Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #47I
EAB Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Zeinab Hedroj (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
99. The Merger of Pre-Experimental and Abstract Classes via Common Element Evidenced Through Sorting Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAMON MARIN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Brazil), Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract:

Sorting tasks are commonly used to assess categorization responses, and it has also been applied to verify arbitrary stimulus relations established in experimental settings. This study employed a sorting task to assess whether teaching new arbitrary relations, including abstract and meaningful stimulus, affects pre-experimental relations. Pre- and post-tests verified how participants distributed 51 familiar and 15 abstract pictures compared to seven potential experimenter-defined classes (Birder, Sailor, Gardner, Dentist, Baker, Car Mechanic, and Abstract). Nine of the abstract stimuli were used in teaching AB and AC arbitrary relations under a matching-to-sample procedure for the emergence of three 3-member arbitrary classes. After the formation of ABCs classes, participants learned DA relations where D were meaningful words (Dentist, Baker, Mechanic; Condition 1) or pseudowords (Tabilu, Gogica, Reveca; Condition 2), and showed class expansion (ABC-D, for both conditions). Condition 1 produced the emergence of relations between ABCD and the familiar pictures related to dentist, baker, and car mechanic, according to experimenter-defined classes. Condition 2 produced the emergence of participant-defined classes distinct from experimenter-defined ones. The comparison between sorting tasks in pre- and post-test evidenced a shift of stimulus control for relating abstract and familiar pictures, according to the arbitrary relations established experimentally.

 
100. The Effect of Effort on Impulsive Choice
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SERGIO RAMOS SOLÍS (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Gabriela Eugenia López-Tolsa (UNED), Ricardo Pellon (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract: When the two options vary on more than one dimension in a delay discounting task, the decision becomes more difficult. The purpose of the present experiment was to add effort to the options in a delay discounting task with the aim to study if the effort influence more than the delay to the consequence to the decision of the subjects. Two different strains of rats, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), were exposed to a delay discounting task that consisted on presenting the subject with two levers: one that gave a small immediate reinforcer and the other that delivered a large delayed reinforcer. Each strain was divided in two groups: one group has the effort in the delayed option; the other has the effort in the immediate option. Effort was implemented with fixed ratio schedules (FR). Results show that the subjects who has the effort in the delayed option discounting steeper than those other who has the effort in the immediate option. In conclusion, when the two options vary in magnitude of reinforcement, delay to the consequence and effort, it is the latter dimension what make rats behave more impulsive or self-controlled.
 
101. A Review of Teaching Methods for Absolute Pitch
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
BRYN HARRIS (University of North Texas), Daniele Ortu (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract: Absolute pitch (AP), also known as perfect pitch, is defined as the ability to identify any musical note without the use of a reference tone. It is widely considered a rare skillset whose genesis is not well understood. Studies that examine genetic or neuroanatomical differences of individuals with AP remain inconclusive. Conversely, cross-cultural comparisons indicate that populations that use a tonal language have a higher proportion of individuals with AP. In addition, AP is theorized to be facilitated by musical training in early childhood. This suggests that AP is an auditory discrimination that can be taught, yet this avenue has largely been unexplored by behavior analysts. The following review will provide behavior-analytic interpretations of attempts of teaching AP and draw comparisons to current methods for forming auditory discriminations within behavior analytic literature. Theoretical and practical implications for successfully teaching AP will also be discussed, including the advancement of current understanding of auditory perceptual responses as a whole.
 
102. Experimental Analysis of Stimulus Control by Punishment
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SOMCHART SAKULKOO (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Shannon Ormandy (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University), Cameron Mittelman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract: Similar to stimulus discrimination in reinforcement literature, punishment can be used to promote discrimination between two stimulus situations. According to Azrin and Holz (1966), discrimination in punishment typically consists of two controlling stimuli associated with two contexts—a warning and a safe period. During the warning period, a stimulus associated with the presentation of the punishment procedure is presented. This stimulus is called a discriminative stimulus for punishment (SDp). On the other hand, during safe periods, a stimulus associated with the absence of punishment procedure (hypothesized SΔp) is presented. O’Donnell (2001) and Chance (1999, 2008) suggested that in the absence of a punishment condition there is either a discriminative stimulus (SD) or a stimulus delta (SΔ) that exerts control over responses. Therefore, the stimulus associated with the absence of punishment may not exist. The present study demonstrates the need of SΔp when stimulus control by punishment is established in computer-based activities with human participants. The total responses, response rate, latency, interresponse time (IRT), and duration are used to indicate behavior changes across a series of pairs of stimulus control situations (e.g., typical stimulus control [i.e., SD and SΔ] and stimulus control by punishment [i.e., SDp and hypothesized SΔp]). Lastly, established controlling stimuli are tested as consequences to evaluate the transformation of stimulus function from antecedent variables to consequence variables. The implications and the mechanism of punishment will be discussed.
 
103. Functional Analysis Screening for Subtypes of Automatic Reinforcement
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA GEORGE (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract: Querim et al. (2013) described an automatic screener assessment involving consecutive no interaction conditions prior to conducting a functional analysis when the predicted function of the target behavior is automatic reinforcement. One potential limitation of the screener is that is does not allow for sub-typing (Hagopian et al, 2015) of the automatically-reinforced behavior. Thus, although the screener may enhance the efficiency of the assessment, it does not account for subtypes and may result in poor treatment outcomes. The current study aimed to extend Berg et al., (2016) by a) evaluating correspondence between a modified screener (i.e., play and no interaction) and a functional analysis (including attention, escape, play, and no interaction) and b) evaluate the extent to which treatment outcomes map on to the suggested sub-type by both assessments. Our screener involved a pairwise comparison of 5-min no interaction and 5-min play sessions. We followed the screener with a functional analysis and replicated the screener. Finally, we evaluated an NCR intervention. Results showed that the modified screener and functional analysis indicated different subtypes. Preliminary treatment results suggest NCR is an effective intervention, which corroborates the subtype indicated by the full functional analysis.
 
104. A Preliminary Study About the Effects of Probabilistic Reinforcement in a Transitive Inference Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HÉCTOR OCTAVIO CAMARENA (University of Guadalajara), Julieta Delgadillo (University of Guadalajara), Óscar García-Leal (University of Guadalajara)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract:

In the basic procedure from Piaget (1921), when a relation of the form if A > B and B > C is given, a logical inference A > C is expected. This process is called transitive inference (TI). The adapted version for animals involves the presentation of a simultaneous discrimination between stimuli pairs. In this way, when A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, D+E- is trained, a B>D preference is expected, assuming that if A>B>C>D>E, then B>D. This effect has been widely reported using several procedures and different species (Lazareva, 2021). In the current experiment TI was evaluated employing probabilistic reinforcement. Thus, for the positive stimuli a .7 probability was administered and for the negative stimuli a .3 probability was administered. Under this arrangement the relation A>B>C>D>E is still allowed, but TI becomes more difficult. Five pigeons (Columba Livia) were exposed to the mentioned arrangement. Only four pigeons completed the training phases, from those pigeons, two were capable of learning TI, whereas the other two were not. Additionally, it was found that correct response ratios did not predict BD performance. The results are relevant for the two main accounts of TI: the associative account and the ordinal representation account.

 
105. Parametric Manipulations in a Novel Risky-Choice Procedure With Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JUSTIN T VAN HEUKELOM (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Pedro Vidal (UNED), Elizabeth Katherine Garcia (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract:

Risky choice, prevalent in populations with substance use disorders, may be defined as continuing to behave in a given manner despite the possibility of receiving an aversive consequence (e.g., continuing to smoke cigarettes despite the possibility of health problems). In this study, rats were repeatedly presented with choices between smaller (1 dipper presentation of sucrose solution) and larger (3 dipper presentations) reinforcers. The fixed-ratio (FR) requirement associated with choice of the smaller reinforcer remained at 1, while the probability of contacting an aversive outcome (i.e., a large FR) associated with the larger reinforcer was varied across blocks within each session; these probabilities were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 87.5%. Two subgroups of rats (n = 4 per subgroup) experienced probabilities in either ascending or descending order. For some (but not all) rats, choice of the larger reinforcer decreased as a function of increasing probability of the large FR; risky choice in the procedure also was affected by additional parametric manipulations (e.g., FR size; yoked-time schedule). In general, developing novel procedures for studying choice controlled by probabilistic aversive outcomes may allow researchers to examine effects of neurobiological manipulations (e.g., drugs) on risky choice without having to resort to electric shock.

 
106. Application of the Evolutionary Theory of Behavior Dynamics to Severe Problem Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN BENSON (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract: The Evolutionary Theory of Behavior Dynamics (ETBD; McDowell, 2004) extends the selectionist account of behavior through a computational algorithm that applies the processes of selection, reproduction, and mutation to animate artificial organisms (AOs). As the rules operate iteratively, AOs emit behavior which contacts and is adapted to contingencies in the virtual environment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that AOs animated by the rules of ETBD emit behavior that is indistinguishable from that of live animals in the laboratory. Extending the ETBD to model behavior of social significance is a recent development (Morris & McDowell, 2021). The series of studies described in the current article add to this emerging literature by applying the ETBD to model additional functional classes of problem behavior and various clinical procedures. Outcomes obtained with AOs corresponded well with outcomes typically observed with clinical populations. Potential applications of the ETBD to the study of problem behavior are discussed.
 
107. Punishing Effects of Stimuli Correlated With Rich-to-Lean Transitions
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ALANNA FERGUSON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract:

Rich-to-lean and other transitions have been shown to function aversively for several species, including humans, rats, and pigeons. In the current study, pigeons had experience pecking under a multiple fixed ratio fixed ratio schedule in which ratios ended in a large/rich or small/lean amount of grain. Each of the four transitions between rich and lean was signaled by a different key light color. Pigeons paused approximately twice as long as or longer during the rich-to-lean transitions than during other transitions. A dependent concurrent variable interval 2-min variable interval 2-min schedule (Thompson, 1965) will be established in order to assess punishing effects of the transition-specific stimuli. After stability is reached, punishment probes will be implemented, during which one of the transition-specific stimuli is flashed contingent on responses on one of the keys according to a random-ratio 5 schedule. Potential conditioned punishment (e.g., rich-to-lean and lean-to-lean stimuli) and reinforcement (e.g., lean-to-rich and rich-to-rich) effects will be evaluated. Results may inform clinical practice in that they may demonstrate how advance notice or prompts that remind individuals to do work may function aversively.

 
108. Effects of Simulated Alcohol Impairment on College Students’ Driving Simulator Trials and Field Sobriety Tests
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MACKENZIE BARANSKI (Northern Michigan University), Cory Toegel (Northern Michigan University), Carson Yahrmarkt (Northern Michigan University), Forrest Toegel (Northern Michigan University)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract: The consumption of alcohol has serious detrimental effects on motor abilities and everyday tasks. We evaluated effects of visual impairment imposed by alcohol intoxication goggles with varying blood alcohol content (BAC) levels (No Goggles, Clear, <0.06 BAC [Mild], and >0.25 BAC [Severe]) on performance during driving simulator trials and field sobriety tests by college students. Sessions took place as a regular part of the laboratory portion of a psychology research methods class. In each session, students were exposed to a series of three 1-minute driving simulator trials and one field sobriety test under one of the visual impairment conditions. Driving trials yielded measures including speed and number of collisions. Field sobriety tests yielded measures that included time to complete the test, counts of missteps, and whether students lost their balance. Each student was exposed to one of four conditions per session and a single session in which one of the previous conditions was repeated. Visual impairment did not have systematic effects on driving simulator measures, but it did produce systematic effects on field sobriety test performance. Effects of visual impairment on each measure will be described in detail, and possible reasons for differential effects will be discussed.
 
109. A Behavioral Model of Episodic Remembering: What-Where-When Stimulus Control
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HAWKEN V. HASS (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sophie Shea (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Zeinab Hedroj
Abstract: Stimulus control by what, where, and when features of an event has been termed “episodic-like” remembering. We examined procedural modifications to the Odor Span Task (OST) to assess control by what-where-when stimulus properties. The OST is an incrementing non-match-to-sample procedure where selection of session-novel odors results in reinforcement; previously reinforced comparison odors do not. In Experiment 1, three rats learned the OST in two different apparatuses and transitioned between the contexts each day; selection of both session-novel and context-novel odors resulted in reinforcement. Above chance performance on probe trials showed that OST accuracy was under contextual control. Two rats maintained this performance for up to four transitions in a session. Experiment 2 added another layer of stimulus control: reinforcer flavor. While correct OST trials resulted in an unflavored sucrose pellet, a flavored reinforcer (e.g., banana) was paired with a randomly-selected odor from the OST in one apparatus. Selecting the flavor-paired odor was reinforced on subsequent presentations. In the other apparatus, a different odor was paired with a different flavor (e.g., chocolate). Two rats learned to select the replenishing scents in a context and flavor-dependent manner. Results suggest behavioral control by multiple stimulus properties, consistent with behavioral models of episodic-like remembering.
 
110. Effects of Response Effort on the Resurgence of Academic Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KYLA STEPHENS (University of North Carolina Wilmington ), Emma Auten (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Elizabeth Paige Thuman (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Emily L. Baxter (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract: Resurgence is the recurrence of a previously reinforced response following a decrease in the reinforcement conditions of an alternative response. Previous literature has looked at how different dimensions of reinforcement (e.g., rate, magnitude, and effort) affect the level of resurgence using a three-phase procedure. The present study investigated how response effort affects the resurgence of academic responding. To determine effort level, participants completed a preassessment of four brief math tests in division, addition, subtraction, and multiplication prior to the experimental sessions. The math operation with the lowest score was designated the “high effort” response (i.e., target) and the math operation with the highest score was designated the “low effort” response (i.e., alternative). In Phase 1, points were delivered for the target response. In Phase 2, points were delivered for the alternative response. In Phase 3 (i.e., extinction), no points were delivered for any response. We hypothesized that in extinction we would observe an initial persistence of alternative response rate and increased responding on the target response. Current results demonstrate resurgence of the target behavior during extinction. Persistence of the alternative response, however, was not observed during extinction. Implications of response effort and resurgence will be discussed.
 
111. Reinstatement in a Multiple Schedule in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SKYLAR MACKENZIE MURPHY (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Rebeca Barba (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Madeleine Mason (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Elijah Richardson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract:

Reinstatement is a type of relapse that occurs when a noncontingent reinforcer is presented during extinction. Most studies of reinstatement have trained and then extinguished a single response in a single setting. In the present study, rats were trained to respond on a multiple schedule signaled by three odor stimuli. In positive components, the first response after 5-s resulted in the delivery of a sugar pellet and initiated a 30-s intertrial interval (ITI). In negative components, the odor was presented for 5-s and terminated with the ITI. In Phase 1 nose-poke responding was reinforced on an FI 5-s schedule in each of the three components. In subsequent phases, one or more components were placed on extinction. After behavior had extinguished in one component, introduction of extinction in a second component often resulted in relapse in the first component (resurgence). When extinction was programmed in all components, reinstatement was studied by delivering non-contingent sugar pellets during the inter-trial interval. Most rats showed reinstatement under these conditions and the general findings were that magnitude of reinstatement was directly related to reinforcement frequency and extinction duration. These findings will be discussed in terms of Behavioral Momentum Theory and Resurgence as Choice Theory.

 
112. Oxycodone and Sensitivity to Reinforcement Magnitude: Effects of Magnitude-Correlated Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIZABETH KATHERINE GARCIA (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Justin T Van Heukelom (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Pedro Vidal (UNED, University of North Carolina Wilmington), Caroline Krieman (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract: Evaluating the effects of drugs on reinforcement dimensions (e.g., magnitude, delay, probability) increases our understanding of the behavioral mechanisms of drug action on impulsive and risky choice. Previous research suggests oxycodone decreases sensitivity to reinforcement magnitude (Van Heukelom, 2021). In their concurrent-chains procedure, rats chose between a standard alternative (which always produced 3 dipper presentations of sucrose solutions) and a variable alternative (which produced either 1, 3, or 9 dipper presentations); these magnitudes varied across three within-session blocks. The option which produced the larger magnitudes was signaled by a blinking light. Although oxycodone decreased sensitivity to magnitude, whether this was a direct effect on sensitivity or an indirect effect on stimulus control by the blinking light was unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine if subjects’ behavior would come under control of magnitude in the same procedure without the blinking light. Baseline sensitivity to magnitude was slightly higher without the blinking light, and effects of oxycodone on sensitivity to magnitude were similar with and without the blinking light. Thus, the presence of an explicit exteroceptive stimulus does not appear necessary to establish control by reinforcement magnitude, or to examine effects of drugs, under this within-session procedure.
 
114. Evaluating the Effects of Time-Out on Pause Durations in Rich-to-Lean Transitions
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN HENDERSON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alanna Ferguson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Chris Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract: Previous research found that rich-to-lean transitions and transition types may function aversively for both humans and non-humans. This study's purpose is to include a neutral period between reinforcer delivery and the start of a new transition to decrease pausing. This time-out period may assist in diminishing the aversiveness of transitions from more to less favorable conditions. Pigeons’ pecking is reinforced under a multiple FR FR schedule in which completion of half of the ratios was reinforced with small (lean) and half was reinforced with large (rich) amounts of access to grain. For one group of pigeons, different key light colors were associated with each of the four transition types; for a second group of pigeons, different key light colors signaled only the upcoming magnitude. Overall, pigeons paused on average two to nine times as long during rich-to-lean transitions than the other three transition types. The effects of time-out are examined by inserting a 30-s timeout after half of the food reinforcers (i.e., before half of each type of transition). A within-subject design is conducted where the stimulus conditions will be switched for each group allowing the analysis of the relative contributions of the past and upcoming magnitudes on pausing.
 
115. Functional Equivalence in Rats: Transfer of Novel Functions Across Class Members
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MADELEINE MASON (University of North Carolina - Wilmington )
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract:

A repeated simple discrimination reversal procedure has produced evidence for classification of arbitrary (symbolic) stimuli in several species, showing promise as an animal model of symbolic learning. The present study in rats assessed whether a novel response trained to one class member would transfer without direct training to other class members, as has been demonstrated in humans. In Phase 1, using a go/no-go arrangement, rats were trained to nose-poke in a center response port in the presence of odors designated as members of Set X, while responses to members of Set Y were unreinforced. Contingencies (i.e., which set was positive) were repeatedly reversed each time subjects met mastery criteria. Discriminative performance on the first presentation of odors following a reversal was considered evidence for functional class formation. In Phase 2, a novel left- or right-side port response was trained to one member of each class in a new context (X1-right, Y1-left). Following task mastery, other class members were presented on unreinforced probe trials to test for response transfer. Some rats demonstrated statistically significant transfer, but overall, probe performance was variable. Further analysis is warranted to ascertain sources of variability to validate this task as a model of symbolic processes.

 
116. A Test of Functional Class Expansion in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIJAH RICHARDSON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Madeleine Mason (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Skylar Mackenzie Murphy (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Rebeca Barba (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract: This study was conducted as part of the ongoing effort to develop a rodent model of equivalence relations. Rats were tested for evidence of functional equivalence and class expansion using olfactory stimuli. Initially, four olfactory stimuli were assigned to two arbitrary sets of two and rats were trained on a go no-go task to respond to members of only one set at a time. Reinforcement contingences for each set were reversed following accurate responding. After repeated reversals, probe sessions revealed that after encountering the reversed contingency with one member of each class, rats then responded at above chance accuracy to the other class members, which demonstrated transfer of function across functional classes in rodents. Next, researchers tested whether rats could show evidence for class expansion. Two new scents were trained alongside one member of each of the original sets using the same repeated reversal procedures. Next, probe sessions were conducted with the new scents and the other original set members to assess whether they had become class members. Expansion training and testing was replicated until set size reached six stimuli. Preliminary results were consistent with predictions of class expansion.
 
117. All the cool kids are part of the Neuroscience Special Interest Group. Are you cool?
Area: EAB
SUZANNE H. MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract: Within behavior analysis, there has been a growth in basic and clinical research devoted to understanding the interplay between behavioral treatments or events and neural dysfunction. The Neuroscience SIG provides a forum for building collaborations, exchanging ideas related to basic and applied neuroscience issues, and for sharing resources to address practical issues associated with incorporating neuroscience into your research or practice. SIG Mission/Objectives: The Neuroscience SIG brings together researchers, academics, clinicians, and students interested in the intersection of behavior analysis and neuroscience as it relates to basic research, clinical interventions, or general neurological dysfunction. The Neuroscience SIG has four primary missions: *To introduce behavior analytic research to the neurosciences and introduce neuroscience research to behavior analysis. *To serve as a meeting place and training environment for students and professionals interested in basic and applied neuroscience research. *To serve as a forum for collaborative relationships, funding applications, and the sharing of best practices. *To advocate for and promote high standards in the application of behavior analytic treatments for individuals with neurological dysfunction. Future initiatives: *Create a list of experts to advise on specific techniques and practices that will be useful when incorporating neuroscience techniques into behavior analytic research or practice. *Create brief webinars to provide information about neuroscience topics relevant to behavior analysts, and behavior analytic considerations relevant to neuroscientists. *Organize a general interest symposium that will introduce neuroscience research on a topic traditionally viewed as behavioral. Description of Membership: Open to all ABAI members, but also academics, researchers, administrators, clinicians from other organizations, and consumers. We welcome anyone with an interest in the intersection of behavior analysis and neuroscience.
 
118. Purchase Decision-Making
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KIM IDAR GISKE (University of Nevada, Reno), Natalie Buddiga (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract: With an ever-increasing array of virtual payment modes, the idea of a cashless society is becoming more real every year. The impact of transitioning away from cash as the main payment mode has been studied for decades, but the specific mechanisms of the purchase decision-making process has not yet been studied from a behavior analytic perspective. This study aims to establish research in this area by evaluating if virtual and physical dollars differentially affect the likelihood of making a purchase. To investigate purchase decision-making, a purchasing task prompted participants to make choices between the receipt and spending of physical and virtual dollars. More specifically, participants completed rounds of a matching game to earn money. After each round, participants were asked to choose between being paid in physical or virtual dollars, and after completing all rounds, participants were asked to choose between spending physical or virtual dollars in the purchase of raffle tickets. Participants were also asked to make choices between two hypothetical monetary outcomes in order to evaluate any potential correlations between currency preference and probability, delay, and effort discounting rates.
 
119. Basic and Applied Research on Extinction Bursts
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HALLE NORRIS (Children’s Specialized Hospital-Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services ), Wayne W. Fisher (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Brian D. Greer (Rutgers Brain Health Institute; Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; Children’s Specialized Hospital–Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services ), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract:

Discontinuation of the contingency between a response and its reinforcer sometimes produces a temporary increase in the response before its rate decreases, a phenomenon called the extinction burst. Prior clinical and basic studies on the prevalence of the extinction burst provide highly disparate estimates. Existing theories on the extinction burst fail to account for the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and the basic behavioral processes that control response bursting remain poorly understood. In this paper, we first review the basic and applied literature on the extinction burst. We then describe a recent refinement of the concatenated matching law called the temporally weighted matching law that appears to resolve the above-mentioned issues regarding the extinction burst. We present illustrative translational data based conceptually on the model. Finally, we discuss specific recommendations derived from the temporally weighted matching law regarding procedures clinicians could implement to potentially mitigate or prevent extinction bursts.

 
120. Is the Range of Delays of Rewards a Parameter of Delayed-Discounting Rates?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Karla Campos (National Autonomous University of Mexico), RAUL AVILA (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract:

In a delay-discounting procedure, choosing between a smaller and immediate reward and a larger delayed one could be modulated by the range of delays of the larger reward. This possibility was addressed in this study with hypothetical money, and low and high-caloric value food and beverages as rewards. Twenty-four participants chose between rewards delivered immediately or delayed 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 1 year, or 5 years. For the other twenty-four participants, the delays of the larger reward were 1 day and 2 days, 1 month, 180 days, and 1 year. The discounting rates were higher for delays varying from one day to five years than for delays ranging from one day to one year. In contrast with the other four rewards, only high-caloric food showed a similar discounting rate in both ranges of delay. These data are discussed in terms of the contribution of the range of delay, one day to one year or one day to five years, to the relative choice of the larger later reward, and the interaction of this range of delays with the reward type.

 
121. Expanding a Laboratory Model for Evaluating Relapse of Undesirable Caregiver Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
DARKO CABO (Marcus Autism Center ), Alexis Constantin Pavlov (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Catherine Williams (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine; University of North Carolina Wilmington ), Kyleigh Montague (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine; University of Florida), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Tracy Argueta (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
Abstract:

The efficacy of treatments for challenging behavior relies on caregiver adherence to treatment plans. Even when caregivers implement treatments with fidelity, such adherence commonly contacts extinction due to context change (e.g., clinical to home setting) when a child relapses and caregivers engage in commission and omission errors. Previous laboratory models have demonstrated relapse of caregiver behavior for children whose challenging behavior's maintained by social-positive reinforcement. The current study evaluated relapse using refinements and extensions of prior laboratory models of relapse of caregiver behavior (i.e., commission and omission errors) with six caregivers whose children engaged in escape-maintained challenging behavior. We used a 3-phase procedure consisting of baseline, functional communication training, and a treatment-adherence challenge. For all participants, during baseline, treatment nonadherence duration was stable or increasing across sessions. During the treatment-adherence challenge, all caregivers’ behavior relapsed, and they all committed omission or commission errors, providing evidence of resurgence/renewal. Our results demonstrate the need for additional research on methods for mitigating caregiver relapse during treatment challenges of their child's challenging behavior and the usefulness of the proposed measurement system for future research.

 
122. Acquisition of Competencies of Life Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Olga Lopez (Universidad Veracruzana), Minerva Perez Juarez (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico), Dinorah Arely Escudero (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Fryda Abril Diaz
Abstract:

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (SAD) present problems in the development of life skills, mainly related to health and education. The purpose of this research is to identify the interdependent interactions of an individual with autism spectrum disorders and relevant stimulus objects while acquiring shaving-related competencies. The present study is based on the Analysis Behavior conceptual approaches proposed by Ribes (2018) and its purpose is to analyze conditional interactions such as states and transitions between functional levels using a Teaching-Learning Unit designed to establish the behavior of shaving. An adolescent with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. A Baseline, Intervention Phase and Follow-up Phase design was used. An observation and recording system was designed to identify in real time interdependent relationships such as states and transitions between functional levels. The results showed that during the application of the Teaching-Learning Unit and Follow-up Phase, behavioral competencies, analyzed as conditional interactions, were identified at different functional levels. The results are described based on the molar measure of directionality and the transitions between functional levels using a continuous recording system. These findings are discussed based on the concepts and field logic that underlies the theoretical proposal assumed in this study.

 
168. Reversing the Course of Forgetting in Older and Younger Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW C. BELL (Santa Clara University), Kendra Bean (Santa Clara University)
Discussant: Amalix M Flores (USF)
Abstract:

Pigeons may be an excellent model for studying age-related remembering effects, particularly considering the extensive literature using them to study memory. Toward the goal of investigating the interaction between aging & remembering, older (18 years) and younger (6 years) pigeons were exposed to a delayed matching to sample (DMTS) procedure (White and Brown, 2011) that varied retention intervals (0.2-s to 24-s) over daily sessions. There were three conditions that varied the presentation of a houselight (HL) stimulus during the RI (no HL, HL presented during the first 3 s of the delay, and a HL presented for the duration of the interval). Our results replicated White and Brown: when the HL was on through the whole RI, performance was lower compared to when the HL was not on during the interval. When the HL was presented during the first 3-s, we found a reversal of the course of forgetting. We also found an age-related effect such that the performance of the older birds was, on average, 7% lower than the younger birds. Thus, our results provide support for the use of pigeons as a model subject for studying remembering and aging.

 
 

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