Association for Behavior Analysis International

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46th Annual Convention; Washington DC; 2020

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Poster Session #295
Sunday, May 24, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 2, Hall D
Chair: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
1.

Observing Stimuli Correlated With Transitions Between Rich and Lean Schedules of Reinforcement

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CORY WHIRTLEY (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract:

Under the right circumstances, schedules of positive reinforcement can evoke disruptions in operant behavior. In the laboratory, these disruptions are produced reliably when there is a discriminable shift from relatively rich to relatively lean schedules of reinforcement. The present experiment assessed the extent to which stimuli correlated with rich and lean reinforcement schedules function as conditioned reinforcers or conditioned punishers. Pigeons’ pecks were reinforced according to a mixed schedule with two fixed-ratio components with identical requirements that ended in either a large or small reinforcer. At the start of some ratios, one of two observing keys was activated. A peck on the observing key converted the mixed schedule to a multiple schedule by replacing the mixed stimulus with a unique stimulus correlated with the past and upcoming reinforcers (rich-rich, rich-lean, lean-lean, or lean-rich). In every condition, one of the observing keys could produce all four types of stimuli. The stimulus consequence of pecking the other observing key was manipulated across conditions. The behavioral functions of the stimuli were assessed by comparing the probability of pecking the observing keys across conditions. Analyses of the variables responsible for disruptions in operant behavior could be useful in understanding problem behavior in clinical settings.

 
2. Effects of a Changeover Requirement on Between-Sequence Variation in Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HAWKEN V. HASS (College of Charleston), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Isolating the variables responsible for the variation under a variability-reinforcement contingency is critical (e.g., a Lag schedule). One tactic has been to measure variation under a contingency requiring a changeover but not variability. Such studies have produced mixed results. The present experiment was conducted to clarify these mixed findings. Twelve experimentally naïve pigeons completed four-peck sequences under one of two contingencies. In one group, a four-peck sequence produced food only if it contained a changeover between the initial two pecks (e.g., RLLL). In a second group, a four-peck sequence produced food only if it contained a changeover between the final two pecks (e.g., RRRL). Between-sequence variation was considerably different between groups. U-value, number of different sequences, and number of dominant sequences all were higher for the pigeons exposed to the contingency that required a changeover at the end of the sequence. This increased variation occurred despite the absence of a variability contingency. However, the variation remained at a level lower than what is typically observed under a Lag schedule. The present research is consistent with the claim that a significant portion of the variation observed under a variability-reinforcement contingency is the result of reduced reinforcement-induced repetition.
 
3. Learning New Response Sequences: A PORTL Replication of Reid (1994)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JOSEF HARRIS (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Reid (1994) taught rats to complete various three-response sequences using a right and left lever. Subjects were periodically shifted to a new response sequence. Reid showed that rats learned a new sequence faster when the last element in the sequence was changed. Rats learned a new sequence slower when the first element in the sequence was different. The present study replicated Reid (1994) using human participants and a tabletop game called PORTL. Participants were required to touch a pink block and a black block to complete a variety of three-response sequences. Similar to Reid, participants were periodically shifted to a new target sequence. The new target sequence differed in either the first or last position. The middle response always remained the same. Similar to Reid, acquisition of the new sequence occurred more rapidly when the shift was in the last position, and errors during acquisition occurred more often when the change was in the first position. This study supports Reid’s conclusion that reinforcement acts differently on individual responses within the sequence and that response strength is determined by a response’s contiguity to reinforcement.
 
4.

Development and Disruption of Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Performances: A PORTL Exploration

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LEAH HERZOG (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract:

One schedule of reinforcement that is used to decrease the rate of a target behavior is differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL). During this schedule, reinforcement is delivered for a target response if it occurs after a certain amount of time has passed since the last instance of this target response. Research has shown that collateral patterns of behavior can develop under a DRL schedule (Wilson & Keller, 1953; Bruner and Revusky, 1961). The current study used a table-top game called PORTL and college student participants to investigate how collateral patterns develop and are disrupted during DRL schedules. After the participant developed a collateral pattern of behaviors with the objects, the researcher removed one of the objects that was part of the pattern and waited for a new pattern of behaviors to develop. Once the participant developed a new collateral pattern, the researcher removed a second object. This continued until there was only one object present. Preliminary results showed that the rate of reinforcement decreased following the removal of each object, then slowly increased as a new pattern developed.

 
5. Effects of Signaled Versus Unsignaled Schedules on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AWAB ABDEL-JALIL (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Sometimes, changes in consequences are accompanied by a clear stimulus change. That is, there is a detectable change in the organism’s environment. Other times when new consequences are in effect, there is little or no accompanying stimulus change. These differences can be seen in the laboratory as multiple (signaled) schedules and mixed (unsignaled) schedules. The current study used college students and a single-subject design to examine the effects of signaled and unsigned schedule changes. In one phase, a card was flipped from purple to white every time the schedule was switched from VR-3 to FT-10. In another phase, the schedule still changed periodically, but the card always remained on the purple side. Results showed that acquisition of different patterns of behavior was faster in the phase where the color of the card signaled different schedules. In addition, different patterns of behavior came under the control of the two colors, and these patterns would quickly return when the card was flipped following several phases of not flipping. These results suggest that when teaching, it may be more effective to change the environment when a new behavior is required.
 
6. Repeated Resurgence with and without a Context Change
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CAROLYN RITCHEY (Auburn University), Toshikazu Kuroda (Aichi Bunkyo University), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Auburn University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Resurgence is the reoccurrence of a target response when reinforcement for a more recently reinforced alternative response is eliminated or reduced. The present study arranged two successive three-phase procedures to assess whether resurgence decreases with repeated assessments. Moreover, we arranged a contextual change from the first to second assessment for some groups. Phase 1 reinforced a target response on a touchscreen computer with typically developing adults as participants according to either variable-ratio or variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. Phase 2 extinguished target responding and reinforced alternative responding. Phase 3 tested for resurgence by extinguishing alternative responding. Resurgence reliably occurred in all tests and decreased from the first to second exposure to the procedures. However, there were no effects of context change. Therefore, repeated exposures to resurgence reduce those effects but contextual changes do not.
 
7. Effects of Frequency and Magnitude of Reinforcement on Resistance to Change and Spontaneous Recovery
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BEATRIZ ELENA ARROYO ANTUNEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara - Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Persistence and reaparition of disruptive behavior has been an important issue for clinical studies, since is a common finding when reinforcement schedules are used. Some of the variables that have been explored on persistence and reaparition of behavior are frequency and magnitude of reinforcement. Rats were exposed to a three component multiple schedule. The components of the group one were three variable interval schedules (VI 90 s) with a yoked variable time to the second and third component (VT 30 and VT 60, respectively). Group two consisted of one VI 90s and two VI 90s - VT 60s with different magnitude on the second and third component (1 vs. 3 pellets). Group three had the same components as group one, but varying the magnitude as group two. Preliminary results showed a relation between resistance to change and spontaneous recovery. On group one, more frequency resulted in more resistance and recovery; on group two, mixed results were found; and on group three, more frequency with less magnitude resulted in more resistance and recovery. This results indicate how behavior decrease with the manipulation of variables like frequency and magnitude, and how it can reappear.
 
8. Testing for Renewal and Resurgence of a Nose-Poke Response in Rat
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
GENEVIEVE GUIDONE (University of North Carolina at Wilmington ), Calista Holt (University of North Carolina at Wilmington ), Jonathan David Shaw (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sarah Elizabeth Accattato (University of North Carolina at Wilmington ), Kyndra Lawson (University of North Carolina at Wilmington ), Melissa Meglin (University of North Carolina at Wilmington ), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: ABA renewal, AAB renewal, and resurgence procedures were tested using odor stimuli as context in an automated olfactometer. Nine rats were trained to center nose-poke in the context of Odor A on a VI-30s schedule for food reinforcement for 15 days. Extinction of center nose-poking followed for 10 days. In the ABA condition, extinction occurred in the presence of Odor B; in the AAB condition, extinction occurred in the presence of Odor A; in the resurgence condition, extinction occurred while reinforcing the alternative behavior of nose-poking in the right port in the presence of Odor A. Rats were then tested for renewal or resurgence of center nose-poking in the context of Odor A (ABA Renewal and Resurgence) or Odor B (AAB Renewal). Subjects were tested under each procedure, using different odors, and rats had different testing orders. Rats showed little evidence of renewal and no rats showed evidence of resurgence. These data suggest we expand the current study to parametrically explore other variables that are critical to observation of relapse behaviors.
 
9. Arbitrary Training and Transitivity Tests in Rats Using Olfactory Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Mirela Louise Alves (Departamento de Psicologia Experimental, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de São Paulo), Miriam Garcia Mijares (Universidade de Sao Paulo), FABIO LEYSER GONCALVES (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: The search for evidence of equivalence class formation and emergent relations in non-human animals has been an important topic of debate on stimulus control. This research investigated whether rats could show emergent transitivity, one of the equivalence properties, after the acquisition of arbitrary stimulus relations and their symmetric counterparts in a manual matching-to-sample procedure using olfactory stimuli. Six male Wistar rats were trained on AB, BA, AC, and CA, and tested for BC and CB conditional relations. The equipment used was a wooden box built for presenting one sample and three comparison stimuli. Olfactory stimuli were made by mixing sand and liquid odorants. A sugar pellet was buried on the sample and on the correct comparison stimuli. Five rats reached the criteria for all the baseline relations in approximately 100 sessions. Two of them showed a discriminative ratio above chance level according to a Binomial Test (p<0,05) for the transitivity probes in, at least, one session. After the probe sessions, all five rats received identity matching training with the same stimuli used for the arbitrary matching and took less than 10 sessions to reach criterion. Probe tests were repeated and three rats showed above-chance performance according to a Binomial Test (p<0,05) in, at least, one session. Although it was possible to observe a performance compatible with transitivity in some moments of the experiment, the applied procedure was not sufficient for a strong demonstration of the emergence of this relation.
 
10. Environmental Effects on Canine Olfaction
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MADELYN SLATON-SANFORD (Texas Tech University)
Discussant: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College)
Abstract: Dogs are employed to detect landmines, explosives, narcotics, human scent, and various other substances. Despite their critical detection roles, little is known about the potential environmental effects, such as wind, temperature, and humidity, that may decrease a working dogs’ ability for detection. The goal of this study was to evaluate canine detection performance under varying environmental conditions. 3 dogs’ threshold for isoamyl acetate was evaluated indoors under warm dry conditions in the morning (22C to 25C), outdoors under cold and dry conditions in the morning (-0C-5C), and outdoors under warm and dry conditions (14C -21C). Figure 1 highlights each dogs’ mean threshold under the varying conditions. Our findings suggest that there is a correlation between higher temperature and an overall lower (better) threshold. In addition, specific dogs seem to be more impacted by distraction (outside vs. inside) more so than ambient temperature. Further work using temperature-controlled chambers is needed.
 
11.

A Search for Functional Equivalence With Odor Stimuli in Rats

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN DAVID SHAW (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Genevieve Guidone (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sarah Elizabeth Accattato (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Kyndra Lawson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Melissa Meglin (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

The current study examined the formation of functional classes in 9 male Sprague-Dawley rats using a simple discrimination reversal design. Rats were trained with 12 different odors divided into two sets. When one set of six odors was designated positive, responses were reinforced on an FI 5-s schedule, but reinforcement was withheld for the negative set. When criterion levels of discrimination were reached the sets were reversed with up to 30 reversals performed during the course of the experiment. During the first session of selected reversals, one stimulus from each class was withheld and presented only during the final 10 trials of a session. A discrimination ratio (DR) was calculated by dividing response rates to positive stimuli by total responding (rate to positive and negative stimuli). Seven of the nine rats showed above chance DRs to the withheld odors on the first exposure after a reversal. These data provide evidence of functional class formation in rats.

 
12.

Olfactory Stimulus Delivery and Removal System for an Operant Chamber

Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
SOPHIA BELLE KIRKLAND (University of North Texas), April M. Becker (University of North Texas and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to create a functioning olfactory stimulus delivery and removal system for rat training that can be used in an operant setting, and train discrimination between a scent and a lack of scent. Most previous methods of olfactory stimulus delivery have relied on presenting the stimuli on a device such as a tray or cup, which requires a narrow attending response, and does not allow the animal to sense the stimulus from any point in the chamber. Previous methods that delivered the scent ambiently through the air did so in a way in which the subject had no control over the presentation or removal of the stimulus. Adding lever-activated stimulus changes enables more varied experiments into olfactory stimulus control or multi-modality stimulus control. This system works by using an air pump that has two output valves, one of which blows scented air into an operant chamber, the other of which blows unscented air. When the rat presses a lever, it activates a solenoid valve that switches the delivery between the scented or unscented air. Airflow through the chamber is maintained unidirectionally using a fan, which quickly rids the air of odorants.

 
13. Using the Blank Comparison Task to Assess Select and Reject Stimulus Controlling Relations in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BOBBIE WOLFF (University of North Carolina at Wilmington), Haley Markham (University of North Carolina at Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina at Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina at Wilmington)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract: To perform a simple discrimination task, animals learn either to “select” the correct stimulus (S+) or “reject” the incorrect stimulus (S-). The Blank Comparison Task (BLC) is a procedure allowing for the assessment of select and reject controlling relations in humans and non-humans. The task uses a simple discrimination paradigm that includes an ambiguous stimulus (BLC+/-) that sometimes replaces S+ (in the presence of S-) and sometimes replaces S- (in the presence of S+). Typically, the task utilizes visual stimuli in a simultaneous presentation procedure, but for rodents, odor stimuli were presented. Rats were trained to remove scented lids from sand filled cups in a two-choice, simultaneous presentation procedure. Then they were trained on the BLC Task, using a blocked training procedure that included select (S+ and BLC-) and reject (BLC+ and S-) trial types. All rats have attained at least 75% accuracy in sessions with both select and reject type trials. The BLC Task provides insight into exclusion learning and is currently being used in the Odor Span Task to assess how rats perform this task.
 
14.

Does Immediate-Reward Training Increase Impulsive Choice?A Test With Naïve Male and Female Rats

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Audrey DeBritz (St. Lawrence University), Carla Martinez-Perez (St. Lawrence University), Hannah Mungenast (St. Lawrence University), ADAM E. FOX (St. Lawrence University)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

Consistently choosing smaller-sooner rewards (SSR) over larger-later rewards (LLR) is associated with numerous health-related behavior problems. A growing body of preclinical literature suggests that forced, extended exposure to delayed rewards increases preference for LLR in rats. There is also recent research showing extended, forced exposure to immediate rewards may decrease preference for LLR (i.e. increase impulsive choice); but some research also shows that experience with immediate rewards has no effect on LLR choice. In the present experiment 12 male and 12 female naïve Wistar rats were exposed to a pretest delay discounting task. A control group was subsequently weighed and fed for 31 days and an intervention group experienced 31 days (3,000+ trials) of immediate-reward (Fixed-Ratio 2) training. All rats were then tested in a posttest delay discounting task. Results showed a marginally significant main effect of sex, with female rats making more impulsive choices. Results also indicated maturational increases in LLR choice in the control group, and decreases in LLR choice in the intervention group, from pre to posttest. These findings suggest that extended, forced exposure to immediate rewards may decrease LLR choice—or at least blunt increases in LLR choice related to maturation.

 
15.

Stimulus Control in a “Resistance to Temptation" Procedure: A Comparative Study

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MEZTLI ROCIO MIRANDA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Brenda Estela Ortega (National Autonomus University of Mexico), Brasil Baltazar (UNAM), Raul Avila (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

Self-controlled behavior conceptualized as "resistance to temptation" has been studied by exposing food-deprived pigeons to repetitive time cycles (T cycles). During the last seconds of each cycle a food dispenser is presented and the subject has to “refrain” to eat it from it until an criterion is met. (SR1). If it accomplished the criterion the food dispenser (SR2) is presented for a second time once the T cycle elapsed and the subject can eat from it. Otherwise, if the subject does not “refrain” from taking SR1 it is withdrawn and the presentation of SR2 is canceled. It is said that the subject showed self-controlled behavior when it "resisted the temptation" to eat from SR1 and obtained SR2. In the present study the contribution of the discriminability between SR1 and SR2 presentations was explored in pigeons and humans. As a secondary purpose the effects of lengthening SR1 were determined. Therefore seven pigeons and thirty humans were exposed to different SR1 durations and the presentation of SR1 and SR2 was signaled by similar or different feeder lights. Pigeons and humans obtained more SR2 presentations when SR1 and SR2 were signaled by different reward-light colors and this effect was maintained regardless SR1 lengthening . It can be suggested that self-controlled behavior conceptualized as "resistance to temptation" can be subjected to discriminative control in both species, pigeons and humans.

 
16.

Delay Discounting of Token Rewards With Pigeons: Effects of Varying the Exchange-Production Schedule

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RICARDO SILVESTRE CAMPOS RIVERA (University of Guadalajara), Cristiano Valerio dos Santos (University of Guadalajara)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

Delay discounting is the process by which a reward losses value due to the time until its receipt. Results from several studies indicate that this process is widely present among a lot of species but with differences such as a steeper discounting with nonhuman subject and the magnitude effect that is only observed in humans. Nevertheless, the procedures used to approach with humans and nonhumans subjetcs have methodological differences that may be account for the differences in the results. Token systems may be a useful tool to make the precedure more similar. The objetive of the present study was to evaluate delay discountig of pigeons using exchangeable food-tokens as reward when the delay to the opportunity of exchange was manipulated. Pigeons were exposed to a delay discounting task in two phases. In phase A, the exchange of the reward was made at the end of each trial. In phase B, the exchange of the reward was made at the end of the fourth trial. The results show that pigeons discount token rewards steeper in phase B. Methodological issues are discused in function of the results obtained.

 
17. Bridging the Gap Between Basic and Applied Behavior Analysis: Human Operant Research in the Twenty-First Century
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
ASHLEY BAGWELL (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Samantha Brooke Swinnea (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract: In the study of behavior, the degree to which research questions directly address challenges with a clinical population varies. This variation can be conceptualized as a continuum. On one end of this continuum is “applied” research. Applied research includes intervention studies with participants who are members of the population for whom the treatment might later be implemented. In applied studies the participants are intervened upon within the study. On the other end of this continuum is “basic” research, conducted in a highly-controlled lab setting, typically with non-human subjects. The goal of furthering our understanding of behavior does not vary across this continuum. However, generalizability of basic findings to clinically relevant applications may vary, especially for areas in which the mechanisms of action are not particularly well understood. Research that falls between the basic and applied ends of the continuum, translational research, seeks in part to bridge the gap between the two ends of the continuum. One type of translational research is human operant-based experimental preperations. The goal of this synthesis was to explore and identify the various contributions of human operant research to the study of behavior. Specifically, studies in which participants were typically developing adults are examined.
 
18. Slot Machine Gambling at the Venue versus Laboratory Setting
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ALEKSANDRA TEREKHOVA (Rider University), Mack S. Costello (Rider University), Avisha Patel (Rider University), Quintin Robin (Rider University)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract: Approximately 2 million of US adults meet criteria for pathological gambling in a given year (National Council on Problem Gambling). Empirical gambling research is difficult to conduct in natural settings such as gambling venues, thus many researchers use laboratory settings and convenience samples to examine gambling behavior. Dixon and colleagues (2015) noted an abundance of university samples and a lack of descriptive studies of gambling in behavior analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare laboratory slot machine gambling in a university laboratory to observations of slot machine gambling in a venue setting. Slot machines in the laboratory were programmed for the same payout as the overall payout of the venue. Preliminary data were collected on the number of bets made and amount of time spent at each machine in both settings. The study can shed light on the important differences across settings, understanding of which will help interpret the data and, in turn, how pathological gambling can be addressed and possibly treated.
 
20.

Is There a Relationship Between Risky Choice and Perception of Causality?

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CESAR CORONA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Raul Avila (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Fabio Leyser Goncalves (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Abstract:

To assess the relation between risky choice and the perception of causality between a response and its consequences, thirty participants were exposed to three tasks. In the perception-of-causality task, participants responded to a button in the center of a screen according to a random-ratio (RR) 20 schedule; pseudo-responses were emitted by a computer at the same response rate as the participant. The fulfillment of the RR 20 requirement -both by responses or pseudo-responses- produced a stimuli change (SC) from the center button to two lateral ones. Participants gained points if they responded accordingly to the button associated to an SC produced by a pseudo-response or to the button associated to an SC produced by a participant’s response; otherwise, a blackout was produced. In the risky-choice task, participants chose between an option that delivered two points (fixed option) and an option that delivered one or three points (p=0.5). Within five trials, participants had to gain 10 points; otherwise, they lost the points accumulated in that block of trials. In the probability-discounting task, participants chose between a large hypothetical reward delivered according to a previously determined probability, and a smaller reward delivered for sure. Areas under the curve (AuC) were calculated. Participants who made more mistakes in the perception-of-causality task chose more frequently the variable option in the risky-choice procedure over the fixed one and had a higher AuC (considered an index of risk proneness) in the probability-discounting task. These results suggest a relation between perception of causality and risky choice.

 
21. Sustainable Use of Common Resources in a Digital Game for Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Marlon Alexandre de Oliveira (Universidade de Sao Carlos ), JULIO C. DE ROSE (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: The running out of our forests, fishing areas and drinking water pools is a real problem that will lead to harmful consequences for human life. To address this question, the present experiment aimed to develop a digital game for tablet to measure extraction´s behavior of six children and evaluate how would be the use of common resource when they face the restriction of this. In a tutorial, each child was given a rule about how to play the game. After, in a baseline phase, the player needed to choose, using his fingers, three types of cards to caught fish inside of ocean. Each card returns different profits, earning it provide gains to buy more cards using virtual money. The intervention occurs with a bar showing the renewable level of fish: if it is depleted, then it was game over and the game started again. Five of six children distributed their choices among the three cards, a different result of the baseline in which children chose mainly the card that took the fish in only one trial. Finally, there was a return to baseline phase. The data showed that restrict of use of common resources changed player´s behavior in game.
 
23. Examining the Participation of Describing Referential Contingencies in Cultural Interbehavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
WILL FLEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), Jamiika Thomas (University of Nevada, Reno), Garrett Digenan (University of Nevada, Reno), Bailey Huggins (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: The subject matter of a Kantorian analysis of cultural interbehavior is shared stimulus-response functions established under the auspice of a group (Kantor, 1982). While shared stimulus-response functions readily develop in turn-based matching-to-sample procedures (TBMTS), it is unclear what features of TBMTS are necessary for their development. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which instructing referential activity contributes in the establishment of shared stimulus-response functions during TBMTS. In TBMTS, two participants complete trials where (1) Participant 1 selects a stimulus from set A in the presence of a sample from set B, (2) Participant 2 selects a stimulus from set B in the presence of the stimulus selected by Participant 1, and (3) both participants receive a reward. Rewards are contingent on correspondence (i.e., Participant 2 selecting the stimulus presented to Participant 1) and non-correspondence (i.e., Participant 2 selecting a stimulus other than that presented to Participant 1). In the current study, pairs of participants were divided into two groups: those who were told about features of correspondence contingencies and those who were not. Results provide evidence for the contribution of describing referential activity on the speed and probability of establishing shared stimulus-response functions.
 
24. The Effects of Management and Production of a Common Resource in Ethical Self-Controlled Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARLA BALTAZAR (University of North Texas), LAIS MORORO CORREA (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Aecio De Borba Vasconcelos Neto (Universidade Federal do Para), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Carlos Rafael Fernandes Picanco (Imagine Tecnologia Comportamental)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: Ethical self-control is choosing lower magnitude individual reinforcers and delayed larger consequences for the culture. Such behavior is involved in the preservation and overuse of pools of common goods such as natural and economic resources. These phenomena may be studied in a metacontingency. This study evaluated the effects of the removal of resources from a common pool on culturants composed of ethical self-control responses. Six microcultures of three college students each participated in a task consisting of choosing colored rows; the target culturant was three even rows of different colors. The experiment followed an ABCBC and ACBCB design. In Condition A, even rows generated 1 token and odd rows generated 3 tokens. In Condition B, the culturant was necessary to avoid the depletion of a common pool of school items to be donated; choices in odd rows would lower the pool. In Condition C, the same culturant would produce school items. The three microcultures that were first exposed to the common pool showed selection of ethical self-controlled responses but the microcultures exposed first to Condition C did not. The implications of the study, along with its methodological limitations, are discussed as a possible explanation for the overuse of resources.
 
25. Can Cooperation be Selected During an Asymmetric Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CARLOS LOPEZ (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Aecio De Borba Vasconcelos Neto (Universidade Federal do Para)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: Researchers investigated how contingent delivery of a cultural consequence in an asymmetric Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game (IPDG) affects players’ choices. This preparation serves as an analogue to understanding income inequality created by wage gaps and how such inequalities affect cooperation. Ten people (five dyads) participated in an ABABCBC reversal design. Condition A contained a traditional IPDG. The asymmetric IPDG was arranged in Condition B such that one player received greater number of points regardless of the second participants’ selections - analogue to contingencies that produce income inequalities from wage gaps. In Condition C, a metacontingency was arranged such that delivery of a cultural consequence (CC; bonus points equally distributed among the dyad) was contingent on the oscillating production of target aggregate products (AP) across two consecutive cycles. When participants coordinated responding and contacted the target AP? CC relation, the wage gap was reduced. However, individual contingencies are in direct competition for the “wealthier” player, reducing the probability of coordinated responding. Results showed the AP was not produced enough to decrease the wage gap and are discussed from the perspective of how metacontingencies might be arranged to promote cooperation and reductions in wage gaps in communities suffering from unequal wealth distribution.
 
26. Ethical Self-control Under Different Cumulative Effects
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
WILLIAMS ADOLFO ESPERICUETA (University of North Texas), David de Lima Rabelo (Universidade Federal do Pará), Aecio De Borba Vasconcelos Neto (Universidade Federal do Para), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: Natural resource scarcity involves ethical self-control in a macrocontingency, one of the relevant variables may be the type of resources. Ethical self-control is behavior under control of delayed consequences favorable to the group concurring with immediate consequences of greater magnitude for the individual. The recurrence of multiple independent individual contingencies (IC) form a cumulative effect (CE) and constitute a macrocontingency. This study evaluated the effects of manipulating the nature of the common resource (school items to be donated or tokens exchangeable for money to be divided by participants) on the frequency of ethical self-control responses. Four microcultures with three participants each chose numbered lines in a colored matrix. Participant's choices produced IC (tokens) and affected the common reserve. Choices of even lines produced 3 tokens (IC) and deducted 3 from the common pool resource (CE); odd lines produced 1 token and deduced one from the CE. In baseline only the IC was in effect; in Condition A individual responses produced a cumulative effect of tokens; in Condition B, the cumulative effect was school items; and in C, both the IC and CE were in effect. The results indicate the difficulty of selecting self-control in all conditions, independent of the CE type. Implications for the overuse of resources are discussed.
 
27. Exploring Basic Mechanisms that Select Variability or Repetition in Interlocking Behavioral Contingencies and their Aggregate Products through Cultural Selection
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TOMAS URBINA (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Aecio De Borba Vasconcelos Neto (Universidade Federal do Para)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: Variability has been explored in metacontingencies using experimental microcultures (Vasconcelos et al. 2015; Carvalho et al. 2017). The current investigation explores how the variability or lack thereof in interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBC) may be brought under contextual control. Ten undergraduate (five dyads) students participated in the current study. Dyads were instructed to play a game on a computer screen with the goal to earn as many “Congratulations” as possible. A BCBCBC and CBCBCB reversal design was used in this investigation. A lag 1 schedule of cultural consequence delivery for IBC topography was set in the variability (VAR) condition. During the repeated (REP) condition one specific IBC topography was reinforced. The data suggest that the variability of the IBC topography can be brought under contextual control. It is important to explore the behavioral processes at the cultural level to understand prediction and control of cultural phenomena.
 
28. The Effects of Verbal Behavior on Acquisition and Maintenance of Interlocked Behaviors
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JOSE ARDILA (University of Nevada), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: The experimental literature on metacontingency has demonstrated the selection of aggregate products (APs) by factors external to the group (i.e., cultural consequences) and has provided less of a focus on properties of interlocked-behaviors (IBs) and the variables influencing the associated re-occurrence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vocal verbal interactions in the acquisition and maintenance of IBs. The experimental conditions required interlocked behaviors of participants in an analog organizational task to generate APs. Instructions varying in three levels of ambiguity --high explicit (HE), medium explicit (ME), and low explicit (LE)-- were presented to participants throughout the experiment to determine their effect on participants’ IBs. Additionally, the effects of vocal verbal interactions on acquisition and maintenance of IBs were examined. Data were collected on participants’ task performance and their vocal verbal interactions as they worked together on generating APs. Overall statistical analyses revealed significant differences between dyads’ performance with respect to their assigned groups (Verbal vs Non-Verbal), regardless of order of presentation of condition sequence (HE-LE vs LE-HE), and with respect to how this factor (verbal behavior) affected their performance across conditions. The presentation will provide an overview of the methodology, discussion of findings, and implications associated with the role of verbal networks in the analysis of cultural phenomena.
 
29.

The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a Measure of Hopelessness in Elderly: An Exploratory Study

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RENATO BORTOLOTI (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), Mauro Rezende (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais), Diana Ferroni Bast (NUIG), Edson Huziwara (Universidade de Federal de Minas Gerais)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract:

The current study aimed to investigate if the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) can be a suitable measure of hopelessness in older people. Specifically, we are interested in investigate how IRAP scores correlate with Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) scores, and how older people perform the IRAP tasks. Sixty-nine participants with an average age of 65 completed the BHS and a hopelessness IRAP, but only 37 completed the IRAP successfully. Results from these 37 participants revealed significant correlations between BHS and IRAP scores. In addition, performance in two IRAP trial types may have value in predicting group membership relating to hopelessness as it is assessed by the BHS. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first paper describing an attempt to apply the IRAP as a procedure for psychological assessment of older people. The results presented here suggest a potential application of IRAP for this aim, although they also indicate that further research is clearly needed for procedural refinement.

 
30.

Efficacy of Conjugate-Scheduled Music to Alter Run Pace and Cadence

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Rider University), Drue Stapleton (Rider University), Neil Deochand (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract:

Conjugate-like preparations using proportional alterations to an exercisers’ music have been shown to improve boxing performance (Deochand, Costello, & Fuqua, 2020). A similar conjugate music preparation was adapted where running speed informed a goal, and distance from the goal determined the amount of distortion in music played while running. Validity and efficacy tests with an app using this preparation were conducted in single-case experimental designs. The app set performance goals for running based on previous behavior and collected data on running pace; when running was in line with goals (i.e. above or at the goal), music was played and was not distorted for participants through the app. If the running pace was outside of the goal range (as measured by the GPS), the music would distort by increasing the speed proportionally to how far the runner was from their goal pace. Returning to the goal pace resulted in the music returning to normal play. The app’s program was found to improve performance for participants under a variety of conditions, and was consistent with established and precise Runscribe measures of pace. Conjugate preparations are intuitively interpreted by exercisers in real-time and future research should examine their application in maintaining long-term exercise adherence.

 
31. A Possible Relationship between Academic Procrastination and Psychophysiological Responses to Stress
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HITOMY EDITH MATSUDA WILSON WILSON (University of Guadalajara), Maria Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara)
Discussant: David A Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Abstract: Academic procrastination implies delay on the start and/or conclusion of academic tasks, up until final submission date. Task characteristics affect procrastination. Reports (by self-reports) indicate that tasks with higher levels of procrastination are: Writing academic documents, studying for exams and reading academic documents. A study was made, under lab controlled conditions, with the goal of identifying what task was procrastinated the most (out of the three mentioned above), identifying if procrastination increased stress related physiological responses (salivary cortisol levels and heart rate), given that different studies suggest, but haven’t measure, that procrastination increased stress levels. Sixteen university students were exposed to the aforementioned tasks. Measurements of stress correlates were made before, during and after the tasks. Preliminary results indicate that participants procrastinated in an idiosyncratic manner; some did it in a constant manner (13/16) and others never did it (3/16). It seems that heart rate and saliva cortisol levels increased with procrastination. The discussion centers upon the need to design and experimental preparation with a greater ecological value, given that social desirability may be inhibiting procrastination when it is studied under controlled laboratory conditions.
 
 

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