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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #476
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
76. Coaching Parents via Telehealth to Conduct Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training for Challenging Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE BENSON (University of Minnesota-Twin Cities), Kelsey Quest (University of Minnesota-Twin Cities), Adele Dimian (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The use of telehealth technology to conduct functional analysis (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) for individuals with developmental disabilities and challenging behavior is emerging. Wacker et al. (2013) has demonstrated the utility of telehealth technology as a delivery system to use FA-FCT procedures to reduce challenging behavior. The current study was designed to further demonstrate the utility of FA-FCT procedures provided via telehealth. Three elementary aged male students with developmental disabilities participated. A multielement FA was conducted for each participant. The results of the multielement FA were used to identify a functionally equivalent FCT response for each participant. FCT was evaluated using single case reversal designs. Results indicated that FCT was effective for all 3 participants in reducing challenging behavior and increasing the appropriate communicative response. All parents were able to successfully implement the FA-FCT protocol via telehealth-supported live coaching. These results provide additional support for the use of telehealth technology to deliver FA-FCT procedures to individuals with challenging behavior.
77. A Review of Environmental Enrichment as Treatment for Automatically Maintained Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
HOLLY GOVER (California State University, Northridge), Ciobha McKeown (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: We reviewed and analyzed studies that used environmental enrichment as treatment for automatically maintained self-injury and motor stereotypy. A search of behavior analytic journals produced 33 articles that included 57 cases of self-injurious behavior and 33 cases of stereotypy. We found that environmental enrichment was used alone or in conjunction with one or more of the following: prompting, reinforcement, response blocking, restriction, restraint, and punishment. Environmental enrichment, as a sole intervention, was effective for 26% (5/19 cases) of stereotypy and 38% (21/56 cases) of self-injury. Non-intrusive interventions (i.e., prompting and reinforcement) were added and effective for 65% (17/26 cases) of stereotypy and 29% (2/7 cases) of self-injury. Intrusive interventions (i.e., blocking, restriction, restraint, and punishment) were effective for 100% (9/9 cases) of stereotypy and 100% (34/34 cases) of self-injury. Preliminary results indicate that environmental enrichment alone was effective for a higher percentage of self-injury cases. When environmental enrichment was ineffective, stereotypy required less intrusive interventions compared to self-injury; thus, intrusive procedures were used more frequently with self-injury compared to stereotypy. This poster will summarize trends using environmental enrichment as an independent variable and will describe implications for future research.
78. Effect of a Short-Term Behavioral Parent Training for Managing Problem Behaviors Among Persons With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
HYANGKYEONG OH (Yonsei University), You Na Kim (Korean ABA Institure)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Evidence-based treatment for problem behaviors is ABA, which is typically delivered in an individual format as a tertiary prevetion. Recently, several behavioral parent trainings have been identified as effective methods to deal with problem behaviors. Yet, these programs are still demanding in terms of training length and intensity. Therefore, continuous effort to search a more cost-effective training program (e.g., a shorter and more effective program) is still in need, mainly due to practical reasons. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term parent training program to manage problem behaviors among persons with DD. A 4-week behavioral parent training program was developed and administered to 13 parents of children with DD. The training program included basic learning principles, functional assessment and function-based treatment. Data on the degree of problem behaviors, parents stress, parenting efficacy and knowledge of behavior principles were collected through the self-reported questionaries before and after the training. The results showed significant differences between pre and post total scores on knowledge of behavior principles. No differences were found in other measures. This suggests that a 4 week short-term behavioral parent training is effective to enhance the knowledge of behavior principles only. Implications and limitations are further discussed.
79. A Comparison of Functional Analyses of Inappropriate and Appropriate Mealtime Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SUAREZ (University of Maryland, Baltimore County/Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Functional analyses (FA) of inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB; Piazza et al., 2003) may be conducted prior to treatment for children with feeding disorders. Although helpful in identifying reinforcers for IMB, they do not identify the reinforcing consequences for appropriate behavior (acceptance of bites). The purpose of this study was to use procedures similar to Piazza et al., to examine the correspondence between FA of inappropriate and appropriate mealtime behavior for children admitted to an intensive feeding program to assess and treat feeding disorders. Results of the FA were used to inform treatment selection targeting food consumption for two participants, and using a multielement design, three treatments were compared based on the results of the (1) FA of IMB, (2) FA of acceptance, and (3) combined FA results. For both participants, results of the FA for IMB identified clear functions, while the FA for acceptance was inconclusive, suggesting that an FA of IMB may be more useful in informing treatment decisions. Treatment based on the FA of IMB only increased acceptance for one participant. The second participant required additional components, suggesting more information than provided via the FA of IMB may have better informed treatment decisions.
80. Correspondence Between Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments and Functional Analyses: Analyses of Rank-Order, Magnitude-of-Difference, and Overall Outcomes
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Holmfridur Osk Arnalds (University of North Texas), RICHARD G. SMITH (University of North Texas), Carla M. Smith (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Previous research has indicated that multiple-respondent anecdotal (indirect) functional assessments of problem behavior can produce agreement across 80% of raters in roughly half of cases and, when agreement is obtained, the results often match those from functional analyses (Smith, Smith, & Dracobly, 2012). We replicated and extended previous research in this area by evaluating outcomes for the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) and comparing results for 7 additional cases in which agreement was obtained on either anecdotal assessment. Correspondence between functional analysis and anecdotal assessment results was found in all 7 cases. A further analysis was conducted for 12 individuals, including 5 participants from the Smith et al. (2012) study. The scores for functional categories on the MAS and QABF were ranked by averaging the scores for the raters who agreed on the primary maintaining variable. Functional analysis results were ranked by examining average responding across all conditions. A comparison showed a correspondence between the highest category and the functional analysis condition for 9 out of 10 cases for the MAS and 8 out of 10 cases for the QABF. Correspondence for the category and condition ranked second was found for 2 out of 10 cases for the MAS and 2 out of 10 cases for the QABF. The magnitude of difference between categories on the MAS/QABF did not appear to predict the amount of difference in responding in the corresponding functional analyses.
81. Evaluating the Effects of Unequal Time Intervals on Discriminated Functional Communication
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JOHANNA SOSA (Florida Institute of Technology), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Functional communication training is a commonly used intervention for the treatment of problem behavior maintained by social consequences. However, once the functional communication response is established, schedule thinning is often necessary. Research has found that multiple schedules can be used to produce discriminated functional communication, resulting in appropriate levels of the functional communicative response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. One limitation of using a multiple schedule in this context is that the schedule-correlated stimuli are often arbitrary (e.g., colored cards) and must be purposefully manipulated. Recent investigators have demonstrated that naturally occurring, schedule correlated stimuli can produce similar results to programmed, arbitrary stimuli (e.g., Kuhn, Chirigin, & Zelenka, 2010; Leon, Kahng, Hausman, & Becraft, 2010). One limitation of the aforementioned studies is that they utilized fixed, equal time intervals. Thus, it is possible that strict alternation between conditions could have aided discrimination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of unequal interval durations in a multiple schedule context using naturally occurring stimuli with one child diagnosed with autism. Results show that discriminated responding persisted when schedule components were composed of unequal time intervals, more closely resembling contingencies in naturalistic contexts.
82. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Group Activities on Prosocial Behavior in Adults With Intellectual Disabiltiies
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN FULTS (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), William Root (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mariela Castro (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Ruth anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Deric Toney (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The current study serves an importance as it may aid in the emergence of social interactions and potential friendships with individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of interlocked behavioral contingencies embedded in group activities, on social interactions of adults with intellectual disabilities. This metacontingency package will be evaluated by using a reversal design. Baseline data are being collected on the frequency of reciprocal interactions, defined as both participants engaging in a reciprocal gesture/response to each other, which will be recorded as a unit, and the frequency of individual initiations, defined as the participant who first engages towards the other participant. Intervention will consist of four homemade activities: 1) lemonade and pizza, 2) candles, 3) facials and 4) flower arrangements. Instructions for each activity were created in such a manner that required the behavior of one participant to be dependent on the behavior of the other participant, therefore the behavior of each participant will serve as a discriminative stimulus for all steps of the activities. Preliminary data include baseline and a generalization probe and are not yet complete. It is expected data collection will be completed within 3 months.
83. Effect of Liquid Delivery on Rumination Rates: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA DELAPP (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Gabrielle Vega (University of North Texas), Kathleen Dignan (University of North Texas), Katy Atcheson (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Previous literature has shown that liquid delivery can affect rates of rumination in some clients (Barton & Barton, 1985; Heering, Wilder, & Ladd, 2003). The present study evaluated the effects of liquids on the rate of rumination for one individual. Initially, we examined how liquid affected the rate of rumination during a meal time. Cumulative records indicate that the rate of rumination following liquid delivery increased drastically. The type and texture of food did not have an impact of the rate of rumination. Based on the individual’s fragile medical condition, the medical team determined to discontinue oral nutrition and fluids indefinitely and a gastrostomy-jejunostomy tube was used for nutrition. All rumination ceased when fluids and nutrition were delivered via the jejunostomy tube. Finally, a liquid fading procedure was implemented in which the participant received small amounts of fluid while NPO. Caloric value and flavor were manipulated systematically, and results suggested that caloric value and flavor impacted the rate of rumination.
84. Effects of Popsicle Consumption on Rumination and Emesis: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Christina DeLapp (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), GABRIELLE VEGA (University of North Texas), Kathleen Dignan (University of North Texas), Katy Atcheson (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: An evaluation of a series of interventions was conducted for an individual who engaged in life-threatening rumination and emesis. There is substantial research indicating that the following are common treatments for rumination: delivery of peanut butter (Barton & Barton, 1985; Greene, Johnston, Rossi, Rawal, Winston, & Barron, 1991) and/or chopped bread following meals (Thibadeau, Blew, Reedy, & Luiselli, 1999), chewing gum (Rhine, & Tarbox, 2009), or satiation procedures (Dudley, Johnson, & Barnes, 2002; Lyons, Rue, Luiselli, & DiGennaro, 2007; Rast, Johnston, Drum, & Conrin, 1981). In the current case, each of these interventions were found to be either ineffective or contraindicated based on the participant’s fragile health status. Following these analyses, the effects of free access to popsicles on rumination and emesis was evaluated. An AB design was used in which popsicles were first restricted and then the participant had free access to popsicles throughout a 12 hour day. Results indicate that rumination rate and duration were inversely related to popsicle consumption duration. Emesis, however, was unaffected by the popsicle consumption duration.
85. Toward the Identification of Functional Behavioral Phenotypes of Problem Behavior in Genetic Syndromes
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE A. FRANK-CRAWFORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Andrew Bonner (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle D. Chin (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: There is a growing body of research examining behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes. However, little is known about the role of phenotype-environment interactions in the development and maintenance of problem behavior thus warranting a more systematic review of the operant properties of these behaviors within and across syndromes. The current study attempts to identify functional behavioral phenotypes of problem behavior for 56 individuals admitted to inpatient and/or outpatient hospital units for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Participants had one of three genetic disorders: Fragile X syndrome (FXS, n = 11), Down syndrome (n = 37), or Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 8). Behavioral assessments (e.g., preference and competing stimulus assessments, functional assessments) and treatments were conducted. Preliminary results suggest patterns in behavioral topographies, preferences, and competing stimulus assessment outcomes. For example, the FXS group exhibited a narrower behavioral repertoire with fewer categories of stimuli being represented amongst the top three preferred edible and nonedible items. A comparison of the findings within and across genetic disorders, including functional analysis and treatment outcomes, will be presented. The results of this study will highlight the importance of further defining functional behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes.
86. Further Evaluation of the Effects of Interviewer Behavior on Accuracy of Children’s Responses
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
GISSELLE ARRIETE (Florida Institute of Technology/World Evolve, Inc.), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Genessys Isea (Florida Institute of Technology/World Evolve, Inc.)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: There is limited behavioral research on the effects of interviewer behavior on children’s recall. The current study evaluated the effects of social consequences on the accuracy of responses to open-ended questions. One 5-year-old girl diagnosed with autism participated in the study. During each session, the experimenters provided a set of concrete and inferential questions after the participant watched a new video. In baseline, there were no differential consequences for correct responses. In the reinforcement of correct responding condition, only correct responses produced social praise. In the reinforcement of incorrect responding, only incorrect responses produced social praise. Finally, in a combined condition of reinforcement for incorrect responding and punishment for correct responding, correct responses produced statements of social disapproval (e.g., “I don’t think that’s right) and incorrect responses produced social praise. Results showed that reinforcement of correct responding produced the highest levels of correct responding and the combined condition produced the lowest levels of accuracy. These findings replicated those of prior studies, suggesting that combined contingencies are most likely to influence responding and produce inaccurate responding relative to one type of consequence alone and extended those results to a new population: individuals with developmental disabilities.
87. Functional Analysis With Preferred and Non-Preferred Staff Yields "Opposite" Results
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CATHERINE CHAILLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jasmeen Kaur (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mandy M. Park (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Natalie Rolider (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: One common ongoing challenge regarding the functional assessment of problem behavior is the presence of undifferentiated results. It is possible that the presence of novel therapists or contrived environment contributes to these results (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). An additional explanation involves the presence or absence of preferred therapists during functional analysis sessions. We investigated the relationship between therapist preference and the function of an individuals problem behavior. Two versions of a social avoidance functional analysis (Harper, Iwata, & Camp, 2013) were conducted with a child diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, a non-preferred therapist implemented social avoidance (test) versus ignore (control) conditions in a reversal design. Then, a preferred therapist implemented social avoidance (test) versus contingent attention (control) in a reversal design. Results showed that problem behavior was maintained by both access to attention and escape from attention, with these functions dependent on which staff member served as therapist. The implications of these findings may inform subsequent treatment options, and potentially clarify inconclusive results of previous assessments.
88. Application of a Modified Trial-Based Functional Analysis in a Clinical Setting After Inconclusive Standard Functional Analyses
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY CARVER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kaitlin Hendrickx (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Erica Lozy (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Function-based intervention is a hallmark of Applied Behavior Analysis. Behavioral function is most often identified through the use of a functional behavioral assessment, with the Functional Analysis as the gold standard (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman, 1982/1994). A participants reactivity to a highly controlled environment and standard conditions may impact the potential for clear, differentiated functional analysis results. The current study assessed the problem behavior of an 8-year old female diagnosed with mild intellectual disabilities, progressing from more controlled to more natural assessments. A standard functional analysis yielded inconclusive, undifferentiated results but the highest and most consistent rates of target behavior occurred in the attention condition. However, the participant also commented on the unusual environment frequently and began to engage in avoidance behavior with respect to the session room. To further evaluate the variables that maintain problem behavior, a modified trial-based functional analysis was conducted. Four test conditions were evaluated, and each compared with a relevant control. The conditions were quasi-randomized to correspond with the establishing operation that was present. Latency to problem behavior in each condition was recorded. The results were significantly more differentiated than in the standard functional analysis, and indicated multiply-maintained problem behavior (attention, tangible).
89. The Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior on Individuals With Insulin Dependent Diabetes
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY JOHNSON (REM Minnesota; The Mentor Network)
Discussant: Jessica McCormack (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior was used as a behavior intervention for a 20 year-old male living that lives in a residential group home. Through direct and indirect observation it was identified that this individual has type I diabetes insulin dependent, and was not eating meals defined as healthy for an individual with diabetes throughout the day. Frequency data was used to assess the frequency of healthy eating and the effects it had on blood sugar levels. Results showed an overall decrease in blood sugar levels from 244 to 225, a 9% decrease is average blood sugar level.



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