Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

Event Details

Previous Page

 

Poster Session #538
Monday, May 25, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
85.

The Effects of Pairing Teaching With Acoustical Guidance and Social Praise on Gymnastics Skill Improvement

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KEA WINDSOR (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Mary Caruso-Anderson (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

The traditional way of training gymnasts is to provide verbal feedback. Most feedback focuses on what the athlete has performed incorrect and seldom on what is correct. There is a time delay between the athlete completing the skill and when feedback is provided. One technique, teaching with acoustical guidance also known as TAGteach is a conditioned reinforcer that provides the athlete with immediate feedback on a specific skill in the moment. In addition to TAGteach, receiving support in the form of praise from teammates when playing a sport can increase an athlete’s performance. The participants consisted of one female coach and six female students between the ages of 7 and 9 who were in an advanced competition level class also known as the Junior Olympic Level 3. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of TAGteach and social praise to increase the fluency of 3 foundational gymnastics skills using a multiple baseline design across behaviors. The target behaviors consisted of a cast, shoot through, and handstand. The data showed that teaching with acoustical guidance and social praise can increase not only the acquisition of a previously learned skill but increase fluency and consistency over time.

 
86.

A Comparison of Indirect Screening for Function of Challenging Behavior by Medical Professionals to Functional Analysis Outcomes Using Signal Detection Theory

Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREW W. GARDNER (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry), Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus), Lauren Mowrey (Children’s Hospital Colorado), Chelsea E. Carr (The University of Arizona - College of Education - Disability and Psychoeducational Studies )
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

The Function of Behavior MEDICAL Screening Tool (FOB-MED) was developed to streamline an indirect functional behavior assessment administered by non-behavior analysts in a medical setting. A direct functional analysis can take approximately 2 hours for behavior analysts to conduct (Roane, Ringdahl, & Falcomata, 2015). In contrast, the FOB-MED consists of eight basic questions that produce hypotheses regarding function of problem behavior (i.e., escape, automatic, tangible, attention) in approximately 15 minutes. For 100 children enrolled in the current study, a FOB-MED was administered to a parent by a psychiatric social worker or other professional at the same time a functional analysis of problem behavior was conducted with the parent’s child by a behavior analyst such that the predictive validity of the FOB-MED to the functional analysis could be evaluated. The results for these 100 children were compared and analyzed using Signal Detection Theory (SDT) (Peterson, Birdsall & Fox, 1954). Preliminary results showed that the escape function was most accurately identified by the FOB-MED and the automatic function was most often identified as a “false alarm.” A discussion of validity for indirect methods to identify hypothesized function of challenging behavior with medical professionals is included in the poster presentation.

 
87. Reducing Agitation in Dementia: An Antecedent Intervention Using Virtual Reality
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ALLISON WALDEN (University of Colorado Colorado Springs), Rebecca Ingram (University of Colorado Colorado Springs), Madeline Lag (University of Colorado Colorado Springs), Jenny Lagervall (University of Colorado Colorado Springs), Katie Granier (University of Colorado Colorado Springs), Leilani Feliciano (University of Colorado Colorado Springs)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Agitation refers to a class of behaviors frequently associated with dementia, which can have negative consequences for the individual and staff in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Nonpharmacological interventions hold great promise to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Interventions that incorporate sensory stimulation have been successful at treating BPSD in individuals with dementia. Virtual reality (VR) technology may be thought of as a sensory stimulation technique that is gaining in popularity as an assessment tool with older adults, but little research exists as to how VR can be used to reduce BPSD. The present study investigated an antecedent intervention to reduce agitation behaviors in two female participants with dementia. A blended single case experimental design combining the multiple-baseline design across individuals with a reversal design was used to examine the effects of VR nature scenes on agitation. Visual analysis was used to determine changes in mean, level, and latency of the behaviors. A significant decrease in respective agitation behaviors was observed during intervention phases and this effect was replicated across participants. This study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of VR as a brief and effective antecedent intervention to decrease agitation in individuals with dementia.
 
88. An Evaluation of Caregivers’ Perceptions and Implementation of Safety Skills Training
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CARLY MAGNACCA (Brock University), Kendra Thomson (Brock University )
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: People with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs) are two-to-three times more likely to experience a preventable injury compared to peers without NDDs. Although caregivers of people with NDDs value the importance of teaching safety skills, preliminarily research suggests they do not feel they have enough knowledge or experience to provide systematic training (Sirin & Tekin-Iftar, 2016). The purpose of this study is to increase caregivers’ confidence providing safety skills training through a didactic webinar. To inform the webinar, the researchers have recruited five caregivers to partake in a focus group to identify teaching barriers and specific safety skills of concern. The subsequent webinar will be offered to interested caregivers in the community and will provide information on behavioural skills training, along with addressing barriers to teach the safety skills identified during the focus group. Previous research in our lab has confirmed that caregivers do not feel confident teaching safety skills to their children. We anticipate that the didactic webinar will increase caregivers’ confidence as measured using a five-point Likert scale; however, caregivers will report an interest in receiving additional training. This preliminary evaluation will help to inform a subsequent single-case experimental design with caregivers that took part in the webinar.
 
89. A Behaviour Analytic Account of Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviour
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
AISLING COLLINS (Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: While commonly thought of in terms of deficits in socio-communicative repertories, those with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often significantly impacted by their restrictive repetitive behaviour (RRBs) too, with a notable subset also receiving a clinical diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Behaviour analysts have had notable success in reducing engagement in lower-order (i.e. stereotypic) RRBs but a paucity of interventions exist for the treatment of higher-order RRBs that are more akin to obsessive-compulsive behaviours (OCB). There are ethical limits to the use of exposure and response prevention, while traditional cognitive behavioural therapy would be inaccessible for those with a limited verbal behaviour repertoire. It is suggested that the growing body of literature on Relational Frame Theory and in particular work on the transformation of stimulus function may continue to advance our understanding of emergent and complex human behaviour. This in turn may elucidate more clearly the role of private events in overt behaviour, and by identifying the principles of behaviour controlling OCB, enable effective treatment alternatives for individuals with lower-levels of verbal behaviour to be developed.
 
90. Using Sensory Based Interventions and Applied Behaviour Analysis to Decrease Escape Behaviours
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
PAMELA SHEA (St. Lawrence College), Dylan Twist (St. Lawrence College)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which has been reported to affect 6-9% of children (Wilens et al., 2011) and is one of the most common cognitive and behavioural disorders seen in school aged children (Larson, Russ, Kahn, & Halfon, 2011). Many interventions have been identified to attempt to decrease challenges within children diagnosed with ADHD. Sensory based interventions (SBI) such as brushing, and linear swinging, are presumed to promote self-regulation (Case-Smith, Weaver, & Fristad, 2015). SBI is commonly implemented, however research is limited. The aim of this study was to determine if SBI and/or a combination of SBI and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviours (DRA) and reinforcement of on-task behaviours would decrease challenging behaviours. A quasi-experimental ABAC research design was used to investigate if SBI or a combination of SBI and DRA plus reinforcement of on task behaviours were effective at reducing behaviours in four children diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated a decrease in escape related behaviours in three of the participants during the SBI phase and a further decrease in behaviours during the combined approaches of all four participants. This study adds to literature supporting the field of applied behaviour analysis and inter-professional collaboration, and provides conservative support the use of SBI in isolation.
 
91. Behavioral Conceptualization of Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Old but Under-Appreciated Perspective on a Prevalent Issue
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
JESSICA GOOD (Eastern Michigan University ), Leah Rose LaLonde (Eastern Michigan University ), Michael Jon Vriesman (Eastern Michigan University), Alexandros Maragakis (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioral excesses and deficits that tend to present in children and adolescents. If left untreated, ADHD may contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors such as troubles with authoritative and legal entities through adolescents and into adulthood, and covert problem behaviors such as avoidance, excessive pliance, and even learning disorders. Due to the expansive list of symptoms and growing prevalence of ADHD, as well as the lack of functional knowledge behind the disorder, ADHD is often treated with medication. However, medication, when compared to behavioral treatments and a combination of pharmacological and behavioral treatments, has been shown to be less effective than behavioral treatments. Due to current conceptualizations of ADHD, problems with diagnosis and treatment exist including poor operational definitions of symptoms, disregard for context of behaviors, and mistaking topography of behavior for function. Despite the behavioral analytic influence in current treatment, the field of behavioral analysis still has much to contribute to the current medical and clinical models of treatment for ADHD. Increasing the behavioral impact in both the current conceptualization of and assessments and treatments for ADHD could make effective behaviorally-based treatments more mainstreamed across all provider settings.
 
92.

Effects of an Aqua-Titanium Necklace on Running Speed When Examined at the Individual and Group Levels

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
NATHAN WEBER (University of Alaska Anchorage), Duane Wood (University of Alaska Anchorage), Mychal Machado (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Recommendations to produce improvements in physical performance, fitness, and health exist, but many of these recommendations require a certain level of commitment, which some individuals find unfavorable. In response, many people endorse alternative strategies that claim to produce faster and more effective results, although these alternative strategies lack empirical support. A recent example is the use of ergogenic aids, which can include athletic wearables infused with Aqua Titanium. Results from previous evaluations of athletic wearables infused with Aqua Titanium have been mixed with respect to ergogenic effectiveness. This might be due to exclusive reliance on group designs in previous studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the individual and group differences in responsiveness to an Aqua-Titanium necklace. Using a single-subject (reversal) design, we measured the running speed of 10 healthy adults across baseline (no necklace), test (Aqua-Titanium necklace) and placebo conditions using a 61-m indoor track. The entire sample was then considered for group analyses. Results showed that our single-subject and group analyses produced similar outcomes, and that these outcomes provided little evidence to support the ergogenic effectiveness of the Aqua-Titanium necklace.

 
93.

Parent Training as an Intervention for Children Who Demonstrate Problem Behavior in Japan

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MOMOKO YAMASHITA (University of Utah; Nationwide Children's Hospital )
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

The number of individuals diagnosed with a disability in Japan has risen steadily over the past several decades. Unfortunately, however, sufficient resources are not available to support these individuals. Many Japanese mothers have expressed parenting-related stress, anxiety and lack of confidence in their parenting skills. Along with diagnosed disabilities and prevalence of maternal stress, the rate of child abuse and neglect has been climbing in Japan as well. With the increasing prevalence of disability, reported number of child abuse, and parenting stress in Japan and lack of supports in place, a sustainable solution is urgently needed to address this problem. Parent training is a promising option to address issues associated with developmental disabilities in childhood, including corresponding problem behaviors and the parental stress that often accompanies a diagnosis. Parent training programs often take specific forms and have been empirically shown to improve children’s behavior while also reducing parental distress. The effectiveness of parent training has been established in various populations among different ethnic groups and cultures, however, most parent training programs have been developed and administered in the West.These programs need to be localized and tested in a Japanese context to begin building evidence of their effectiveness for this population. Despite these needs, only one evidence-based manualized parent training program has been evaluated in Japan: Triple P Parent Training.The purpose of the present study is to develop and evaluate a behavioral parenting program that teaches principles of applied behavior analysis, which should increase positive parent-child interactions and decrease negative parent-child interactions and child problem behavior.

 
94.

Choosing to Feel Good: Wellbeing Discounting

Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
WOJCIECH BIALASZEK (Institute of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Franciszek Ostaszewski (Institute of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

From the basic research to application in real life settings, the research on discounting has received enormous attention, and still researchers find new areas of development within this domain of behavioral economics. Researchers began to focus on delay and probability discounting in the early stages, however soon new discounting factors have been proposed such as effort or social distance. Because people maximize happiness with the outcome or minimize negativity connected with it, which leads to choices that result in the highest wellbeing possible, the main aim of this research was to test whether wellbeing can function as a novel discounting factor. Analyses were performed on 37 university students, who completed titration procedure with fixed amounts in two conditions of large and small monetary payments. After initial model selection based on fit indices, our analyses showed that with decreasing wellbeing participant’s subjective value decreased. Furthermore we found the magnitude effect to be present (large monetary gains were discounted less steeply than small monetary gains). Present research gives a foundation to treat wellbeing in behavioral economic categories, and shows that human choice in function of wellbeing can be quantitatively modeled.

 
95.

Exploring a Factor Structure of Korean Version of the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents

Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
YOONJUNG YANG (Yonsei University), Seungmin Jung (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Many parents of adolescents experience high level of parenting stress, so a psychometrically sound instrument that quickly evaluates the stress level is needed for both clinical and research purposes. In the current study, factor structure of the extended form (item N=112) of Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (K-SIPA) was explored for the possibility of developing the shorter version with acceptable reliability and validity. Data collected from the standardization study of K-SIPA was used (n= 942 parents of children age from 11 to 19). Half of the sample were randomly selected to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the rest was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as well as to examine reliability and validity. The EFA yielded three factors solution with 37 items, followed by the CFA which showed acceptable fit indices. Both internal consistency and test-retest reliability fell in the acceptable range. Results from a correlation analysis among factors, a correlation analysis between K-SIPA short form and other measurements, and t-test of stress level between different groups of parents indicated acceptable level of validity. The results confirmed that K-SIPA short form is valid and reliable to measure parenting stress of Korean parents of adolescents.

 
96. Behavioral Skills Training for the Visual Analysis of Behavior Data on Treatment Decisions by Staff and Clinicians in an Acute Psychiatric Hospital
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW A. LAW (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Amanda Mahoney (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In acute psychiatric settings, up to 95% of patients may be prescribed pro re nata (PRN, or “as needed”) psychotropic medications (Thapa et al., 2003). The high level of PRN psychotropic medication use, in combination with scheduled medications, have led researchers to question if PRN orders may contribute to patients receiving unnecessary doses of psychotropic medications to prevent or abate the aggressive behavior of patients (Tranulis et al., 2008; Stewart, Robson, Chaplin, Quirk, & Bowers, 2012). The strategies employed by behavior analysts could be instrumental in the evaluation of psychotropic medication interventions; however, to date, little work has been done in this area. The current study examined the effects of a Behavioral Skills Training (BST) package to train direct care staff, nurses, and clinicians to visually analyze graphed patient data on their determination of the effectiveness of PRN psychotropic medications and changes to patient treatment plans. BST was effective in increasing the accuracy of visual analyses performed on mock patient behavior graphs when measures of problem behaviors and the cumulative dose of PRN psychotropic medications administered per day were graphed together (PND = 100%; Tau-UA vs B – trend A = 85.9% (p<.05)). BST was found to be a valuable tool to train visual analysis skills. Although participants were better able to visually analyze graphed data following BST, their improved visual analysis skills did not result in an increased ability to determine if a change in treatment was necessary or have a significant effect on the selection of proposed changes to treatment.
 
97. Responses of Delay Discounting and Behavioral Demand for Food to Acute Exercise
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN R. MILLER (University of Colorado School of Medicine / Children's Hospital Colorado), Tanya Halliday (University of Utah), Mollie White (University of Colorado School of Medicine), Ed Melanson (University of Colorado School of Medicine), Marc-Andre Cornier (University of Colorado School of Medicine)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Delay discounting and behavioral demand for food have been shown to be related to obesity, with more rapid decreases in value of delayed outcomes, higher consumption when food is free (high demand intensity), and greater continued consumption as costs of food increase (low demand elasticity) each associated with greater obesity. Recent research suggests exercise may improve delay discounting; however, whether these effects are observed acutely or vary with different forms of exercise has yet to be examined. Furthermore, effects of exercise on behavioral demand for food has also yet to be examined. In this pilot study, 19 adults with body mass index (BMI) ranging from healthy to obese completed hypothetical questionnaires assessing delay discounting of money and behavioral demand for food following three activity conditions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary activity. Results suggest delay discounting of money was not affected by acute exercise, but behavioral demand for food was. More specifically, both aerobic and resistance exercise decreased elasticity relative to sedentary activity (ps<.05), but intensity did not differ by activity. Furthermore, relative differences in demand intensity between exercise and sedentary activities were found to be negatively related to BMI (rs= -.59 to -.64, ps=.010). Relative differences in elasticity were not related to BMI. These preliminary findings suggest that behavioral demand for food, but not delay discounting of money, is sensitive to acute exercise and that demand intensity and elasticity exhibit differential responses to exercise.
 
98.

Caregiver-Implemented Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTINA MCGINNIS (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University), Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Caregiver-implemented interventions are increasingly utilized to address the needs of families of children with autism. However, no previous systematic review has evaluated the efficacy of caregiver-implemented interventions for adolescents and young adults with autism despite evidence that the majority of individuals with autism continue to live at home into adulthood. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the effects of interventions implemented by caregivers of teens and young adults affected by autism. We conducted a systematic analysis of the dependent variables most often targeted for intervention, the caregiver adherence to the interventions, and the outcomes of caregiver-implemented interventions for the included studies. We identified ten studies that evaluated the quality of a caregiver-implemented intervention for the adolescent and young adult population. Across studies, results suggest positive outcomes related to intervention effectiveness and social validity. The current body of literature provides some evidence of value in utilizing caregiver-implemented interventions to produce behavior change for adolescents and young adults with autism, although there is a need for additional research in this area.

 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
SABA DONATE