Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #87
CBM Saturday PM
Saturday, May 23, 2015
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
35. An Evaluation of Free-pour Training Procedures for College Students
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Emily Metz (Franklin County Board of Developmental Disabilities), Katrina Bettencourt (University of the Pacific), MOLLY HANKLA (University of the Pacific), Audrey Campbell (University of the Pacific), Amir Cruz-Khalili (University of the Pacific), Carolynn S. Kohn (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: Students are generally inaccurate when pouring a standard serving of alcohol. Although this skill is often taught during mandated alcohol-training courses, the effectiveness of training is rarely assessed. The current study assessed the effectiveness of three training methods on college students’ (N = 14) free-pour accuracy of a standard serving of beer. Participants were randomly assigned to verbal feedback, superimposition, or stimulus fading (SF) training or a control group in an ABA or ABACA design (for those requiring additional training). Participants completed two post pours and one-week and 30-day follow up and generalization pours. Overall, 5 of 12 participants required a second training. Results maintained and generalized for 9 of 12 participants at 1-week follow-up. At 30-day follow-up, results maintained for 5 of 10 and generalized for 6 of 10 participants. Superimposition or SF combined with superimposition training appeared to be most effective. Control participants (n = 2) showed no improvement across all 10 test pours, and pours at 1-week and 30-day follow-ups; however, they did accurately pour after receiving superimposition or combination training. These results suggest pour-training is effective, particularly a combination of SF and superimposition, although the effects may not maintain over time or generalize for some students.
36. Demonstrating the Validity of the Video Game Functional Assessment-revised (VGFA-R)
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
FRANK D. BUONO (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Excessive video play has been well documented over the course of the last decade. So much so that newest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013) has included excessive video gaming as disorder categorized as internet gaming disorder. To date, several researchers have designed assessments to evaluate excessive video game play based on the previous editions and current editions of the DSM. However, these assessments primarily measure the criterion established in these manuals, instead of measuring the maintaining function of the video game play. The field of applied behavior analysis has been utilizing functional assessments for the last 30 years and has showed evidence of effective results across different populations and environments. Therefore, the purpose of this is to validate an indirect functional assessment entitled the Video Game Functional Assessment-Revised (VGFA-R) by means of conducting content, construct and criterion related validity.

Child Raising Practices Associated to Problematic Behavior Reduction: A Public Health Approach.

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SILVIA MORALES CHAINE (National Autonomous University of Mexico)

Parent behavioral training is based on empirical evidence. The objective of this paper is to identify the most effective components of a parent?s behavioral training for the acquisition of raising skills and its relations to the problematic child behavior reports in Mexican children by means of a pre-experimental study. We considered 84 volunteer parents, (of one of their children, from two to twelve years old) with a mean age of 36 years, from eight selected states of the Mexican republic according to a public health institutional quota sampling. Self-reports of child behavior change and a parent behavior? direct observation systems of child-parent interaction in simulated situations were used. The parent behavioral training program was based on eight basic child raising skills. It was observed a significant reduction of defiant oppositional and aggressive behavior mean scores, as well as a reduction in parent reported hyperactivity and inattention, ever since the behavioral training. The intervention strategies that were most effective in the program were correction, praise, clear instructions, rule establishment, problem solving, social interaction, and the reduction in punishment. To identify child raising practices associated to inadequate behavior in public health settings allows the design of effective and less costly intervention procedures.

38. Measuring Quality of Life Variables in Older Adults with Dementia in a Special Care Unit
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER WALMSLEY (Western Michigan University), Erin E. Watkins (Western Michigan University ), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Activity engagement has been the subject of much behavior-analytic research with older adults with dementia (see Altus, Engleman & Mathews, 2002; Brenske et al., 2008; and Leblanc et al., 2006, for examples), and is considered an indicator of the degree of quality of life. Moreover, research conducted with individuals with developmental disabilities who have poor verbal skills, and therefore are unable to provide reports on their enjoyment of activities, has produced objective measures that assess happiness (e.g., smiling and laughing). Moore, Delaney, and Dixon (2007) were the first researchers to apply this measurement system to older adults with dementia who also could not verbalize enjoyment with activities, and saw increases in these indices when presented with highly preferred events. Direct comparison of the two types of data collection strategies will determine if one is more valid and sensitive in measuring quality of life over the other. In addition, the concurrent measurement of both activity engagement and indices of happiness allows for correlational analyses. This is important information to be gained, as happiness indices may or may not increase with increased activity participation. To our knowledge, the two quality of life measures have not been compared in any systematic way in the literature.
39. Decreasing Disruptive Behavior during Routine Dental Visits: A Video Modeling Intervention for Young Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JEFFREY F. HINE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ryan Hajek (Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Holly Roberts (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: In a randomized controlled trial, 40 children, 3-6 years old, were shown either a brief, dentist-created video model or a control video (cartoon) prior to a routine dental visit. Using 10-s partial interval recording, results demonstrated that watching a brief video model of the expected procedures reduced the vocal and physical disruptive behavior and the need for restraint in young children visiting the dental clinic for the first time. In addition, subjective rating scales completed by the dentist, the dental assistant, and a blind observer showed higher ratings of cooperation and compliance in those children who had watched the video model prior to the session. Social validity measures also suggested that participants who watched the video model also rated their experience more favorably than the control group. These results suggest that video modeling can lead to children who are lee disruptive and easier to manage and who also are more likely to enjoy their visit with the dentist. Limitations and recommendations for integrating video modeling into every day practice are discussed.

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention to Smoking Cessation in College Students

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LIRA MANDUJANO MANDUJANO (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (Facultad de estudios superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)

Tobacco consumption is a public health problem both in the world and in Mexico as it is associated with chronic degenerative, irreversible, disabling and deadly diseases. According to the National Survey of Addictions (2011) 21.7 of the population aged 12-65 years is active smoker, who began daily consumption at 20.4 years on average. One of the actions that have been implemented to address this problem is early detection, focused on the application of brief interventions based on cognitive behavioral techniques. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in young students. Participants were 10 college students who smoked less than 10 cigarettes daily, aged between 19-25 years. The intervention consisted of an evaluation session, four treatment sessions where self-control techniques, problem solving and gradual reduction of nicotine and tar were used. The pattern of consumption, the levels of anxiety and depression, the levels of negative and positive affect, and the level of readiness for change were obtained and compared before, during treatment and at three months follow-up. The results showed that the pattern of consumption reached abstinence in nine of the participants and one only decreased consumption. The results are discussed in terms of abstinence rates obtained at the end of treatment and at follow-up at 3 months and that set the tone for the establishment of effective strategies for early detection college.


Factors Associated with the Drop-Out of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Brief for Smoking Cessation

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LIRA MANDUJANO MANDUJANO (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), CESAR CARRASCOZA (Facultad de estudios superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (Facultad de estudios superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)

In the international literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral treatments targeting drug users, specifically the effectiveness in terms of maintaining abstinence or reduced consumption over time. However, a problem frequently identified is the high attrition rate of the user. In various studies have identified various factors associated with treatment drop-out which are categorized into 1 patient-related factors (age, sex, education, substance use), 2. treatment factors (treatment method, scenario treatment, duration of treatment) and 3. Factors treatment process (motivation, alliance, treatment satisfaction). Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify factors associated with the desertion of a brief cognitive behavioral intervention for smoking cessation. Involving 45 people who applied for the implementation of the intervention, of whom 25 completed the program, 14 dropped and 6 were not located. The results showed that the variables associated with the drop-out were self-efficacy and level of readiness to change in the initial evaluation. The results suggest the importance of designing strategies for both smokers with low self-efficacy as low readiness to change before starting the procedure.

42. Effects of a personal exercise program on the physical health and psychological adjustment among individuals with SCI
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Harim Kim (Department of Psychology, Yonsei University), KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Department of Psychology, Yonsei University), Justin Y. Jeon (Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University), Dong Il Kim (Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University)
Abstract: Several studies have reported that regular physical activity has physical and psychological benefits for individuals with SCI. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a personal exercise program on the physical and psychological health of individuals with SCI. 17 patients with SCI (11m & 6f) whose ages ranged from 23 to 53 (M=37.24, SD=6.83) participated in either a 6-week exercise program (n=11) or a non-exercising control group (n=6). Outcome measures consist of factors for the physical health including BMI, percentage of body fat(BF), and waist circumference(WC) and the psychological adjustment such as health related quality of life (HQoL), depression, anxiety, self-esteem and perceived social support. Additionally the Stages of Change scale(SoC) and the Process of Change scale(PoC) of the Transtheoretical Model of change(TTM) were administered to assess the progression of the behavior change as well as the use of the strategies applied for the behavioral change. Results showed nosignificant changes after the training in the indicators of physical health between groups. However participants in the exercise group reported significant improvements on overall psychological variables except for self-esteem and 2 out of 9 subdomains of HQoL. These participants also reported more progress in the stages of change for exercise behavior and using a greater number of strategies to translate exercise intentions to practice when compared to participants in the control group. Additional findings, further implications and limitations are discussed.
43. Functional Analysis of Noncompliance Behaviors of Children and Adolescents in a Medical Treatment Situation
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ROBSON ZAZULA (Universidade Federal da Integração Latino Americana), Márcia Cristina Gon Caserta Caserta (Universidade Estadual de Londrina)
Abstract: The functional analysis is an effective way to identify maintaining contingencies of childhood behavior considered problematic. Studies conducted with children with atopic dermatitis demonstrated that caregivers often complain of children’s noncompliance, especially during medical treatment situations. This study aimed to assess noncompliance behavior of children with atopic dermatitis during a medical treatment situation. The study evaluated six typically developing 4- and 14-year-old girls and their caregivers in a structured medical situation. The behaviors of children and their caregiver were observed and recorded under three or five conditions: baseline, followed by two or four medical treatment situations. The assessments with adolescents (9- and 14-year-old) evaluated the effects of caregivers’ instructions in compliance and noncompliance behavior, the assessments with scholars (6- and 9-year-old) evaluated the effects of caregivers attention and task difficult in compliance and noncompliance behavior and the assessments with preschoolers (4- and 6-year-old) evaluated the effects of escape and attention in compliance and noncompliance behavior. The results showed that the manipulation of these variables changed noncompliance responses in all children. The use of direct instructions and feedbacks increases the probability of compliance behaviors, especially when associated with physical guide and praise.

Anxiety in University Academics of Iztacala's Mexican University

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BENITA CEDILLO ILDEFONSO (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Susana Mel�ndez (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Norma Cortés (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Veronica Monroy (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Alejandra Pérez (National Autonomous University of Mexico)

Anxiety is defined here as an emotional state aroused in response to some current stimulus, which in the past has been followed by a disturbing stimulus. It involves emotional, motor, physiological and cognitive components. The objective of this research is to compare the Physiological, Cognitive, and Motor anxiety between Biology, Medicine, Dentistry and Psychology university academics. It was applied to 38 voluntary university academics of both sexes, the the Inventory of Situations and Answers of Anxiety (ISRA: Tobal and Cano Vindel, 1986) evaluates the general level of anxiety, cognitive, physiological and motor components. The results demonstrated a greater level of cognitive anxiety than physiological and motor in the university academics of Biology, compared with the other professional careers. It is inferred that this would imply to recognize the importance of the effects of the anxiety in one self's perception; this is the way professors perceive and think of themselves when being evaluated for something important in their job or for a new assignment, the importance given to social critics when making mistakes, their negative attitudes toward themselves and toward others, feelings of inferiority and incompetence.

45. An Examination of Treatment Wording on Treatment and Therapist Acceptability
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brea Banks (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mindy Chadwell (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: It has long been recognized that the words we use when describing treatments to lay persons may effect treatment acceptability and adherence (e.g., Woolfolk, Woolfolk, & Wilson, 1977). In fact, the 4th edition task list of the Behavior Analysis Certification Board states that applied behavior analysts must be able to "explain behavioral concepts using everyday language (lay terms)." There is minimal empirical research; however, that examines the effects of how treatments are described on treatment acceptability or adherence. Research that has been done has focused largely on teachers or undergraduates. This study examines parent perceptions of a commonly prescribed behavioral intervention (time-out) that is presented via video by the same therapist but using three different descriptions. Parents presenting to an outpatient behavioral health clinic with their children are randomly assigned to one of three time-out description conditions: 1) technical terminology, 2) lay terminology, or 3) popular terminology. Participants watch a video of the therapist describing time-out and then complete a survey of treatment and therapist acceptability, as well as their comprehension of the procedure. Differences observed between conditions in parent acceptability of treatment and therapist will be described. Implications for how applied behavior analysts present information to parents are provided.
47. Inappropriate Verbalizations
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: The following study focuses on an individual who displays verbal behavior that is often perceived as teasing, harassing others or simple disruption to a hospital unit. The intervention applied a technique to reinforce productive verbal behavior, while at the same time assist the patient in learning how to acquire social attention in a more acceptable manner. This patient has had behavior problems for many years and the theme is invariably about poor interactions with his peers. Based on a review of the literature a definition was developed to address a problem identified as inappropriate verbalizations. Using this definition, the patient was observed for inappropriate verbalizations, during the daily routine. This addresses the research question by directly viewing the patient in a social interaction in the very type of setting where he has had altercations in the past. During the treatment phase, the patient had the opportunity to read a joke, previously selected by the author, to an audience of fellow patients during this line-up process. An A-B-A-B design made a comparison of the patient in the baseline and treatment phases.
Keyword(s): Poster



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