following contingency. For 6 participants, a variable ratio of 10, 20 or 30 pressings for a point was programmed for a left, central, or right button, respectively. All participants had 6 trials of 90 seconds each to complete whatever of the three requirements. The main dependent variable was the temporal distribution of responses to each option in 9 10-s subintervals of each trial. As was expected, the frequency of responses to the button with the highest response requirement increased gradually as each trial elapsed for both groups. According to procrastination theory, as the response effort or requirement of a task increases the delay to initiating and completing it increases.

 
7. Effects of Feedback Content on the Selection and Use of Social Networks and Multimedia for Teaching
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
L. REBECA MATEOS MORFIN (Universidad de Guadalajara), Cynthia Noemí Muñoz Martínez (Universidad de Guadalajara), Ilse Sofia Medrano Tejeda (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract: Various authors have studied the effects of feedback on performance, taking into account variables such as frequency and content of feedback. The findings on the content of the feedback allow us to identify that explaining whether the response is correct or incorrect and/or the achievement criterion promotes higher percentages of correct responses. Based on the above, the current study assessed the effects of the content of the feedback on the selection and use of social networks and multimedia resources for teaching. Four groups of participants were formed who took an online course on social networks and multimedia resources for teaching. Three groups of participants were distinguished by the type of feedback used during the training (instantial, modal and relational), a fourth group did not have feedback. The results are discussed based on the findings regarding the effect of the relational content of feedback on learning and its transfer to novel situations.
 
8. Translational Behavioral and Neuroimaging Research on Renewal of Avoidance and Recovery
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL W. SCHLUND (Georgia State University)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract: This project sought to develop a laboratory and neuroimaging paradigm for identifying biobehavioral markers associated with treatment relapse in anxiety disorders. Two laboratory experiments (Ns=157 Anxious, 69 Control) and one neuroimaging experiment (Ns=20 Anxious, 14 Control) were conducted with renewal procedures and an approach-avoidance task. In Experiment 1, control and anxious groups exposed to an AAA-renewal design exhibited a ~50% reduction of avoidance during renewal testing. By comparison, groups exposed to ABA-design displayed renewal, and renewal was greater in the anxious group. Experiment 2 examined whether increasing the reinforcer magnitude for approach could facilitate “recovery” (reduce avoidance/increase approach) following renewal. In Experiment 2, control and anxious groups exposed to context changes without extinction exhibited sustained avoidance. By comparison, groups exposed to an ABA-design displayed renewal. Subsequently, the control group and ~60% of the anxious group exhibited recovery. In Experiment 3, control and anxious groups exposed to an ABA-design during neuroimaging exhibited renewal. A medial frontal-striatal-insula network was activated during baseline and renewal testing. Moreover, the anxious group exhibited greater medial frontal, insula, and hippocampal activation during testing. These findings validate the paradigm and suggest anxiety is associated with enhanced contextual control of avoidance that involves a medial frontal-insula-hippocampal neurocircuitry.
 
9. Effects of Manipulation of Various Reinforcement Parameters on Responding During Extinction
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CATHERINE KISHEL (Rutgers University), Wayne W. Fisher (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Brian D. Greer (Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; Severe Behavior Program, Children's Specialized Hospital-Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services), Daniel R. Mitteer (Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; Severe Behavior Program, Children's Specialized Hospital-Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services), Casey Irwin Helvey (Rutgers University (RUCARES))
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract: Children who engage in problem behavior (e.g., aggression) often so do because that behavior works to gain access to reinforcement (e.g., toys). Treatment involves providing reinforcement for an appropriate response instead of for problem behavior. However, in real-world contexts, reinforcement for appropriate requests cannot always be delivered precisely how or when the child wishes (i.e., sometimes the child might have to wait for attention or play with a less preferred toy). Periods of time during which the child cannot access reinforcement are known as extinction, and contacting extinction sometimes results in the resurgence of problem behavior. The current research seeks to evaluate the effects of manipulating several parameters of reinforcement (e.g., rate, magnitude) on responding during an extinction context. The purpose is to identify how changes in reinforcement delivery during treatment (e.g., such as when reinforcement is delivered less often for an appropriate request) affect problem behavior during extinction (again, when reinforcement is not delivered at all) such that those variables can be controlled and the resurgence of problem behavior mitigated. Preliminary results indicate that manipulating parameters of reinforcement delivered in treatment can result in an increase in problem behavior during extinction; the clinical significance of this finding is discussed.
 
10. Evaluating the Effects of Teaching Novel Targets During Follow-Up on Maintenance
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MOLLY K. MATTES (Western Michigan Universtiy ), Sacha T. Pence (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract: Little research has evaluated how the frequency and timing of practice opportunities and the introduction of novel targets during follow-up affects maintenance. An equal distribution (sessions occurring at constant intervals) and a progressively increasing distribution (practicing more often immediately following mastery with gradual increases in days between sessions) were compared using a multi-element design. College-aged students learned an arbitrary tacting task and completed a 60-day follow-up phase. Participants learned two novel sets of targets during follow-up to evaluate the effects of learning novel targets during follow-up on maintenance. During experiment two, arbitrary names of the two novel target sets were altered to be similar to target names learned during the initial training to evaluate if similar targets were more likely to disrupt maintenance. Across both experiments, the equal and progressively increasing distributions resulted in similar high levels of maintenance for four participants, the progressively increasing distribution condition resulted in the highest levels of maintenance for one participant, and the equal distribution condition resulted in the highest level of maintenance for one participant in experiment one. Learning novel targets during follow-up did not disrupt maintenance for any participants in experiment one. During experiment two, learning novel targets that were more similar to the originally mastered targets slightly disrupted maintenance for one participant. Across both experiments, two participants responded with correct target names from a novel target set during the 60-day follow-up probe for the control condition.
 
11. Using Cover, Copy, and Compare to Establish Equivalence Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SARAH ELIZABETH VESELY (University of Nebraska Omaha; University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ky Jackson (University of Nebraska Medical Center / University of Nebraska Omaha), Sarah Frampton (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract: Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) is a procedure that has been evaluated within the education literature. Students cover their notes, attempt to copy them from memory, then compare the written product to the notes for accuracy. The present study evaluated whether undergraduate students could use CCC to learn the relations among stimuli and pass tests for equivalence. Following a matching-to-sample (MTS) pre-test evaluating transitive and equivalence relations among familiar stimuli, a training package including video instructions, illustrations, and researcher feedback was used to teach the participants to engage in CCC with notes depicting the target relations. Participants then applied CCC, eventually drawing the three sets of three familiar stimuli in their respective classes. On the posttest, six of the seven participants scored over 90% on their first attempt. Following a pre-test with abstract stimuli, the same participants were given an opportunity to study notes with abstract stimuli within three five-member classes; use of CCC was not required. All seven participants applied CCC with fidelity and scored over 90% on the first posttest with abstract stimuli. Social validity data indicated the participants found the approach acceptable. This study demonstrates that robust equivalence relations may be established using educationally relevant teaching methods.
 
12. Evaluating the Effects of Time-Out on Pausing During Rich-to-Lean Transitions
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN HENDERSON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alanna Ferguson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract:

Previous research has found that rich-to-lean transitions may function aversively for both humans and non-humans. This study's purpose is to insert a neutral period between reinforcer delivery and the start of a new transition to decrease pausing; time-out periods occurred after half or all the food reinforcers. This time-out period may assist in mitigating the aversiveness of transitioning from more to less favorable conditions by diminishing the interaction between the past and upcoming reinforcer magnitudes. Pigeons’ pecking was reinforced under a multiple FR FR schedule in which completion of half of the ratios was reinforced with small (lean) and half was reinforced with large (rich) amounts of access to grain. For the two-color condition, different key light colors signaled only the upcoming magnitude; for the four-color condition, different key light colors were associated with each of the four transition types. All pigeons experienced both conditions. Overall, pigeons paused on average 2 to 10 times as long during rich-to-lean transitions than all other transition types. Different timeout durations were examined in a reversal design. Stimulus conditions were switched for each group allowing for the analysis of the relative contributions of the past and upcoming magnitudes on pausing.

 
13. Making Something Out of Nothing: Immobility as an Operant
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KA'ALA BAJO (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract: The tradition of research in the experimental analysis of behavior generally emphasizes the analysis of overt, discrete responses such as lever presses or key pecks. Reflecting this emphasis, definitions of behavior involve the observable action or movement of an organism through space. Though continuous responses involving little to no movement, such as “holding still” or “immobility”, fall outside these definitions, immobility is a form of continuous responding that can be learned and experimentally controlled. The present study investigates parameters surrounding immobility as an operant. Four Carneau pigeons were shaped to remain on a platform for 5 s. Each pigeon was then exposed to a series (5-55 s) of duration requirements across sessions, in which standing on a platform for a fixed-minimum duration was reinforced. Increased post-reinforcement pauses and decreased accuracy (calculated as the number of responses with durations meeting or exceeding the duration requirement divided by the total number of responses made) were observed as a function of duration requirements.
 
14. Immediate Pre-Choice Sucrose Delivery Increases Impulsive Choice in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KATIE MONSKE (Central Michigan University), Ryan Brown (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract: Smethells and Reilly (2015) found that impulsive choice (preference for a smaller, immediate reinforcer over a larger, delayed one) increased by the presentation of a food pellet delivered both 0 and 5 s before the choice trial. The current study aimed at replicating this effect using a different reinforcer–10% sucrose water instead of pellets. Rats were given the choice between a larger, delayed amount of 10% sucrose water and a smaller, immediate amount. Depending on the condition, sucrose water was presented 0 s or 5 s before the choice. Preference for the larger alternative decreased when sucrose water was presented 0 s before the choice, but not when it was presented 5 s before the choice. These results partially replicate previous research and show that pre-choice feeding can increase impulsive choice. The discrepancies between the results might be due to the nature of the reinforcer (tangible or not) and its delivery method (all at once or distributed). Future research will investigate this possibility.
 
15. Chasing Ghosts: Schedule-Controlled and Rule-Governed Behavior in a Computer Game
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University), Althena Rose Bjorback (South Dakota State University), Paige Marie Evans (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract: Voluntary human behavior is the product of at least the immediate consequences of behavior and rule-governed behavior. To investigate how these processes influence behavior, undergraduate students played a unique video game. The game consisted of a 3 component Multiple Concurrent schedule. Participants were only told to ‘hunt’ for invisible objects, and to occasionally record the strategy they were using. In the first session, participants experienced either concurrent Fixed Interval or Fixed Ratio schedules on 2 separate computers (to make the concurrent schedules more obvious). In the second session, participants experienced very loud feedback for correct (and some incorrect) responses to make the contingencies more obvious. In the third session, all participants experienced the same schedules with no additional feedback. This last component would provide a means to compare rates and patterns for the groups to evaluate the difference in histories. Response rates, strategies, and cumulative records were recorded for all sessions. Cumulative records were evaluated for any indication that responding reflected the six schedule contingencies, and compared to whether the participants reported using a strategy that reflected the contingencies. In general, patterning of behavior reflected contingencies prior to verbal reporting of strategies.
 
16. Effects of Ethanol and Nicotine Co-Administration on Risky Choice in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ERIN E. WYLIE (West Virginia University), Karen G. Anderson (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Zoe A. D. Newman (Regis College Autism Center)
Abstract: Given the poor health outcomes resulting from the combined use of alcohol and nicotine, some of which may be due to increased risky choice, more basic research is needed to better characterize drug/dose interactions on risky choice. Probability-discounting procedures involve a series of discrete choices between a smaller, certain reinforcer and a larger, increasingly uncertain reinforcer. Such procedures allow for the assessment of risky choice across studies and facilitate the understanding of drug-related increases in risky choice. The present study investigated effects of acute ethanol alone (Experiment 1) and in combination with nicotine (Experiment 2) using eight Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects of these drugs on risky choice were evaluated using both visual and statistical analyses. Results indicate general increases in risky choice following ethanol administration alone or in combination with nicotine. Specifically, a dose of 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg ethanol increased risky choice, as well as a dose of 0.3 mg/kg nicotine. Further, combined administration of 2.0 g/kg ethanol with 1.0 mg/kg nicotine led to the greatest overall increase in risky choice. Factors that may have impacted results will be discussed. Such altered decision-making patterns may be better understood through further investigation into combined effects of these drugs on risky choice.
 
17. Teaching of Instruction Following Using Matrix Training and Video Modeling to Children With Autism
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
LIDIA MARIA MARSON POSTALLI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Sara Moron (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar)
Discussant: Grecia A Gaviria
Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of recombinative generalization when following instructions (action-object), using a teaching matrix and video-modeling. The actions “circle”, “cross out”, “underline” and “make a triangle over” were used as stimuli and the Greek letters zeta, sigma, gamma and lambda, organized in sub-matrices, were used as objects. A design of multiple probes between sub-matrices was used. The teaching task consisted of presenting visual stimuli (Greek letters) in the four corners of the computer screen simultaneously with the presentation of the target instruction. The child should perform the action (using the mouse) in relation to the corresponding object/letter. If correct, a potentially reinforcing consequence was presented; and if incorrect response, a video model was presented (in which the model/researcher performed the action in relation to the Greek letter corresponding to the dictated instruction), followed by a new opportunity for the participant to respond. The assessment task employed the same configuration, but without presenting different consequences. Data collection was carried out remotely. The four children with ASD aged between 6 and 9 years followed the instructions taught and showed recombinative generalization. The data suggest that teaching following instructions via video modeling was effective and the use of the teaching matrix contributed to promoting recombinative generalization, despite intra- and inter-participant and inter-sub-matrices variability.

 
18. The Development of the Feedback Function in a Perceptual Task
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
XIMENA MORENO (Center of Studies and Investigations on Beavior - University of Guadalajara, México), Gerardo Alfonso Ortiz Rueda (Universidad de Guadalajara-Mexico), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract: Feedback is the function of adjusting behavior to the achievement criterion in a task through the contingent presentation of informative messages. Studies of feedback have manipulated properties of informative messages, such as the frequency, modality, direction of the information, accuracy, type of content, and specificity. These variables participate in the development of the feedback function, along with those of the task: complexity, modality of the objects, and perceptibility. This study aimed to explore the effects of delivering generic informative messages (i.e. “Correct” and “Incorrect”) in a perceptual task of low, medium, and high complexity on the acquisition of their feedback function. Eighteen adults participated in a first-order matching-to-sample task with words as stimuli. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups differing in complexity level: low (2 comparison stimuli), medium (4 CS), and high (6 CS). Results show that participants in the low and medium-complexity tasks performed optimally during training, while participants under high-complexity performed at chance levels. However, this is not observed in the comparison between the post and pretests or in the transfer tasks. It is concluded that low and medium-complexity tasks facilitate the development of the feedback function, while high-complexity tasks hinder it.
 
19. A Modeling Briar-Patch: Complexities in Using Information Criteria in Model Selection
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (Georgia Southern University), KATILYN MARIE ASHLEY TREEM (Georgia Southern University), Makenna Westberry-Nix (Georgia Southern University)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Delay discounting describes how an outcome loses value as the delay to the outcome increases. We measured discounting of different types of talk-therapy in standard discounting tasks and cross-commodity discounting tasks. In a standard discounting task, the reinforcer on one choice alternative is the same reinforcer on the other choice alternative. In cross-commodity discounting tasks, the reinforcers on each alternative are qualitatively different. We compared the hyperbolic discounting model (Mazur, 1987) to a modified hyperbolic model to determine the highest quality model for the standard and cross-commodity discounting task. Model quality was compared using two popular information criteria, Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. For data from the standard discounting task, the information criteria behave as expected and select the simpler model. In one case for the cross-commodity discounting, the information criteria are strict enough to prefer the simpler model even though the more complex model is visually, noticeably better. Conceptual, theoretical, and practical considerations will be discussed.

 
20. Altruism and Generosity From Others: Effects of Specific Naming on Social and Reciprocal Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Natalie Buddiga (Salve Regina University), Ethan Cavacas (Salve Regina University), ANABELLA LAVIANO (Salve Regina University )
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract:

Altruism has been shown to decrease as a function of increasing social distance. This relation is captured by social discounting which outlines a quantitative decline between reward value and increasing social distance. In the social discounting questionnaire, participants are prompted to imagine a list of the 100 people closest to them in order to determine reward values to socially distant persons. Similarly, in the reciprocal discounting questionnaire, participants are required to imagine the same list but instead report how a socially distant person would value rewards to themselves (the participant). Previous research has found that participants tend to report more altruism towards others than others are in return (towards the participant). But in the discounting questionnaires, the questionnaires usually do not specify the name of the socially distant person; rather, a vague indication (i.e., ‘Person 1’) is used. Perhaps if specific names were employed, altruism and generosity from others would be more similar. The present study evaluates the effect of specific naming on social and reciprocal discounting similarity.

 
21. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Understanding Ethical-Decision Making
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
LILY OLSTHOORN (University of Florida), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (University of Florida), Hanna Vance (University of Florida)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Ethical decision making is an integral process within behavior analysis, particularly in applied contexts. Currently, making decisions related to identifying goals for intervention and recruiting practitioners (among many other examples) is largely influenced by the memorization of moral codes set within the practice, as well as any experience and training of the decision-maker. The extent to which antecedent and consequences of the decision or the decision's outcome may impact the practitioner's response to an ethical dilemma are not well understood. To begin evaluating these influences on decision-making we wanted to test the suitability of behavioral economics procedures by using an adapted hypothetical discounting task (Strickland et al., 2022) to evaluate variables that play key roles in the choice behavior of ethical decision making. Specifically, we manipulated the probability of outcomes of a decision, including the risk of harm to self or others, to evaluate how it influenced ethical decision-making in a population of undergraduate students. This study's findings serve as an initial step in validating the use of this methodology in the context of cultural responsiveness in behavior research, that may be extended and applied to increasingly complex decision-making phenomena.
 
22. Effects of Culture on Social Discounting Rates
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JULIA BRAJCICH (Gonzaga University), Ella Pfeifer (Gonzaga University), Julian Camilo Velasquez (University of Guadalajara), Monica Arias Higuera (Universidad Konrad Lorenz, Colombia ), Julian Cifuentes (Southern Illinois University), María Cardona (Universidad Konrad Lorenz, Colombia), Camilo Hurtado-Parrado (Southern Illinois University), Paul Romanowich (Gonzaga University)
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract: Cultural contingencies can influence many different behaviors, such as the choice of whether to share resources. The social discounting task is one way to quantify how and/or how much individuals choose to share a reward with someone else based on their social or emotional proximity to that person. Previous social discounting research has demonstrated how demographic differences rather than cultural differences influenced participants’ sharing behavior. The current study collected online social discount rates from adults living in Colombia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants from each country chose between keeping a certain amount of money for themselves and sharing a certain amount of money with individuals across seven different social distances. The study also utilized the Hofstede Cultural Value scale to measure the cultural background and norms of each country for comparison. Results showed that United Kingdom participants had significantly higher social discount rates, relative to United States and Colombian participants. However, only United Kingdom females showed significantly higher social discount rates relative to United States females, which was not due to age differences. Thus, this study replicated previous research showing that personal differences or other demographic factors influence social discounting behavior more than cultural values.
 
23. Predicting Effects of Reinforcement Delay Using the Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement: A Preliminary Experiment
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LUCAS COUTO DE CARVALHO (Universidade Estadual Paulista), Cristiano Coelho (Pontifícia Universidade Catolica de Goias)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Effects of delay of reinforcement is one of the most studied topics in the behavioral sciences. The present work aimed to test predictions of the “Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement” (MPR: Killeen, 1994), concerning the effects of delays on performances under variable interval (VI) schedules. 28 university students participated in the study. Participants were divided equally into two groups: Delay Group and Immediate Group. In a one-session experiment, participants of both groups responded under five VI values: 1 s, 6 s, 20 s, 35 s, and 60 s. In the Delay Group, reinforcers for participants’ responding occurred after a 1 s delay. In the Immediate Group, reinforcers were immediately delivered to participants’ responses. A two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of VI schedules but not of delay. There were no interaction effects. MPR fits revealed an r2 ≈ 0.80 for the averaged data of both groups, but fits for the individual data prevented a conclusion concerning the predictions of the model. It is suggested that longer sessions, using stability criteria, can answer the question with greater reliability.

 
24. The Effects of Incentives and Message Framing on Physical Activity
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN REDMILE (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Peyton Farmer (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Daphne Kilbourne (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract: Individuals who do not meet physical activity guidelines miss out on the health benefits associated with physical activity, while also increasing their risk for health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, that are associated with sedentary behavior. One approach to increase physical activity is contingency management. The contingency management literature has demonstrated that financial incentives and antecedent manipulations are effective in increasing physical activity. One way to improve their efficacy is by incorporating behavioral economics strategies into antecedent manipulations, such as gain or loss framing. Previous studies show inconsistent effects of loss aversion and framing on behavior change. This suggests the need for further investigation of incentive amounts. This ongoing study evaluates gain and loss frames in contingency management for physical activity using a larger incentive amount than used in previous studies. Ultimately, step counts between loss frame and gain frame groups will be compared. Daily messages are sent to communicate the incentive frame, their step goal, and feedback regarding goal achievement and incentive earnings. Thus far, three subjects have participated, and their single subject, time-series graphs are presented. Practical implications for this study will be discussed.
 
25. Teaching Preschool Children to Wait: A Pavlovian Approach
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
GINA CURTIS (Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Ji Young Kim (Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg), Saba Mahmoudi (Utah State University), Gregory J. Madden (Utah State University)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Self-control refers to selecting a larger later reward over a smaller sooner reward. The current study utilized Pavlovian training as a method to teach self-control choice to eight typically developing preschool-age children The students were selected by the classroom teacher because they exhibited problem behavior such as whining, talking out, and tantrums during the delay to larger later reward. The Pavlovian training involved a neutral item used as a placeholder for obtaining the larger later reward. Colored card stock was trained to be a conditioned stimulus for reinforcement while a different colored cardstock was used as a control signaling no reinforcement would be available. The conditioned stimulus was trained to function as a delay-bridging stimulus for obtaining the larger later reward. The intervention was delivered class wide ad a multiple baseline across classrooms design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure. The findings will be discussed in terms of future research and application in educational settings.
 
26. Sensitivity and Pseudo-Sensitivity in Baum's Generalized Matching Equation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PATRICK MALONE (ABS Behavioral Health Services, LLC), Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract:

The generalized matching equation (GME) is a quantitative model of a given organism’s response allocation across concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Though some studies have found evidence of matching behavior among human subjects, others have observed marked departures. Given that non-human response allocation more commonly adheres to the GME in the published research, this has led some to question the GME’s generality vis-à-vis human subjects. One critique revolves around the presence of ordinal, schedule-correlated stimuli in several studies that have found positive evidence of matching in human subjects, a feature that is largely absent in non-human matching research. Therefore, the present pilot study exposed adult human participants to concurrent schedules of reinforcement accompanied by ordinal, schedule-correlated stimuli. Presses on two buttons displayed on a laptop screen were reinforced with points putatively exchangeable for money on variable interval schedules of reinforcement. Participants were exposed to three concurrent schedules of reinforcement for five-minute intervals, and response allocation was subsequently subject to generalized matching analysis. As of this writing, most subjects have exhibited indifference to the schedule parameters and idiosyncratic descriptions of the contingencies in subsequent interviews.

 
27. The Drawing-A-Line Method (DLM): A New Method to Measure Social Distance With a Ratio Scale
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ALVARO CLAVIJO ALVAREZ (Universidad Nacional de Colombia), Klaus Krejci (Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Social distance describes how close an individual feels to someone else. There have been issues measuring it, as physical distance is measured in ratio units while social distance is measured on an ordinal scale. Safin and Rachlin (2020) proposed a method to measure it with a ratio scale. However, they asserted that their method produced high variability at the lowest positions in the social distance scale, affecting its precision. We developed the drawing-a-line method [DLM] to measure social distance with a ratio scale more accurately. We asked 76 participants to place people in positions 1, 2, 20, 50, and 100 of the social distance scale and to draw a line representing how close they feel to each of them. We extracted the line’s length and used it as the value to construct the discount function. Results show minimal variability in the distance assigned to people placed at low positions. We also found that the hyperbolic pattern of discounting remained, even when ordinal social distance was replaced directly. We discuss the results in terms of how the DLM stands against the traditional method and Safin and Rachlin’s one and conclude that it measures social distance with a ratio scale effectively.

 
28. Human Suboptimal Choice: Identifying Alternative Procedures
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HELEN TECLE KIDANE (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Locey (Hampden-Sydney College)
Discussant: Sherry L. Serdikoff (Savannah State University)
Abstract: Suboptimal choice refers to choices that result in leaner schedules of reinforcement over richer schedules (Spetch et al., 1990). This has been demonstrated with non-human animals using procedures wherein two alternatives correspond to different stimuli and different probabilities of receiving rewards. In a previous study (Cronin, 1980), pigeons engaged in suboptimal choice when stimuli paired with food (conditioned reinforcers) followed responses that resulted in no food. This effect, though, has not been demonstrated with humans. The current study presented a similar task to that of Cronin (1980) to determine whether the manipulation of stimulus presentations could result in suboptimal responding with humans. In a computer task, participants were presented with repeated choices between two alternatives that differed with respect to immediate and delayed visual stimuli and the probability of receiving rewards (videos). Results showed that some participants behaved suboptimally (preferred the alternative that was less likely to produce videos) when stimuli paired with video followed suboptimal responses. These data indicate variables likely involved in maintaining suboptimal choice with humans.
 
29. Performance of Younger and Older Adults on Bidirectional Naming (BiN) Assessments
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
EMILÍA HEIÐA ÞORSTEINSDÓTTIR (Reykjavik University), Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir (University of Nevada, Reno), Hanna Steinunn Steingrimsdottir (Reykjavik University)
Discussant: Juliana Oliveira (Munroe Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The present study was a descriptive comparison of the performance of younger and older adults on the bidirectional naming (BiN) assessment. BiN is defined as a higher-order operant that enables the acquisition of novel speaker and listener behavior without direct reinforcement. No previous studies have examined adults’ performance on the BiN assessment. The younger group consisted of twelve participants aged 18 – 25 and the older group consisted of twelve participants aged 67 and older. The BiN assessment was divided into two parts: naming experience and BiN probe (listener and speaker probe). In the naming experience, participants saw unfamiliar visual stimuli, each presented simultaneously with an auditory stimulus. Two hours later, BiN probes were conducted that consisted of 20 listener and 20 speaker trials. The result indicated that only one participant aged 18 – 25 met the criteria for BiN, which is 80% or more correct responses in both listener and speaker probes. It was unexpected that adults without neurological impairments did not meet the criteria for BiN, given that the assessment is intended to assess a repertoire hypothesized to develop in early childhood. The results raise questions regarding BiN assessment measures.
 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
DONATE