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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #352
Monday, May 30, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
EAB
Chair: Anne C. Macaskill (Victoria University of Wellington)
2. Fast Mapping Vocabulary by Toddlers
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
MariaStella C. Alcantara-Gil (Federal University of Sao Carlos, Brazil), NATÁLIA SERTORI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: The emergent symbolic mapping is a phenomenon studied by different areas of knowledge and has been documented for adults, people with intellectual disabilities, animals, toddlers and others. In this study the aim was verify the exclusion responding for deletion using the mask (blank comparision) in seven toddlers aged 12-36 months. The study included the following steps: baseline training with defined stimuli, exclusion and learning probes; response learning mask (blank comparision), conditional discrimination of stimuli defined with use of the mask, excluding probes and learning with the mask and probe control. Undefined stimuli received the name, Pafe, Tica, Fafa and Bibi. Defined stimuli were toys and corresponding names used in daily life: cart, doll and dog. All the participants respoding by exclusion with and without the use of masks, The experimental arrangement with the fading in the mask and errorless learning procedures was efficient, corroborating previous studies. The data showed reduction in the number of sessions required for learning, which may indicate that errorless teaching procedure is efficient. Thus, this research contributes to the maintenance of the procedure and vocabulary learning check for toodlers.
 
3. Contingencies Generate Both Rules About What to Do and Particular Emotions While Doing It
Domain: Basic Research
ISABEL L. CUNNINGHAM (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: In the field of behavior analysis it is commonly accepted that instructions take precedent over contingency-shaped behavior. In particular, research with humans on schedules of reinforcement suggests that experimenter-imposed or self-imposed rules override the schedule contingency (Catania, 2013). Alternatively, another interpretation is that both the performance of the learner and the rules are a product of the contingencies and one cannot override the other. The present research studied the relation between what people say they are doing to earn reinforcement and how they feel about what they are doing as a function of changes to the schedule of reinforcement. The results show that the rules participants use to describe their performance and how they feel varies with the type of schedule used. Variable ratio schedules are more likely to produce varied and unclear rules with the subjects reporting that they feel "confused". Fixed ratio schedules indicate clear rules about what to do to earn reinforcement and the learners report that they feel "confident".
 
4. Determining the Onset of Derived Stimulus Relations
Domain: Basic Research
STERLING RIPPY (College of Charleston), Kelly Roughgarden (College of Charleston), Madison Fox (College of Charleston), Samm Brenner (College of Charleston), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: The results of multiple experiments examining the onset of derived stimulus relations are presented. In two experiments, the emergence of untested derived relations was observed when recently formed relations were extinguished. This emergence occurred under conditions less complex than previously studied (i.e., when fewer baseline relations are taught and when the emergence of only symmetrical relations are tested). In two other experiments, the emergence of derived relations was investigated when probe trials were interspersed with baseline trials from the start of training. Emergence of the derived relations was unreliable across participants. A final experiment examined the emergence of tested and untested derived relations during tests of adduction and application. The implications of this research are discussed in the context of the necessary and sufficient conditions for generating derived stimulus relations.
 
5. The Effects of Observing Contingencies on the Acquisition of Conditional Discriminations and Equivalence Class Formation
Domain: Basic Research
JENNIFER IRENE DEBASTIANI (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: The present study used an eye-tracking device and matching-to-sample procedures to investigate the effects of four observing contingencies (i.e., the All-Comparisons group, the No-Comparisons group, the S+ Comparison group, and the S- Comparison group) on the acquisition of baseline conditional discriminations and the emergence of equivalence relations. In Experiment 1, 40 undergraduates completed training, two rounds of testing, and a questionnaire to test for awareness of the observing contingency. The All-Comparisons group, the S+ Comparison group, and the S- Comparison had a higher percentage of trials with at least one fixation to the different stimulus options (i.e., the Sample, the S+, neither S-, one S-, or both S-) on baseline conditional discriminations during training compared to the No-Comparison group. Five of the ten participants from the All-Comparisons group demonstrated equivalence relations. Five of the ten participants from the No-Comparisons group demonstrated equivalence relations. Three of the ten participants from the S+ Comparison group demonstrated equivalence relations. Eight of the ten participants from the S- Comparison group demonstrated equivalence relations. Overall, observing S+ and S-stimuli increases the likelihood of developing appropriate stimulus control, leading to more rapid acquisition of baseline conditional discriminations and stronger demonstrations of equivalence relations.
 
6. Effects of Mathematic and Verbal Distractions on Equivalence Class Formation in Delayed Matching to Sample Procedures
Domain: Basic Research
Alyssa Chapman (John Carroll University), ABDULRAZAQ A. IMAM (John Carroll University)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: Much of the research on delayed matching to sample has shown that participants are more likely to form experimenter-defined equivalence classes under non-zero delay conditions than under a zero-delay condition. Many believe that participants in delayed matching tasks adopt some type of precurrent behavior such as naming of the stimuli. Arntzen and Vie (2013) reported successful disruptions of such precurrent behavior with a distracting math task during the retention interval in a 6-s delayed matching task. Participants achieved equivalence criterion without distraction, but failed with the distraction. This study was a systematic replication of theirs, using math and verbal tasks during the 6-s delay interval, compared to no distraction for nine college students. All participants in the no distraction condition passed all tested relations. Although both math and verbal tasks disrupted equivalence formation, overall performance was worse with verbal than with math distraction tasks. Results implicate naming as precurrent behavior.
 
7. Fast Responding Impede Formation of Equivalence Classes
Domain: Basic Research
FELIX HOGNASON (ICEABA and NAFO), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: In the present study six adult human participants, five females and one male, age 24 to 32 years, participated. We will extend the number of participants within next 3–4 weeks. The limited hold contingencies for responding to sample and comparisons were set to 0.7 s and 1.2 s respectively, in all phases. In Phase I the participants trained identity matching with three colors. In Phase II the participants trained three classes of potentially 3 members with arbitrary stimuli in a one-to-many (OTM) training structure. After reaching the training criterion with at least 90% accuracy, a test for derived relations was implemented in Phase III. In Phase IV the test was repeated after 12-16 days after the test in Phase III, and again after 40–44 days in Phase V. None of the participant responded in according to stimulus equivalence on the tests in Phases III and IV, indicating that the responding in accordance with a rule of fast responding prevents the participants from responding in accordance with equivalence on tests (see Table 1).
 
8. Dictation Tasks and Echoic Tasks as Distractors in Delayed Matching-to-Sample
Domain: Basic Research
ALEKSANDER VIE (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: Within stimulus equivalence research delayed matching-to-sample have been used to both train baseline relations and in testing for equivalence properties. In two studies done at our lab, math tasks as distractors, have been introduced during testing for equivalence relations in the delay between the offset of the sample stimulus and the presentation of the comparison array. The finding shows that the distractors reduce responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence. In the presented study, dictation tasks were used in Experiment 1 as distractors, echoic tasks as distractors in Experiment 2, and in finally, in Experiment 3, dictation tasks as distractors were introduced when the conditional discriminations were established, without introducing symmetry or equivalence trials. The results showed that the dictation tasks in Experiment 1 reduce equivalence class formation, while the echoic task as distractors in Experiment 2 did not affect responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence as the distractors in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, with the use of dictation task as distractors, showed that the conditional discrimination was affected by the distractors, but not to the degree as the same distractor had affected the matching performance in Experiment 1 (see Figure 1 to 3).
 
9. The Role of Aspects of the Environment Uncorrelated With the Consequence in the Establishment of Stimulus Control
Domain: Basic Research
ALVARO A CLAVIJO ALVAREZ (National University of Colombia/University of Sao Paulo), Gerson Yukio Tomanari (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: This work evaluated how portions of the environment uncorrelated with the consequence influenced the establishment of stimulus control. In seven experiments, graduate students had simultaneous discrimination tasks in which a small portion of the antecedent stimuli correlated with the consequence while the other portions did not. Depending on the experiment, a computer presented human-like stimuli, the same stimuli in a scrambled format, or crosses formed by colored squares. The crosses were formed by squares joined by their corners or squares separated some inches. A categorization task measured the control gained by the uncorrelated portions. In all the experiments, portions of the stimuli uncorrelated with the consequence gained control over some responding. The control gained by uncorrelated portions hindered or totally prevented the gaining of control by the correlated portions in some cases. Uncorrelated portions of stimuli in human format had a greater chance of gaining control over responding than the same stimuli in a nonhuman format. Only the uncorrelated components of the crosses formed by separated squares gained control over responding; those of crosses formed by joined squares did not. The results demonstrate that the arrangement of antecedent stimuli affect the establishment of control by correlated and uncorrelated portions.
 
10. Combining Correlation Based Training and Yes/No Evaluation Procedures for Establishing Equivalence Relations
Domain: Basic Research
TIMOTHY C. FULLER (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jesslyn Farros (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract: Language able humans are readily able to learn interrelations among stimuli such that one may respond to a stimulus as if it were another (i.e. equivalence). Procedural variations in the study of equivalence have remained a concerted effort by the research community for over 40 years. However, much of these variations have been confined to one procedure – namely the Match-to-Sample (Barnes-Holmes, et al. 2004; Sidman, 2009). MTS is a procedure where by arbitrary (i.e. there is no physical resemblance among stimuli) conditional discriminations are arranged such that a participant, when shown as stimulus (the sample) and then given the opportunity to select among comparisons may produce reinforcement if their selection is correct according to pre-determined relations. Concern has been raised regarding how reliant the study of equivalence has been on the one procedure. However, work has been conducted to broaden the procedural variation for equivalence research. This poster presents data depicting an attempt to combine previously distinguished alternative procedures to the commonly used MTS. Training is conduced via a non-reinforcement based correlation procedure with evaluations being conducted using a Yes/No procedure. Individual participant’s data and further research will be discussed.
 
12. An Examination of Conditioned Reinforcement in Stimulus Compounding Procedures
Domain: Basic Research
MICHAEL BROOKS (Central Michigan Univeristy), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The presentation of a compound stimulus consisting of independent discriminative stimuli usually produces additive summation, in which the compound produces greater responding than the separate elements. Two experiments were conducted to examine whether such a stimulus compound would also be a more effective conditioned reinforcer. In Experiment 1, four rats lever-pressed for food under a three-ply multiple schedule in which two components of a variable-interval schedule were signaled by either a light or tone and alternated with a component of extinction without those stimuli. After additive summation was demonstrated, extinction probes were conducted in which lever-pressing produced 5-s presentations of either individual or compounded stimuli. Subjects responded at equal rates for both the individual and the compounded stimuli. Experiment 2 utilized the same multiple schedule except that in one condition responding on an alternative lever produced a brief presentation of the other schedule-correlated stimulus in addition to the stimulus currently present. Responding on the alternative lever was maintained but only when those responses produced an additional stimulus. Overall, results indicate that compound stimuli maintain responding (i.e. they function as conditioned reinforcers) but not above rates maintained by the individual stimuli.
 
13. Emergent Symmetry and Transitivity in Pigeons
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
MELISSA J. SWISHER (Purdue University), Peter Urcuioli (Purdue University)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Previous research has yet to determine whether pigeons will show evidence for multiple emergent relations within the same experiment even though humans readily do this. Eight pigeons simultaneously acquired AA hue identity matching, BB form identity matching, and AB hue-form symbolic matching in a go/no-go procedure. The pigeons were then tested for BA form-hue symmetry. The pigeons then acquired two additional sets of conditional relations—CC hue identity and BC form-hue symbolic matching—that were intermixed with the original three tasks. They were then retested for BA form-hue symmetry, after which they were tested for CB hue-form symmetry and AC hue-hue transitivity. Two pigeons showed evidence for all emergent relations, one pigeon showed no evidence for any emergent relations, and two pigeons showed evidence for some symmetry and/or transitivity.
 
14. Formation of Equivalence Classes as Function of Number of Familiar Stimuli
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Justice Mensah (Oslo and Akershus University College), ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Findings have indicated that, pictures used as C stimuli when employing Linear Series training structure with five members (A BCDE) have shown to be the most efficient in producing equivalence class formation relative to when all stimuli set are abstract. This study extends the literature further by examining the extent to which the number of C as pictures stimuli leads to equivalence class formation. Sixty participants were randomly assigned equally to four experimental conditions: Abstract Group, C1 as 1-Picture Group, C1C3 as 2-Picture Group, and C as 3-Picture Group. The findings from the experiment showed that 2 of 15 participants in the Abstract Group formed classes. In addition, 2 of 15 participants in the 1-Picture Group formed classes, 8 of 15 participants in the 3- Picture Group formed classes, and lastly 12 of 15 members in the 3-Picture Group formed classes. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference in equivalence class formation between the Abstract Group and all the Picture Groups. A significant difference was also found between the 1-Picture Group and the 3-Picture Group but not for the 2-Picture group. This results imply, that the number of familiar stimuli leads to equivalence class formation.
 
15. Comparison of Two Modes of Instructions for Solving a Task in Adults
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA LUISA CEPEDA ISLAS (FES Iztacala UNAM), Hortensia Hickman (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Diana Moreno Rodriguez (FES Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mé), Rosalinda Arroyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Maria Bautista (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: A different way of studying the role of verbal factors in solving problems is to consider ways to contact the task, considering linguistic and non-linguistic aspects. Under this view, the functional interaction of two ways of contacting the participant with the task of Tower of London in adults was compared. Twenty experimentally naive colleges participated, aged between 18 and 21 years. Group design was used; one with the observation mode and another with how to read. A training session and scheduled another test. The results show no significant differences in training and only in some variables such as the latency test. The role of the history of the modes of interaction of contact with the task in adults is discussed.
 
16. I'll Conform, So Long as I Don't Do More Work: A Behavioral Analysis of Conformity
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
Jeremy Vargas (Murray State University ), MICHAEL BORDIERI (Murray State University)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Conformity can be broadly defined as behaving in accordance with socially accepted rules or standards. This phenomenon has been studied in many traditional psychological experiments, Aschs (1956) study being notable. More recently, studies have emerged demonstrating conforming behaviors in Computer Mediated Conversations (CMC) settings similar to traditional experimental paradigms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether conformity will occur in a CMC setting distinct from Aschs (1956) original conformity paradigm. In particular, a computerized learning and choice task employing matching to sample and concurrent chain schedules was used. Like previous CMC research, participants were presented with little information about the confederate group and their presence was only implied. We hypothesize that, consistent with previous findings, there will be a conformity effect for participants who are given information about how implied others are responding compared to control participants who are given no information regarding responding. Obtained results from 51 undergraduate participants were consistent with experimental expectations and these results are discussed in terms of the traditional conformity literature and as instances of rule governed behavior.
 
17. Implicit Feedback and Generalized Matching-to-Sample in Humans
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIO SERRANO (Universidad Veracruzana), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: High-school students were exposed to a second-order matching-to-sample task and two transfer tests using familiar and unfamiliar stimuli as well as familiar and unfamiliar matching relations. Incorrect matching responses produced feedback and correct matching responses produced a blank-screen for one group. Correct matching responses produced feedback and incorrect matching responses produced a blank-screen for a second group. The percentage of correct responses was higher for participants exposed to the incorrect-blank feedback combination than for participants exposed to correct-blank feedback combination under all kind of transfer trials. Results suggest that feedback has a discriminative function rather than a reinforcing function under conditional discrimination contingencies.
 
18. Habilitation in Active Modes of Language From the Reading Reactive Mode
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta Garcia (Universidad Veracruzana), Zaira Garcia Perez (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The purpose was to evaluate learning, as a result from exposure to the reading reactive linguistic mode, in active linguistic modes: pointing out, speaking and writing. A conditional discrimination arrangement was used with second order matching-to-sample. The participants were fifteen experimentally nave teenagers, both sexes, 14 years old, who were in eighth grade at a Public Junior High School located in the city of Xalapa, Mexico. Participants were randomly placed in three experimental groups consisting of five members each. An Experimental design with three groups was used. Group One was exposed to reading-writing mode; Group Two was exposed to reading-speaking modes and Group Three to reading-pointing out modes. Each group was exposed to a Familiarization Phase, a Pre-Test, a Exposure Phase, a Habilitation Test and a Post-Test. The results show that the participants exposure to the reading linguistic reactive mode had a higher execution in writing active linguistic mode, then pointing out and with speaking being the lowest. Participants with high execution levels in reading-writing modes and reading-pointing out modes showed similar levels of execution in the three types of matching relations, although results were slightly higher in color and shape similarity, then in difference in color and shape.
 
19. Analysis of Protocol and Verbal Report: Correspondence Analysis
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
DIANA MORENO RODRIGUEZ (FES Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Maria Bautista (UNAM-FESI), Rosalinda Arroyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Hortensia Hickman (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: One strategy for analyzing the relation between the verbal behavior and non verbal in the complex human behavior, is protocol analysis (concurrent and retrospective), and their relationship with the level of language development of the participants. To establish these relations an alternative analysis is called Correspondence Analysis. This statistical technique is applied to categorical variables, the result is a Cartesian diagram, the proximity between the plotted points is related with the level of association between these variables. This study evaluated the association between the type of protocol and verbal report through correspondence analysis. Participated thirty adults and thirty children assigned to two types of protocol, all the participants were exposed to the Tower of London task, training and tests sessions, the verbal report was colected and classified into six categories. The analysis of the verbal report indicated significant differences between the groups in training and testing (p = .05). The graphic representation of the association between the type of protocol, the verbal report and age, showed different associations adults and children. The use of this tool can be useful for the analysis of complex human behavior.
 
20. Verbal Interaction Facilitates Cultural Selection in a Metacontingency Experiment
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
ANGELO A. S. SAMPAIO (Universidade de São Paulo/ Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco), Marcelo Frota Lobato Frota Benvenuti (Universidade de São Paulo)
Discussant: Richard Serna (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: In a metacontingency experiment, a combination of responses from 2 or more individuals (a measure of interlocking behavioral contingencies - IBCs) produces stimuli termed cultural consequences (CCs). Results of metacontingency experiments are said to demonstrate cultural selection. We evaluated the effects of verbal interaction among participants on IBCs recurrence in a metacontingency experiment. 3 sets of participants used 4 networked computers (screened by panels) to play an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game (IPDG), and, in addition to IPDG gains, could produce cents equally divided to all participants (CCs) contingent on 4 equal choices (X in some conditions or Y, in others). Conditions with or without permission to use the computer chat room were arranged in a multiple baseline design. Results demonstrated that verbal interaction quickly and markedly facilitated cultural selection. 1 set of participants showed some control of IBCs by CCs before verbal interaction was allowed, but after chat room interactions, production of CCs by this set greatly increased. We discuss the specific features of verbal interaction that seems critical to the effect we observed and the significance of these results to the scope of a supra individual account such as that implied in the notions of metacontingency and cultural selection.
 

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