Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

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Poster Session #292A
BPN Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 26, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Asude Ayvaci (Brock University)
1. Modifying Bilateral Rhythmic Operant Behaviors Through Unilateral Cerebellar Stimulation: Behavioral-Neural Integration in Rehabilitation
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
NANAKA ARIHARA (Tokyo Kasei University), Makoto Suzuki (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Naoki Iso (Tokyo Kasei University, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Takuya Matsumoto (Tokyo Kasei University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Alexandra Knerr (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Objective: Given the importance of bilateral rhythmic operant behaviors such as typing and face washing in daily life, the limited effectiveness of rehabilitative training is a significant concern. Consequently, we explored how unilateral cerebellar stimulation can modify these bilateral rhythmic behaviors. Methods: Fourteen healthy adults participated in this study. They were instructed to perform rhythmic hand behaviors with their right and left sides in response to metronome rhythms. Electrical stimulation at 5 Hz, 60 Hz, or a sham condition was applied to the right cerebellum of the participants during these tasks. Ethics: The intensity and frequency of the cerebellar electrical stimulation were maintained within the safety range confirmed by previous studies and approved by an ethical committee. Results: The temporal accuracies of right-hand rhythmic behaviors were significantly improved by the cerebellar electrical stimulation. However, those for left-hand rhythmic behaviors did not show significant improvement. Conclusion: Right-side cerebellar stimulation can improve the temporal and spatial accuracies of right-hand rhythmic operant behaviors. Analysis of behavioral-neural integration would contribute to a new method of rehabilitation.

 
2. The Potential for Behavioral Change Through Neural Conditioning by Paired Associative Stimulation
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
KILCHOON CHO (Tokyo Kasei University; Tokyo Metropolitan University), Makoto Suzuki (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design)
Discussant: Asude Ayvaci (Brock University)
Abstract:

Objective: Recently, it has been shown that the inter-stimulus interval of paired associative stimulation (PAS) affects the direction of synaptic strength, causing long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). However, whether LTP and LTD of cortical synaptic strength influence behavior is an ongoing debate. We therefore compared differences in corticospinal excitability and behavior during PAS between stimulus intervals. Methods: Participants were neurologically normal adults. Participants were instructed to perform abduction of the right index finger in response to a beep. The AB design was employed, with an asynchronous condition followed by a synchronous condition. The stimulus interval between movement onset and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was 36.0 ms in the synchronous condition and 35.3 ms in the asynchronous condition. Ethics: This study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee. Results: The experimental results showed an increase in motor evoked potentials, a shortening of reaction time and an increase in peak velocity under the synchronous condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that corticospinal excitability and behavior may be differentially altered by the stimulus interval of the behavior-relevant PAS.

 
3. Brain Activity Signal Sources During Reinforcement: A Neurobehavioral Assessment of Operant Conditioning
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MAKOTO SUZUKI (Faculty of Health Sciences, Tokyo Kasei University; Faculty of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Tomoka Fukasawa (Tokyo Kasei University), Takako Suzuki (Saitama Prefectural University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Systems Design)
Discussant: Alexandra Knerr (University of Florida)
Abstract: Operant conditioning heavily relies on reinforcements, which include both positive and negative outcomes. However, objectively evaluating brain responses to these reinforcements remains a challenge. This study delved into the brain activity signal sources associated with reinforcements. In our protocol, participants were instructed to quickly press either a right or left button in response to a red cross on the monitor. Following their response, either a reward stimulus (a picture of a coin) or a penalty stimulus (a mauve circle) was randomly presented. Receiving the coin picture meant participants earned a coin after the experiment, while the mauve circle led to a deduction from their total reward. The study measured electroencephalography (EEG), reaction times, and coin acquisition rates as dependent variables. Our findings show that signal sources for the EEG’s alpha, beta, and gamma bands localized in the superior and middle temporal gyrus. The average reaction time recorded was 0.38 seconds. These findings suggest that these regions of the temporal gyrus are the primary brain areas activated by reinforcement.
 
4. Examining the Relationship Between Rates of Challenging Behaviors and Psychotropic Medications in Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
OLIVIA RAGHEB (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Falligant (Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Hunter King (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Asude Ayvaci (Brock University)
Abstract:

Prior studies report on the effects of psychotropic medication in reducing challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury) in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). The corpus of this literature suggests mixed results, highlight the importance of more research targeting the mechanisms by which anxiolytic medications exert their effect on challenging behavior. The current study extends the literature by exploring the relationship between psychotropic medications and rates of challenging behavior in individuals admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe behavior. Inclusion criteria required that participants were prescribed at least one psychotropic medication during baseline. Effect sizes were calculated to evaluate the magnitude of effect of medication(s) on rate of challenging behavior during baseline only. Study findings are discussed with respect to changes in challenging behavior amid regimes of anxiolytic medications, and clinical implications are considered regarding the efficacy of this drug class in individuals with IDD who engage in problem behavior.

 
 

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