Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

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Symposium #240
CE Offered: BACB
A Basic Analysis of Stimulus Control and Derived Relational Responding
Sunday, May 24, 2015
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
007A (CC)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College)
CE Instructor: Russell W. Maguire, Ph.D.
Abstract: Derived relational responding involves the formation of untrained stimulus-stimulus relations and is achieved through various procedural arrangements. Multiple conceptual interpretations exist to explain the formation of derived stimulus-stimulus formations that are evident in these three experiments. Results were interpreted within a verbal behavior and stimulus equivalence framework. In experiment one, typically developing children were taught to form conditional and simple discriminations, using experimental stimuli. Results demonstrated emergent manding, tacting, and listener behavior, following errorless training procedures. In experiment two, the effectiveness of multiple exemplar instruction and the demonstration of emergent listener behavior were evaluated, following tact instruction. Results indicated that emergent listener behavior was demonstrated in typically developing children, following multiple exemplar instruction. In experiment three, the effectiveness of differential outcomes with thematically-related consequences (DO/T) was compared to non-differential outcomes (NDO) for forming stimulus classes through trained and derived stimulus-stimulus relations. Results indicated that discrimination training involving the DO/T procedure was most effective in forming stimulus classes. All three experiments demonstrate basic research approaches to forming derived relations through procedural variations.
Keyword(s): differential outcomes, naming, stimulus equivalence, verbal behavior
 
A Stimulus Equivalence Analysis of Emergent Mands, Tacts, and Listener Behavior
CHRISTINA M. BOYD-PICKARD (RCS Learning Center), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting), Jacqueline Adams (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract: A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of training three stimulus-stimulus relations (tact and visual-visual stimulus matching) and then testing for the emergence of nine additional untrained relations: tacts (naming or labeling), mands (requesting), and listener behavior (physically dissimilar stimuli to one another). In experiment one, three typically developing adults were taught to name three different nonsense forms from two classes (B1, B2, B3 and C1, C2, C3) where one stimulus from each class was named a cug (B1 and C1), one named a vek (B2 and C2) and one named a zid (B3 and C3). Following training, participants were tested in matching nonsense symbols of the same spoken name (e.g. B1 and C1). Participants were then taught to match B comparison stimuli (B1, B2, B3) to three novel stimuli (D1, D2, and D3, respectively). Testing was then conducted on all possible stimulus-stimulus relations, including D-naming (emergent tacting) and A-D matching (emergent listener behavior). Finally, participants were taught to sequence stimuli (first, second, third). Once they acquired these sequences one stimulus was removed and to complete the sequence, the participant was required to request (e.g. mand) the missing stimulus. Data were collected on the participants’ mands for missing stimuli. The results of experiment one were that all possible post-tested relations emerged and three-four member equivalence classes were demonstrated. In experiment two, the results and procedures were systematically replicated with typically developing four-year old children serving as participants.
 
Multiple Exemplar Instruction and Increasing Listener Behavior in Children with Autism
KELLY HURLEY (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on emergent auditory-visual (A-B) relations in young children with autism spectrum disorder. The participants were first taught to tact (B-A) arbitrary stimuli (“cug”, “vek” and “zid”) using a delayed prompting procedure until they reached 100% accuracy across each of the stimuli. Following tact training, the participants were then tested for the corresponding auditory - visual responses. If participants failed to demonstrate the bidirectional relation following this initial tact training then multiple exemplar instruction was implemented. During the MEI phase, the participants were taught to tact novel stimuli that shared the same name as the initial stimulus. Multiple exemplar instruction was then followed by a test for emergent listener behavior. Experimental results indicated that multiple exemplar training was effective in establishing emergent listener behavior for individuals who were not able to demonstrate the auditory-visual response after the initial tact instruction
 
The Role of Differential Outcomes in Conditional Discrimination Training for Typically Developing Adults
COLLEEN YORLETS (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Christina M. Boyd-Pickard (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that discrimination training involving outcome-specific reinforcement contingencies, results in more rapid rates of acquisition than reinforcement contingencies which are not outcome specific (e.g., Goeters, Blakely, & Poling, 1992). Within Experiment 1, an alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching conditional discriminations using two different procedures: one with differential outcomes where events were thematically related to training stimuli (DO/T) and one with non-differential outcomes (NDO). Results demonstrated that participants met criterion performance on all occasions when instruction involved the DO/T procedure and during only 55% of all opportunities when taught by the NDO procedure. The current experiment is a systematic replication of Experiment 1 which compares procedures involving differential outcomes to those without differential outcomes. Participants in this study were three typically developing adults. It was demonstrated that the procedure involving differential outcomes was most effective in conditional discrimination training.
 

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