Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #303
Sunday, May 24, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
108. Teaching Mands for Removal of Blocked Access to Preferred Stimuli Using Progressive Time Delay Procedures
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
George Sullivan (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, DC Campus; SPARKS, LLC), Genevieve Marshall (SPARKS, LLC; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, DC Campus), Mary Caruso-Anderson (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), BARBARA J. KAMINSKI (Green Box ABA, PLLC; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, DC Campus)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Teaching mands maintained by negative reinforcement can establish an appropriate means of removing, refusing, or delaying non-preferred or aversive stimuli. The current study extended a procedure reported by Shillingsburg, Powell and Bowen (2013) for training a mand for the removal of a stimulus blocking access to an item or activity. A delayed multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of progressively increasing the delay from presentation of the SD (blocking of the stimulus) to prompted response (i.e., a progressive-time-delay procedure). Four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were presented trials in which an establishing/motivating operation (EO) was created by blocking access to an item or activity within the natural environment. Initially, a prompt was delivered immediately (0-s delay). The delay was progressively increased across conditions to 5 s. To demonstrate differential responding, trials in which an establishing/motivating operation was absent were conducted. Acquisition of the mand for the removal of blocked access to a preferred item was demonstrated in three of the four children and generalization to different items and with different people occurred. The results contribute to a growing body of research on teaching self-advocacy skills to individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities.
 
109. An Extension of Analyses of Verbal Operants: Identifying the Functions of Perseverative Speech
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SAGAR PATEL (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; University of Maryland, Baltimore County ), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa Theodore (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Morgan Marie Hallgren (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly display repetitive forms of language concentrated on singular subjects, often referred to as perseverative speech. Perseverations may be mediated by environmental variables, such as social attention (e.g., Rehfeldt & Chambers, 2003). Children with limited vocabulary skills may also perseverate on preferred items in an attempt to request, or mand for, appetitive stimuli (Gilliam et al, 2013). Individuals with excessive perseverative speech may have difficulty developing adaptive skills and be disruptive in social interactions (Kuntz, Santos, & Kennedy, 2019). Understanding perseverations within the scope of verbal behavior can aid in understanding communication deficits and building appropriate, adaptive communication. The current study extends the analysis of verbal operants exhibited by individuals with disabilities (e.g., Lerman et al., 2005) by examining the functions of perseverative speech of a young boy diagnosed with ASD who also had a limited expressive language repertoire. While his verbal behavior was excessive and his responses appeared to be repetitive and similar topographically, results of the analysis revealed that they were actually functionally independent and differed in slight, but important ways. This information was used to develop an intervention designed to increase other aspects of his functional speech.
 
110. Relative Efficacy of Functional Communication for a Break to Reduce Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Types of Social Negative Reinforcement
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA GILLORAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Morgan Marie Hallgren (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Anlara McKenzie (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Functional communication training with extinction is a commonly used intervention for severe problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement (e.g., Hagopian, Fisher, Sullivan, Acquisto, & LeBlanc, 1998). In the case of behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement, the communication response should serve to terminate the ongoing aversive stimulus. If problem behavior is demonstrated to occur to terminate more than one type of aversive stimulus, a single functional communication response (e.g., a break card) may be trained in the presence of the different establishing operations (e.g., academic demands, social interaction). The current study examines the effects of teaching an 18-year-old man with autism to use a break card to terminate social interaction during leisure periods and to terminate academic demands during work periods. Functional communication plus extinction effectively suppressed problem behavior that occurred to terminate social interaction; however, problem behavior continued to occur during academic contexts until differential reinforcement of compliance using positive reinforcement (i.e., edibles) was added to the treatment package. Key words: negative reinforcement, functional communication, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior References Hagopian, L. P., Fisher, W. W., Sullivan, M. T., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: a summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 31(2), 211–235. doi:10.1901/jaba.1998.31-211
 
111.

Examining the Increase in Functional Communication in Children With Developmental Concerns in Comparison With Other Children in Clinical Treatment: Part Two

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE NORTHINGTON (PACES, LLC), Helen Christine Shelton (Chancelight), Cassandra Hammonds, MS, BCBA (PACES, LLC)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Background: Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) has demonstrated significant increase in functional language and communication for all types of children with autism spectrum disorders (Koegel et al., 1999; Koegel, 2000; Koegel et al., 2003). Typically, utilization of PRT occurs with children diagnosed with ASD, either verbal or nonverbal. Over the past several years, generalization of PRT techniques beyond ASD has been examined, with increased functional verbal output demonstrated not only in ASD, but also in children with other developmental concerns, including global developmental delay, speech delay, and Down syndrome (Northington, et al., 2018&2016; Northington & Shelton, 2015). Not only are results of PRT generalizable among children with a variety of developmental concerns, but with adults with cognitive impairments as well (LeBlanc, et al., 2007). Treatments that utilize neurotypical peers also demonstrate significant improvements in the social skills of neuroatypical individuals (Maich et al., 2015). It seems that by increasing the functional communication in neuroatypical children, their verbal output will begin to match that of their neurotypical peers. Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of PRT and to examine if differences in functional output exists between the two groups after treatment. Methods: Data from three children were analyzed. All three children were aged 4-years when data were collected as part of ongoing treatment. One girl was diagnosed with Down syndrome; the second with ASD; and the third was neurotypical. Data were collected utilizing ten-minute video segments and were analyzed to examine increase in verbal measures for all children. Results: All three children demonstrated increases in functional communication after intervention. A two-tailed independent samples t-test will be utilized to compare the best functional verbal utterances. When results were analyzed for boys, there was no significant difference in words uttered (t(1) = 0.038, p = 0.976). A two-tailed independent samples t-test will be utilized to compare best mean length of utterance. When results were analyzed for boys, there was no significant difference in the length of utterance (t(1) = 0.772, p = 0.602). Conclusions: PRT is an effective method for achieving significant improvement in functional communication and can be utilized with neurotypical and neuroatypical individuals with great success.

 
112.

The Impact of an Intraverbal Webbing Procedure on the Emergence of Advanced Intraverbal Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
NOUF ALZRAYER (King Saud University )
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

The current study investigated the effects of an intraverbal webbing procedure on the development of divergent and convergent intraverbal responses in three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between the ages of 4 and 7 years old, using a multiple probe across participants design. The results demonstrated that the intraverbal webbing procedure was effective in the acquisition of trained verbal responses to fill-in-the blank statements regarding the function, feature, and class of several items. In addition, emergence of convergent and divergent intraverbal responses was observed across untrained categories.

 
113. Comparing the Effects of Category Tact and Match-to-Sample Training on the Emergence of Untrained Intraverbals
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
NOUF ALZRAYER (King Saud University )
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: A common strategy for developing emergent intraverbals is teaching other related skills (e.g., tact, listener responding, and matching-to-sample); however, there is little to know about the effects of tact, listener responding, and match-to-sample training when they are conducted individually. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine if category tact training was more efficient than matching-to-sample training for the development of emergent intraverbals. We used an adapted alternative treatment design embedded in a multiple-probe design across three participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between the ages of 3 and 5 years old. Two different sets of stimuli were selected, one for each treatment condition. For each set, there were 12 stimuli, 4 for each category (vegetables, animals, and clothes). The participants were expected to label the category in the tact condition and sort 12 pictures into three groups. We conducted an intraverbal probe where the participants were asked to list four items in each category. The participants demonstrated greater emergent intraverbals in the category tact condition than in the matching-to-sample condition.
 
114.

Effectiveness of Speech Therapy on the Use of Siri for an Adult With an Intellectual Disability

Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CARLY ELIZABETH DRAGAN (The Faison Center, Inc.)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of speech therapy on one individual’s use of Siri to expand reinforcers, use self-management techniques, and communicate (call and/or text an individual). The participant has a diagnosis of speech language impairment and has difficulty using Siri due to articulation/phonological errors including: stopping, fronting, and final consonant deletion. Utilizing an alternating treatment design, speech therapy will occur using one of two target sets: functional phrases and nonsense phrases. Outcomes will guide clinicians in functional target selection.

 
115.

The Effects of Asian Immigrant Parent Implemented Training on Mand Acquisition of Children With Autism

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
XIAOHAN CHEN (Duquesne University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Asian population is the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States and Asian parents often hold different opinions on family functioning and childrearing. However, there has been no research conducted to examine how to best train parents from Asian immigrant backgrounds to teach manding to their child with autism at home. A behavioral skills training (BST) package was utilized to teach three Asian parents to train their children with autism aged between 6-12 to mand for preferred items. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of parent training on parent participants’ implementation of mand training task analysis and the effects of the intervention on the acquisition of independent mands of their children. All three parents demonstrated improvement in implementing mand training procedures following the parent training delivered by BST. In addition, all three children demonstrated increased independent mands after receiving mand training from their parents and two demonstrated criterion performance. Maintenance and generalization probes were conducted with two parent-child dyads and showed positive results. Implications of the findings and characteristics of supporting Asian immigrants with children with autism are discussed.

 
116.

The Effects of an Accelerated Auditory Match-to-Sample Procedure on Echoic Responses

Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
WENHUI ZHANG (Teacher College, Columbia University), Lenah Alshowaiman (Teacher's College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Researches have defined subsequences of verbal developmental cusps to help the children with language delay emit verbal behavior as speaker-as-own-listener. Auditory discrimination is one of listener cusps that plays essential roles for children’s verbal behavior. In this study, we used a multiple probe across participants experimental design to evaluate the effects of the accelerated auditory Match-to-Sample (AMTS) procedure on the accuracy of echoic responses of three preschoolers with language delay. The AMTS procedure consisted 8 basic phases and 13 advanced phases that increased in difficulty with each subsequent phase, and it required participants to match exemplar to target sounds. We measured the accuracy of echoic responses by calculating the number of words emitted with point-to-point correspondence from a list of 100 English words emitted by the participants. A functional relation was demonstrated as all three participants showed an increase in the number of full echoic responses after the completion of the AMTS procedure. The results of the study were aligned with results shown by Choi, Greer and Keohane (2015). The auditory matching provided opportunities for children with language delays to discriminate sounds and words.

 
117. An Analysis of Faded Prompting Procedures on the Rate of Tact Acquisition
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Ginger Harms (Teachers College, Columbia University ), Susan Buttigieg (Teachers College, Columbia University, Manhattanville College), NANA ISHIKAWA (Teachers College Columbia University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: This study investigated two faded prompting procedures on the rate of tact acquisition. There were 4 male participants who attended an Early Intervention program for children with developmental delays that were selected to participate in this study. All participants were between the ages of 17 months to 3 years old and functioned as a listener and a speaker. An ABAB design counterbalanced across participants and tact sets were used to conduct this study. There were two variations of a faded echoic to independent tact prompting procedure. The “all sessions” condition presented echoics to the participants at the beginning of all sessions. In contrast, the “first session” condition presented echoics at the beginning of the first session only and were re-presented based on moment-to-moment decision making according to data. For both conditions, the 3 echoic to independent tact procedure was used as a tactic, where experimenters returned to presenting additional echoics if there were 3 consecutive incorrect responses during the independent level. The dependent variable was the rate of learning which was measured by calculating the number of learn units to criterion. Results showed that participants acquired tacts at a faster rate when echoics were presented based on moment-to-moment decision-making according to data rather than at the beginning of each session. These results suggest that 3 out of the 4 participants learned with less instruction when receiving the correction procedure instead of the echoic prompts.
 
118. Effects of a Peer-Editing Package on Producing Effective Math Problem Solving
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SONG CHOI (Teachers College, Columbia University), Daria Kaczorowska (Teachers College, Columbia University), Dallal Bayan (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Teaching the function of math is critical for students to explain the mathematical reasoning. We tested the effects of peer-editing package on producing effective problem solving algorithms with four fourth grade students using a multiple probe across participants design. The dependent variables of the experiment consisted of components of a math algorithm solved by a naive adult reader, verbally governed responses of writing correct steps to produce a math algorithm, and the emergence of explanations of the function ("why") of math problem. The independent variable of the experiment was the implementation of peer-editing package that included a written dialogue between a writer and an editor to solve a multi-step math problem. During the intervention, the writer solved the math problem and described the steps to solve the math problem in written forms for the editor to solve the written algorithm without ever looking at the problem. The editor wrote questions to the writer to deliver feedback until the writer met criterion. These findings have further implications on peer-yoked contingencies and development of problem-solving skills.
 
119. Effects of Peer-Editing With a Script on Emergence of Read-Do Correspondence in Fourth Graders
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DALLAL BAYAN (Teacher's College, Columbia University), Song Choi (Teachers College, Columbia University), Daria Kaczorowska (Teacher's College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: The Verbal Behavior Development Theory identifies necessary cusps for individuals to be independent learners. Students with read-do correspondence have reading governs responding, allowing them to follow written directions without requiring vocal antecedents or mediation from instructors. The purpose of this experiment was to test for the effects of a procedure with peer-editing with a script on the acquisition of read-do correspondence across fourth graders, using a multiple probe across participants design. The independent variable was peer-editing with a script procedure, with a peer confederate following a checklist to provide feedback on the functional and structural components of a peer’s technical writing essay. The primary dependent variable measured the emergence of read-do correspondence. Secondary dependent variables were the percentage of correct responses to functional and structural components in written instructional and informational essays. We paired participants into two dyads, with one participant as the editor and the other participant as the writer. Results across participants demonstrated the emergence of read-do correspondence and an increase in accuracy for structural and functional components of writing. These data suggest that a peer-editing procedure is an effective procedure in inducing read-do correspondence and future studies should test the implications of the procedure on other cusps.
 
 

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