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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #57
Sunday, May 29, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
EAB
Chair: Maggie Sweeney (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
1. A Systematic Review of Delay Discounting in an Animal Model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
ESPEN SJOBERG (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Espen Borgå Johansen (Oslo & Akershus University College)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: The delay discounting paradigm involves choosing between a small, immediate reinforcer (SS) or larger, delayed reinforcer (LL). Children with ADHD tend to choose the SS reinforcer more often than controls, which is interpreted as impulsivity. Studies on an animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), show the same pattern, with SHR preferring the SS reinforcer. However, it is not entirely clear why this pattern exists. It has been proposed that ADHD children tend to be delay averse, i.e. that the time between response and reinforcer is something they opt to avoid. An alternative hypothesis is that ADHD children struggle to see the long-term utility of their choices. We reviewed data from eight SHR studies on delay discounting and investigated which hypothesis was the best predictor of LL preference. Results found that SHRs and controls do not differ in overall performance on the delay discounting task, regardless of whether the dependent variable is delay between response and reinforcer, magnitude of the reinforcer, or utility of the large reinforcer. However, if utility is held constant while the response-reinforcer delay is manipulated, SHRs show a steeper discounting curve than controls. The evidence suggests the possibility that SHRs may be delay averse.
 
2. The Effects of Mortality Salience on Delay Discounting
Domain: Basic Research
Jonathan DuFresne (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), BENJAMIN KOWAL (University of Arkansas, Little Rock)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: The present study attempted to replicate and expand on research demonstrating a relation between mortality salience and delay discounting which may be moderated by life history factors. Forty college students responded to open ended writing prompts intended to either induce mortality salience (MS group) or an aversive emotion not related to death (CTR group). After an imposed wait time, participants then completed a series of delay discounting questions that asked them to choose between hypothetical monetary rewards (i.e., the Kirby Questionnaire). Results from the MS group provided partial support for previous findings suggesting that students who come from more affluent backgrounds exhibit patterns of delay discounting which are less impulsive after the MS prompt (N = 20, r = -.432, p = .057). An exploratory analysis suggested that at least one additional variable, GPA, may contribute to the effect that mortality salience has on delay discounting (βGPA.= -.475, p = .022; βSES.= -.428, p = .030, F = 5.976, p = .011, R2adj = .383) In terms of life history theory, the present results are consistent with the possibility that when access to resources is high, and contingent on achievement, current threats are less likely to lead towards impulsive behavior.
 
3. Brief Delay Discounting Measures in Rats: Can We Attain a Valid k-Value in a Week?
Domain: Basic Research
ALLYSON RAE SALZER (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Margaret Murphy (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Alexandra Tredway (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Carla H. Lagorio (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: Delay discounting describes how the value of an outcome is affected by how quickly it is delivered. How rapidly reinforcers are discounted differs across species as well as individuals, and this phenomenon has been widely studied over the past 30 years using a variety of procedural assays. Despite methodological differences, many methods of assessing discounting have impressive internal reliability and external validity. The current study assesses the validity of several abbreviated measures to examine how quickly discounting rates can be determined. In a counterbalanced order, rats experienced several discounting procedures. These included an adjusting delay procedure, in which amounts to a larger reward were manipulated across conditions, and several increasing delay procedures, in which the delay to the larger reward was manipulated either across days or within trial blocks in a session. Post-hoc analyses examined validity across measures and also whether reliable results could be attained in time spans as short as one week. Ideally, such results can lend confidence in using abbreviated discounting assays when examining potential correlates with other time-sensitive variables in behavioral, pharmacological, or aging research.
 
4. Standing in the Other Person's Shoes Hurts Your Feats: The Self-Others Discrepancy in Probability and Delay Discounting
Area: OBM; Domain: Basic Research
WOJCIECH BIALASZEK (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Piotr Zielonka (Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW))
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: It is often a good strategy to "stand in the other person's shoes" to see a situation from a different perspective. People frequently attempt to infer what someone else would recommend when no advisor is available to help with a decision. The aim of our study was to determine if we can change participant's intertemporal and risky decisions by asking them to take the perspective of a peer, an expert or an entrepreneur. To test whether we can change participant's choices we have measured the behavior of 227 participants in Study 1 and 186 participants in Study 2. In out studies University students made choices using computerized multiple staircase discounting task. In a series of two experiments, we found that taking the peer's perspective made participants behave more impulsively and more risk aversely in relation to the participants' own perspectives. Taking the peer's perspective made participants behave more impulsively and more risk aversely in relation to an expert's or entrepreneur's perspective. Taking an expert's or an entrepreneur's perspective did not change participants' own intertemporal and risky decisions.
 
5. Delay Discounting of Information Accounts for Pigeons’ Suboptimal Choice Behavior
Domain: Basic Research
RYAN MCDOUGLE (California State University, Chico), Daniel Worthen (California State University, Chico)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: When a stimulus is followed by discriminative stimuli signaling whether food will follow and another stimulus is followed by nondiscriminative stimuli, pigeons prefer the stimulus followed by discriminative stimuli even when that stimulus leads to a lower overall probability of food (e.g., 20% vs. 50%). The determinants of this suboptimal choice behavior are unknown. One possibility is that pigeons peck less on discriminative trials resulting in a more favorable peck-to-reinforcer ratio. Another possibility is that nondiscriminative trials are steeply discounted due to delayed information regarding reinforcement. Those hypotheses were tested by manipulating the duration of discriminative and nondiscriminative stimuli and independently manipulating the timing of information by either using chamber blackout to signal reinforcement on nondiscriminative trials or not, while holding the timing of food delivery constant throughout. Preference for the suboptimal choice was apparent when the delay to information was 8s on nondiscriminative trials but that preference was significantly weaker when the delay to information was 2s, even though the peck-to-reinforcer ratio was not affected by that manipulation. Results indicate that information itself is reinforcing and suboptimal choice in this task reflects delay discounting of the greater probability of food due to the relative timing of information.
 
6. Mental Accounting and Delay Discounting
Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (Utah State University), Annie Galizio (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: To date research on temporal discounting has focused on choices between two positive outcomes of the same type, which are simplified choices rarely found in day-to-day life. The experiments reported here were designed to assess discounting of complex outcomes (e.g., outcomes that have more than one result). Mental accounting describes a process by which individuals evaluate complex outcomes. Experiment 1 was designed to understand how people choose between delayed outcomes in an opposing context (e.g., delayed gains in the context of an overall monetary loss). Experiment 2 was designed to understand how people choose between complex delayed outcomes of gains and losses of equal magnitude. Experiment 3 was designed to understand how people make choices about a complex outcome of $100 delivered after a delay and an additional $1000 delivered at a second independent delay. Experiment 4 was designed to understand how people make choices about a complex outcome of a gain of $100 delivered after a delay and a loss of $100 delivered at a second independent delay. Interpretations of the results of each experiment are conducted from a traditional behavior analytic explanation of delay discounting as well as from a mental accounting perspective.
 
7. Timing and Delay Discounting
Domain: Basic Research
ANNIE GALIZIO (Utah State University), Charles Frye (Utah State University), Jonathan E. Friedel (Utah State University), William DeHart (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: In the present experiment, we examined the potential relation between timing and delay discounting in rats. Twelve rats were trained on a timing procedure, followed by a delay-discounting procedure. Each session of the timing task consisted of 60 trials. For the first 25 s of the trial, one lever was active and responding was reinforced on a VI 30-s schedule. For the second 25 s, a second lever was active and responding was reinforced on a VI 30-s schedule. Each session of the delay-discounting task consisted of 40 trials, 5 blocks of 8 trials each. One lever resulted in a smaller-sooner reward (1 pellet delivered immediately) and the other lever resulted in a larger-later reward (3 pellets delivered after a delay). The delay increased with each block (0 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s, 60 s). Correlations between performances on each task revealed no relation between these indices of timing and delay discounting.
 
8. Delay Discounting and Texting While Driving in College Students: A Behavioral Economic Analysis
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (Penn State Hazleton), Kimberly Miller (Penn State Hazleton), Oliver Wirth (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine a relation between delay discounting and texting while driving from a behavioral economic perspective. A sample of 64 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, groups of students who frequently text while driving and students who infrequently text while driving were identified. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted a putative social reinforcer obtained through exchanging text messages. In a novel discounting task using a hypothetical scenario in which students receive a text message while driving, they rated their likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply for a certain period of time from 30 s to 6 h. The results show that the rate at which the likelihood to wait decreased as a function of delay was greater for students who frequently text while driving than students who infrequently text while driving. The results also show that the decrease in the likelihood to wait is well described by a hyperbolic delay-discounting function, which has descriptive and predictive utility in understanding texting while driving and other impulsive behaviors.
 
9. Measuring Impulsivity and its Relations to Binge-Eating and Obesity in Wistar Rats
Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA MICHELLE CANO (University of Alaska Anchorage), Gwen Lupfer-Johnson (University of Alaska Anchorage), Eric S. Murphy (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: Impulsivity predicts obesity and binge-eating disorder (Thamotharan, Lange, Zale, Huffhines, & Fields, 2013; Pearson, Zapolski, & Smith, 2015); however, not everyone with binge-eating disorder is overweight, and many overweight individuals do not meet the criteria for binge-eating disorder. Obesity and binge-eating have also been demonstrated to occur independently in a rat model (Boggiano, Artiga, Pritchette, Chandler-Laney, & Eldridge, 2007). In the current experiment, 10 male Wistar rats completed three conditions in counterbalanced order: (1) binge-eating measured by consumption of intermittently available Double Stuf Oreo cookies, (2) diet-induced obesity proneness measured by weight gain when provided with a sweet high-fat diet ad libitum for 2 consecutive weeks, as well as (3) impulsivity assessed with a delay discounting task. Findings indicate that impulsivity predicted binge-eating but not diet-induced obesity, and that binge-eating and proneness to diet-induced obesity were unrelated to each other. Binge-eating disorder and obesity are serious, unresolved societal issues; a more complete understanding of the psychological, physiological, and behavioral components of these conditions is needed in order to develop more effective and targeted treatments.
 
10. Can It Wait? Effects of Delayed Reinforcement and Social Variables on Cell-Phone Distracted Driving
Domain: Basic Research
PATRICK S. JOHNSON (California State University, Chico), Brittany Ingersoll (California State University, Chico), Michael Frietas (California State University, Chico)
Discussant: Len Green (Washington University)
Abstract: Despite media campaigns aimed at reducing cell phone use while driving, 14% of all fatal distraction-affected crashes in 2013 involved the use of a cell phone (NHTSA, 2015). One reason why individuals may use a cell phone while driving is because they are unable to delay gratification when faced with an immediate reward, an interpretation consistent with the concept of delay discounting. The present study is applying a discounting framework to examine the effects of delay to reinforcement and social variables on college students’ hypothetical choices to use a cell phone while driving. In addition to manipulating the time until one reaches one’s destination, we are manipulating the relationship of the person attempting to contact the driver (#1 vs. #50 social contact), and whether the driver is alone at the time (alone vs. with passengers). Although recruitment is ongoing, data collected thus far show lower self-reported likelihoods of waiting to respond as a function of time until one’s arrival at one’s destination, especially if the driver is alone and were to receive a phone call from their #1 social contact. Our translational findings will likely inform interventions aimed at mitigating excessive delay discounting in vulnerable driver populations (e.g., college students).
 
11. Relationships Between Delay and Social Discounting and Body Mass Index in College Students
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
PAUL ROMANOWICH (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Katherine Wainwright (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Previous research showed that delay discounting is a unique predictor of obesity in young adults, as measured by body-mass index (BMI). Outside of impulsivity, eating and overeating occurs in a social setting spanning close friends and relatives, along with a larger cultural context. Social discounting is a measure that is related to impulsivity, but also uniquely measures aspects of sharing as a function of social proximity. A total of 804 college students completed both demographic and discounting measures across two online studies. Table 1 shows the Pearsons r correlation coefficients for the relationships between measures. Unlike previous research, neither study showed a relationship between delay discounting and BMI. Likewise, there was no direct relationship between social discounting and BMI. However, consistent with previous research, there were significant relationships between delay and social discounting, and age and BMI. In addition, BMI was sensitive to self-reported exercise patterns, suggesting that BMI was a valid predictor of obesity in the current study. We discuss why there may have been discrepancies between our results and those that had previously shown a relationship between BMI and discounting measures.
 
12. Initial Investigation Into Discounting and Decision-Making in Poker
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Rider University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: The gambling literature suggests a relation between how one answers discounting questions (assessments of risk and impulsivity) and the degree one is identified as having problems with gambling. One area of skilled gambling, poker, may defy conventional wisdom in that poker players may be potentially identified as being problem gamblers, given their commitment and investment to the activity, even though their actions may be risk-averse and non-impulsive. This study seeks to start a series of investigations into the relation between poker players' discounting assessments and measures with respect to problem gambling as a function of their level of expertise. This will be accomplished through several measures and poker scenarios delivered in an online format, and measures of delay and probability discounting. The discounting questions cover a variety of topics, and the poker scenarios a variety of in-game situations. In this initial study a relationship between answering the poker questions correctly and discounting is suggested.
 
14. Shaping of High-Cost High-Reward Choices by Gradual Changes in Response Requirement and Reward Amount
Domain: Basic Research
CHITOSE BABA (Teikyo University), Kaname Mochizuki (Teikyo University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: We has been studying on the relation between response cost and reward amount in a self-control task. Tajima (2007, 2014) reported the need for the schedule thinning procedure to increase high-cost high-reward choices over low-cost low-reward choices. But in our last experiments, all participants continued to choose high-cost high-reward alternative from the beginning (Baba & Mochizuki, 2015). In this experiment we removed the forced choice trials to equalize the procedure to Tajima's experiment, and tried to replicate Tajima's results. University students experienced five sessions of concurrent-chains procedure. The concurrent-chains has two alternatives and they were different in fixed-ratio (FR) value and reinforcement amount. The schedules of terminal links were concurrent (conc.) FR 5 (5) FR 40 (60) in the first session and changed to conc. FR 20 (20) FR 20 (20), conc. FR 16 (16) FR 24 (36), conc. FR 10 (10) FR 30 (45), and conc. FR 5 (5) FR 40 (60) (Values in parentheses show reinforcement points which was exchangeable for money). Three of four participants always chose high-cost high-reward, and only one showed gradual increase in high-cost high-reward choice. Experiment is ongoing with more participants and some other values of FR and reinforcement points.
 
15. Predicted, Actual, and Reported Choices in a Delay Discounting Study
Domain: Basic Research
COURTNEY SMITH (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Two analyses evaluated self-reports and actual choice throughout conditions in a delay discounting task. College students were asked to watch a video of their choosing while experiencing various delays to the video. For the first analysis, questionnaires assessing predicted and reported preferences with various delays were compared to actual preference for different delays to video presentation. Results indicated a discrepancy between each condition: a disconnect between what individuals predict they will do, what they actually do, and what they think they have done in a given condition. The second assessment evaluated participant estimates of fixed delays, variable delays, and video durations in comparison to actual time spent in each condition. Results of this analysis displayed further inconsistencies across estimates of each condition; participants reported lower estimates overall for the fixed delay condition, lower estimates overall for the variable delay condition, and higher estimates overall in estimating the video duration condition
 
16. A Parametric Analysis of Losses Disguised as Wins and Slot Machine Preference
Domain: Applied Research
DAVID LEGASPI (Southern Illinois University), Ryan C. Speelman (Southern Illinois University), Kyle E Rowsey (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Current slot machines may display the same visual and auditory stimuli associated with a win yet pay the player less than what was wagered. These “losses disguised as wins” (LDWs) may perpetuate gameplay and pose a threat to the individual gambler due to the potential reinforcing nature of the trial despite a net loss. Gamblers react similarly to LDWs and wins on physiological measures such as heart rate, as well as skin conductance response. These data suggest that in addition to decreasing the saliency of the actual contingencies of the game, LDWs may have a reinforcing effect in spite of the fact that they result in a net loss of money. To observe the strength of these outcomes, participants played two concurrently available slot machines; one offering LDWs while the other did not. Payout rates on the LDW machine were manipulated so that this game outcome became increasingly disadvantageous and selection of the alternate machine resulted in greater winnings. Despite this manipulation, participants continued to choose the slot machine dispersing LDWs. These findings have clear implications for gambling treatment providers seeking to understand addiction to slot machine play.
 
17. The Effects of Question Sequence on Answers to the 27-Item Monetary Choice Questionnaire
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MERRITT SCHENK (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Using a within subject design, the Kirby, Petry, and Bickel (1999) Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) was used to assess the effects of question sequence on participant’s answers and their corresponding k value. Question sequences included the standard sequence, an ascending sequence based upon k value and monetary value, and a descending sequence based upon k value and monetary value. There were three participant groups, and each participant answered two MCQs, one of which was always the standard ordered MCQ. Each participant then answered either the Standard MCQ again, or one of the other variations. Between the two MCQs, a 20 minute timed math quiz was administered to minimize recall. Results indicate that there was not a significant change in participant’s answers and participant’s associated k values. Although the greatest amount of change was found in the answers and k values of the participant’s who answered the standard MCQ as well as an ascending or descending MCQ, these changes were not considered to be significant.
 
18. The Effect of Response-Independent Food and Drink Delivery on Gambling Persistence
Domain: Basic Research
MARK JUSTIN RZESZUTEK (St. Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Gambling persistence can be considered as the duration an individual continues to gamble after the gambling activity no longer produces wins. Factors that increase gambling persistence are important to identify for understanding maladaptive gambling behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of response-independent food and drink delivery on gambling persistence with a focus on single-subject analysis. Six female undergraduate students from a Midwestern university each attended two sessions and participated in two of three conditions. The participants played on a simulated slot machine which only produced wins during the first 30 plays, afterwards all plays only produced losses. As the participants began their 30th play they were informed of the status of food and drink delivery for that session, as well as given food and drink if applicable. Participants were able to eat and drink as per their leisure, and were informed they could leave at any time. All four participants who compared food and drink conditions to the no food and drink condition persisted longer when food and drink were available, and the two participants who completed food and drink conditions in both sessions persisted longer when they consumed more food and drink.
 
19. The Importance of Domain-Specificity in Measures of Impulsive Choice
Domain: Basic Research
STEVEN R. LAWYER (Idaho State University), Colin Mahoney (Idaho State University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) are frequently-used behavioral measures of impulsive choice. However, extant literature suggests that behavioral measures are often unrelated to performance on self-report measures of impulsivity. This discrepancy may occur because the typical discounting task measures impulsive choice for money, while self-report measures examine different facets of impulsivity. Therefore, it is possible that a domain-specific behavioral measure of impulsive choice would exhibit a robust relationship with self-report measures of a similar commodity. Undergraduate students (N = 105) completed laboratory measures of delay and probability discounting for money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory, a measure of difficulty with delaying gratification (impulsivity) across different domains (e.g., physical pleasures, money). Delay and probability discounting for money was not related to any of the DGI subscales, including the Money subscale, which although puzzling, is consistent with previous research. As expected, delay discounting for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI physical pleasures subscale, but no other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavior, especially non-monetary outcomes like sexual activity. Implications for future research will be discussed.
 
20. Public Discounting of Very Large Prizes: Twenty-Three Years of the Powerball Lottery
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
CHARLES A. LYONS (Eastern Oregon University), Talitha Fagen (Eastern Oregon University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: The Powerball lottery has been available for over two decades, producing significant income for its 47 participating member states (over $2 billion in 2014) with jackpots sometimes exceeding $600 million. To assess the association of jackpot size and ticket demand, sales and jackpot records were collected for all Powerball drawings held between April 1992 and May 2015 (n=2393). With each successive occurrence of the same prize level, per capita sales attracted by all prize levels tended to decline, and this public discounting of prize value was greatest for the largest prizes. Jackpot devaluation exceeded that of inflation, as measured by the consumer price index (CPI-W). At the same time, very large jackpots (>$150M), once claimed, were associated with induction of demand for the subsequent game, even though its jackpots were reset to beginning levels (e.g., $20-40M). While demand tended to increase as prizes rose above $50 million, time series suggest that first-instance jackpot sizes of $151-175M, $226-250M, and $276-300M commanded the highest break and run sales. Overall, ever-larger jackpots are needed to maintain demand for lottery games.
 
21. A Comparison of Two Types of Selfishness: Social Discounting and Ultimatum Game
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
TAKEHARU IGAKI (Ryutsu Keizai University)
Discussant: Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Jones & Rachlin (2006) indicated that social discounting might be described by a hyperbolic function in which a larger discounting rate would describe more selfish choices. Meanwhile, the amount of money that proposer offers in Ultimatum game is also viewed as an indication of selfishness. At last year's ABAI conference in San Antonio, the author (Igaki, 2015) presented the degree of social discounting as given by the method of Jones & Rachlin (2006) was related to the selfishness measured in Ultimatum game. However, the trend was week. So, the purpose of the present study is to measure the social discounting by the Rachlin & Jones (2008) method which provides an index of the true generosity, and to reexamine the relation between the degree of social discounting and the selfishness measured in Ultimatum game. The results showed that participants who showed lower value of AUC clearly proposed higher amount of money kept for themselves than those who show higher value of AUC, indicating that selfishness measured by social discounting questionnaire and Ultimatum game could be interrelated. These results suggested that the method of Jones & Rachlin (2006) measures not the selfishness but merely the sensitivity to sharing with someone.
 

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