Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Event Details

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Poster Session #289
Sunday, May 26, 2019
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Exhibit Level, Riverside Exhibit Hall
Chair: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
148.

Increasing Food Tolerance in an Adolescent With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERRA R. LANGONE (May Center), Cynthia M. Anderson (May Institute), Cara L. Phillips (May Center)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

Interobserver agreement (IOA) was collected on 19% of sessions and IOA was calculated at 93.87%. Results indicate that, upon implementation of the shaping procedure, the student's rates of challenging behavior decreased to near zero rates and tolerance of food increased surpassing the designed phases to include consumption of food. After phase five (5) of the eight (8) phase protocol the student began to consume food independently not requiring the implementation of the last 3 phases. The student transitioned to a new classroom (reported trigger for food refusal in the past) and the protocol was again implemented starting at phase three (3). Within three (3) sessions, the student was again consuming food during lunch periods.

 
149. Evaluating a Brief Graduated Exposure Protocol to Treat Disruptive Behavior in the Dental Context
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY MOORE (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Jessica L. Thomason-Sassi (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract: Children with autism may engage in problem behavior during dental exams that precludes adequate dental care (Allen, Stark, Rigney, Nash, & Stokes, 1998). Research has indicated that graduated exposure can be an effective treatment in improving behavior during dental visits, however, access to a dental clinic or a mock dental room for therapy sessions might be limited (Luscre & Center, 1996, Conyers et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief graduated exposure procedure conducted in a child’s regular classroom environment for two children with autism. All treatment sessions were conducted in the participant’s typical classroom setting, and probe sessions were conducted in a mock dental room to test for generalization. Treatment consisted of graduated exposure and extinction for disruptive behavior during a sequence of 22 dental demands. Compliance and disruptive behavior were measured. A multiple baseline across subjects was used to demonstrate experimental control. Results suggested that brief graduated exposure sessions conducted in a typical classroom environment were effective in decreasing disruptive behavior during dental demands and increasing compliance, and that treatment effects generalized to a dental setting. Interobserver agreement was conducted for 29% of sessions with 96.5% agreement.
 
150.

Decreasing Stereotypy in Children With Autism: A Systematic Review

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA AKERS (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive, coordinated, seemingly purposeless, rhythmic behaviors that are most often maintained by automatic reinforcement. Stereotypy can range from mild to severe depending on the topography, frequency, response to interruption, and extent to which they interfere with ongoing activities. Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at an increased risk of exhibiting complex stereotypies. Due to the potential negative outcomes associated with stereotypy, it is critical to identify scientifically validated interventions to reduce stereotypy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify and summarize the literature on interventions to reduce stereotypy among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, the included studies were evaluated against What Works Clearinghouse (WWC; 2017) Single Case Research Design Standards. A total of 106 experiments met inclusion criteria. Among those, 63 met WWC standards with and without reservations. Interventions fell into three categories. Antecedent manipulations include establishing stimulus control, environmental enrichment, and manipulating motivating operations. Reinforcement-based interventions include differential reinforce of alternative behavior (DRA), differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Punishment-based interventions include response interruption and redirection, response blocking, verbal interruption and reprimand, and response cost. Implications for research and practice will be discussed.

 
151. Parent-Mediated Targeted Intervention for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA AZZANO (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Rebecca A. Ward (Phoenix Centre for Learning), Tricia Corinne Vause (Dept. of Child and Youth Studies, Brock University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract: There is little research on ameliorating early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children at known biological risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate parent-administered applied behavior analytic interventions to improve targeted infant behaviors associated with incipient Autism. This study employs a within-subject multiple baseline design across behaviors for three participants who were between 6 and 26 months of age at the start of the study. Parents completed the validated 61-item Parent Observation Checklist to help identify potential target behaviors that are characteristic of Autism. Using Behavioural Skills Training and Natural Environment Teaching, we trained parents to teach the target skills identified as concerning for each infant. Overall, parent teaching fidelity demonstrated a relationship with infant skill performance, suggesting that parent effective teaching using behavior analytic strategies is necessary for improvements in infant skill acquisition. Further, improvements in both parent teaching skills and child skill acquisition were demonstrated. The study is currently still in progress. Early intervention for infants at-risk for Autism is important for improving developmental trajectories. The long-term goal is to determine whether pre-diagnostic early intervention can prevent or reduce Autism severity.
 
152.

Establishment of Exclusion Responding in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAITHRI SIVARAMAN (Tendrils Centre for Autism), Priyanka Bhabu (Centre for Research and Intervention with ABA (CRIA))
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

This study aimed to teach auditory-visual relations using exclusion training and test the emergence of exclusion responding in novel relations and naming by exclusion in four participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The treatment package consisted of multiple exposures to exclusion trials, prompting and reinforcement. Four types of matching-to-sample trials (baseline, control, exclusion and probe trials) and naming trials were used during the study. The auditory-visual matching to sample responses, and naming responses of the new stimuli were tested. Three out of four participants demonstrated positive learning outcomes with the auditory-visual relations that were taught. One out of four participants demonstrated naming by exclusion. Post-test results show that exclusion responses generalized to stimuli used beyond training for the three successful participants. The results indicate that the treatment package can likely be an important teaching technology to establish exclusion responding.

 
153. Evaluating the Good Behavior Game in Autism-Only Social Skills Groups
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAVANNAH TATE (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract: The good behavior game (GBG) is an interdependent group contingency used to decrease target behaviors across a group of participants (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969). We evaluated the GBG in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design. Participants included two groups of children with autism diagnoses. The first group included five children ranging in age from 5-6 years old. The second group included four children ranging in age from 9-10 years old. Target behaviors included disruptive behavior, inappropriate attention, and refusal to follow instructions. The groups participated in the game across three activities. The groups were divided into two teams. At the beginning of the session, the teams picked their “team name” and their earned activity. If a child engaged in a target behavior, his or her team received a “strike” on a visual board. If the team ended the day with fewer than 10 strikes, they received access to a pre-determined activity (e.g., iPad, dance party). For both groups, implementation of the GBG resulted in decreases in problem behavior.
 
154.

An Evaluation of Contingent Gum Chewing on Rumination Exhibited by an Adolescent With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALISON JO COOPER (University of Missouri ), Ryan Claypool (University of Missouri-Columbia), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

Rumination is defined by repeated regurgitation of food, which may be re-chewed, re-swallowed or spit out, not attributed to other medical conditions. Some individuals with autism or other development disabilities engage in rumination, and it can lead to multiple health issues. Previous research demonstrated that non-contingent presentation of chewing gum could be an effective treatment for reducing ruminations (Rhine & Tarbox, 2009). The current study compared the effects of non-contingent presentation of chewing gum to a novel contingent gum procedure on rumination of an adolescent boy with autism. We measured the rate of rumination across two treatment phases. In the first treatment phase, we compared the rate of rumination in sessions with gum and sessions without gum. In the second treatment phase, we evaluated the effect of presenting chewing gum contingent on ruminations. In phase one, the participant engaged in fewer ruminations when gum was presented. In treatment phase two, ruminations reduced to zero levels across sessions and remained at zero during maintenance and generalization sessions. Results suggest that presenting gum contingent on rumination may reduce engagement in the behavior.

 
155. Acquisition and Maintenance of Self-Feeding Skills Using Prompt Fading and Errorless Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAVYA KANDARPA (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Meara X. H. McMahon (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than typically-developing children to engage in food refusal and may require individualized interventions to learn age-appropriate self-feeding skills. Although treatment for food refusal may result in acceptance of a variety of liquids and solids, additional treatment for self-feeding may be warranted. Reducing the number of errors during skill acquisition can enhance performance post-teaching, but no published studies have evaluated error correction procedures with self-feeding. This study focused on the implementation of errorless learning and prompt fading to teach self-feeding to a 3-year-old male with ASD, who previously engaged in severe food refusal; a multiple baseline design was conducted across solids and liquids. Results showed that the participant learned how to independently feed himself solids and liquids with few to no errors. Experimenters collected maintenance data following completion of the study and continued to observe high levels of self-feeding. These results suggest that prompt fading and errorless learning procedures can be used to teach self-feeding skills that maintain over time.
 
156.

Joke Telling and Humor Comprehension in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MIRANDA MARIE DRAKE (Therapeutic Pathways; Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

The Behavior Analytic literature provides a theoretical account of verbal behavior outside of the elementary verbal operants. This includes language that is described as sarcasm, deception, metaphors, and humor. By considering the theoretical underpinnings of humor based verbal behavior and utilizing empirically validated instruction methods like Behavioral Skills Training (BST), Multiple Exemplar Training (MET) and Systematic Error Correction (SEC) individuals with language deficits, like those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may acquire these advanced verbal skills. Subsequently, these individuals are given access to a richer, verbal community. Results of this project indicated that BST increased joke-telling skills across all participants while two of three participants increased their humor comprehension responses through the application of MET and SEC.

 
157.

Delivering Pivotal Response Treatment via Telehealth to Target Functional Language Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBREEN SHAHABUDDIN (Stanford Children's Health )
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

With rates of autism diagnosis continuing to rise, there is an urgent need for dissemination of evidence-based practices to large numbers of families. Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is considered an established treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, a telehealth PRT delivery model has not yet been evaluated. The current study evaluated PRT parent training provided remotely via video conferencing software. Eight children with ASD between 2 and 5 years (M = 3.83; SD = 13.21) and caregivers participated in 12 weekly online sessions. Analysis of home video observations indicated significant change in frequency of child utterances from baseline to week 12 (Z = -2.51, p = .012). Significant improvement was also observed on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories for receptive (Z = -2.37, p = .018) and expressive language (Z = -2.52, p = .012), and on the Vineland-II Receptive (Z = -2.39, p = .017), Expressive (Z = -2.41, p = .016), and overall Communication subscales (Z = -2.52, p = .012). Core ASD symptoms on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) also improved (Z = -2.38, p = .017). Findings suggest promise for PRT parent training using telehealth and confirm the need for future controlled trials with larger samples.

 
158.

Evaluating Trial Based Functional Analysis in Home Based Settings

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JACOB PAPAZIAN (Centria Autism Services ), Wendy King (Centria Healthcare ), Yvonne Pallone (Centria Healthcare ), Jamie Robinson (Centria Healthcare )
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to test environmental variables that influence disruptive behaviors and to determine the maintaining function of those behaviors. The Trial Based Functional Analysis (TBFA) has been used extensively in school-based programming but has limited research in home-based care. It is possible that further refinements to the procedure may be necessary to adapt the TBFA to home-based settings. This study was designed to expand the TBFA literature by implementing the procedure in home settings and validating the analysis via a reduction in target problem behavior. All participants in the study were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and engaged in home-based care. For all participants, functional analysis results were interpretable and were used to create interventions to replace problem behavior. Furthermore, relative effects among treatments were accurately predicted by the functional analysis outcomes. Findings indicate that the TBFA procedure can result in differentiated responding outside of experimental settings and subsequent reduction in problem behavior.

 
159.

Enablers of Behavioral Parent Training for Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Tracy Jane Raulston (The Pennsylvania State University), Meme Hieneman (Positive Behavior Support Applications), Nell Caraway (IRIS Educational Media), Jordan Pennefather (Trifoia), NAIMA BHANA (The Pennsylvania State University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk to develop problem behavior, which can have deleterious effects on child and parental well-being. Because of this, parents are often provided with Behavioral Parent Training (BPT). However, attrition rates in behavioral parent training are high, and there is a relative dearth of research investigating factors that influence parental engagement in BPT. Methods We ran seven semi-structured online focus groups with a total of 30 parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and related disabilities. Parents were interviewed in order to gain a greater understanding of variables that enable or pose barriers to parental engagement in behavioral parent training. An inductive qualitative analysis was conducted by two independent authors. Results Our analyses revealed three themes indicating the need for (a) supportive, professional feedback; (b) accessible, flexible, and affordable training; and (c) social-emotional support and community connection in behavioral parent training for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that parental engagement in behavioral parent training for children with autism spectrum disorder may be enhanced if it is relevant to the needs of families, facilitated by responsive professionals, flexible, and readily accessible. Additionally, parents may benefit from behavioral parent training that includes social and emotional support, such as assistance connecting with other families and evidence-based strategies to manage the stress associated with parenting a child with autism spectrum disorder and challenging behavior.

 
161. Providing Alternative Reinforcers During Delays to Facilitate Delay Tolerance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTY NOELLE JAHNS (Marquette University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Marquette University), Margaret Rachel Gifford (Marquette University), Carissa Basile (Marquette University)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) involves (a) withholding reinforcement for problem behavior and (b) delivering reinforcement for a more desirable communicative response; the efficacy of this treatment approach is well documented when implemented by trained clinicians under near-ideal conditions. However, introducing delays following the functional communication response (FCR) can result in increased problem behavior (Hagopian, Contrucci Kuhn, Long, & Rush, 2005). Providing alternative reinforcers during delays may facilitate delay tolerance (Austin & Tiger, 2015). In the current case study, we completed a functional analysis to identify the source of problem behavior for an 11-year-old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder and then implemented both general and specific functional communication training. Following functional communication training, we introduced reinforcer delays without delay fading and compared sessions with and without alternative reinforcers available. Problem behavior was immediately reduced when alternative reinforcers were available. These results extend prior research on facilitating delay tolerance using alternative reinforcers.
 
162.

Do Differentiated Learning Styles Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders Impact Educational Outcomes?

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LEROY MCDONALD WILLIAMS (University of Wisconsin-Madison ), Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Ari Rosenberg (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Brittany Travers (Waisman Center; University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

How an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) learns likely impacts performance in daily life. The goal of this study was to determine whether adolescents with ASD who had distinct learning styles during a contextual cueing task differed in educational performance. Twenty adolescents with ASD completed 9 sessions (60 minutes each) of a contextual cueing learning paradigm, in which contextual cues statistically predicted a to-be-found target’s location. Twenty typically developing adolescents also completed the task. Within the ASD group, two non-overlapping subgroups emerged (ASD1 and ASD2). In ASD1 (n=13), participants learned the context similarly to typically developing peers but struggled to disengage from previously learned contexts; in ASD2 (n=7), atypical learning was found across the task. Due to small sample size, subgroup results were assessed with effect sizes. The two subgroups did not differ in overall school performance, reading, writing, or math (Cohen’s d’s<0.158). However, the ASD2 group showed more problematic participation in organized activities, Cohen’s d=0.426. These results suggest that how an adolescent with ASD learns a contextual cueing task may not strongly correspond to educational performance. However, participation in organized activities may be influenced by this learning style, a possibility to be tested in a larger dataset.

 
163.

Assessment and Treatment of Public Disrobing: Analysis of Response-Class Hierarchies and Competing Stimuli

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN FALLIGANT (Auburn University/Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Ashley Nicole Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (The May Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

For individuals with developmental delays, public disrobing is a highly conspicuous behavior that decreases opportunities for appropriate social interaction and community engagement, and may lead to placement in more restrictive settings or intensive behavior management procedures. Public disrobing may also occasion or co-occur with additional challenging problem behavior such as elopement, aggression, or tantrums. In the current project, we conducted a series of evaluations to decrease public disrobing in an adolescent male with autism. Due to the measurement parameters of disrobing (e.g., limited opportunities to perform the behavior), response latency to disrobing was used as the primary dependent variable across evaluations. First, we identified competing stimuli that effectively increased the latency to disrobing. Next, we assessed if disrobing was a member of the same response class as other topographies of problem behavior (i.e., inappropriate urination, aggression). Finally, we developed a comprehensive treatment using the competing stimuli that successfully increased the latency to disrobing and all problem behavior to clinically significant levels.

 
164. Perceptions of Causes of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE BOYDSTON (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Erica Jowett Hirst (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Early behavioral intervention is effective for children with autism (e.g., Kuppens & Onghena, 2011; Lovaas, 1987; Rogers & Vismara, 2008) and parent involvement enhances treatment effectiveness (e.g., Drew et al., 2002; Rogers & Vismara, 2008; Valdez & Zanger, 2005). Parents hold wide and varying beliefs about what may have precipitated their child’s autism diagnosis (e.g., Al Anbar et al., 2010; Dardennes et al., 2011; Hebert & Koulouglioti, 2010). Parent beliefs regarding the etiology of their child’s autism may influence several areas of treatment, including treatment choice (Dardennes et al., 2011) and treatment adherence. Despite evaluation of parental beliefs, current literature lacks a measure to assess perceptions of causes of autism. The purpose of the current study was to obtain preliminary data related to a measure (The Autism Perception Evaluation) that was developed to assess parental beliefs for the causes of their child’s autism diagnosis.
 
165. Rapport Building and Instructional Fading: An Extension to Young Adult Students in the School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARGARET HOEY (May Institute), Melissa Drifke (May Institute), Melinda Galbato (The May Institute), Kristen Darling (May Institute)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Rapport building and instructional fading have been shown to be beneficial in reducing avoidant and escape-related behaviors in instructional settings, as well as increasing social approaches with instructors. The current study was an extension of the rapport building and instructional fading protocol developed by Shillingsburg, Hansen, and Wright (2018) for use with young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a clinic setting. In the current study, the protocol, which consisted of pairing staff and instructional materials with reinforcement and gradually fading in demands, was used with an adult student with ASD in a school setting. We examined the effects of the 9-stage protocol with one classroom staff, then used a modified, shortened procedure with four additional classroom staff. The protocol resulted in generalization of high levels of compliance with demands, minimal problem behavior, and close proximity to therapist across all staff. The modified protocol was equally effective with additional staff and allowed the protocol to progress more rapidly, saving time and resources.
 
166.

Teaching Life-Saving Swim Skills to Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH JANE SILVERS (Applied Behavior Center for Autism), Vincent LaMarca (Applied Behavior Center for Autism), Emily Hollinberger (Applied Behavior Center for Autism), Kari Sheward (Applied Behavior Center for Autism)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Drowning is the primary cause of accidental death for children with autism (Alaniz, Rosenberg, Beard, & Rosario, 2017). This research demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral strategies to teach basic swim safety. A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to demonstrate the acquisition of swim skills. Participants were all children who were diagnosed with autism, under the age of 10, who could not pass a basic safety swim skills pretest. All sessions were conducted with a certified swim instructor in the water. Treatment procedures included the use of desensitization procedures, flexible prompt fading, and reinforcement based on a preference assessment. Data currently show a positive correlation, but are in need of further support. The intervention was effective with the first child across four behaviors. Data will continue to be collected as new swim skills are introduced. Baseline data has been collected for three other children who are about to begin intervention. Demonstrating effective procedures to help children with autism learn to swim could help decrease the rate of accidental death. Future research should determine whether the procedures are simple enough so that they can be quickly taught and applied by other swim instructors unfamiliar with behavioral treatment.

 
167.

Mitigating Relapse of Destructive Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
JAMIE KATHERINE JONES (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Madeleine Diane Keevy (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Alexandra Hardee (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kendra Smallwood (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sarah Elizabeth Martinez Rowe (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kassondra Andereck (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

This study assessed the differential effects of high- and low-preference stimuli as reinforcement during FCT on resurgence of destructive behavior when the therapist withdrew reinforcement (i.e., extinction). This translational study used a multielement design, with two separate components signaled by color-coordinated stimuli. First, in baseline (Phase 1), analog destructive responding, pressing a pad, resulted in reinforcement in both components. Next, in the treatment phase (Phase 2), the therapist discontinued reinforcement for the analog destructive response. The therapist delivered a high-preference reinforcer for a functional communication response (FCR) in the HIGH component and a low-preference reinforcer for the FCR in the LOW component. Finally, the therapist discontinued reinforcement for both the FCR and analog destructive response (Phase 3). Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT) predicts that resurgence would be lower in the LOW component, but Resurgence as Choice (RaC) predicts that resurgence will be lower in the HIGH component. For the first two participants, no resurgence of the analog destructive response occurred in Phase 3, but a differential burst in FCRs was observed across components.

 
168.

The Impact of Technology on the Efficacy of Self-Monitoring of Academic Behaviors in Students With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MICHELE DAVIDSON (Penn State University)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Self-monitoring has been used effectively in behavioral programming to reduce challenging behaviors in students with Autism, with intellectual disabilities, and with emotional disturbance. Self-monitoring has also demonstrated positive effects in increasing on-task academic behaviors for student with and without disabilities. This article presents a systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of self-monitoring to improve academic productivity in students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Procedures implemented included the use of technology to provide prompts for student responding, as well as technology to help students record their answers to response prompts. Data collected in the course of the study suggest self-monitoring is effective in increasing on-task behaviors, with Tau-U effect sizes ranging from 0.2712-1. The results also suggest that using auditory prompts with traditional recording methods yield the most significant improvements. However, given the small sample size of articles and the wide variation in experimental design, further research that standardizes self-monitoring procedures for students with ASD are recommended.

 
169.

Using Physiological Sensors in the Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behaviors in Adolescents With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHANNA F LANTZ (The Center for Discovery), Tania Villavicencio (The Center for Discovery), Kalyn Bertholf (The Center for Discovery), Theresa Hamlin (The Center for Discovery)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Those with autism spectrum behavior can display challenging behaviors that interfere with skill development and negatively impact quality of life. Electrodermal activity (EDA) reflects activation of the sympathetic nervous system, commonly known as the “fight or flight” response. At the Center for Discovery, sensors that measure EDA are worn by adolescent students with autism spectrum disorder who also display maladaptive behaviors such as aggression and self-injury. The purpose of the sensors is to better understand physiological and behavioral responses to contextual variables in the classroom environment. Data gathered through this technology are used in conjunction with more traditional behavioral assessment procedures to develop and evaluate interventions. Because those in a heightened physiological state can be more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors, including aggression, knowing antecedents to physiological responses and not just behaviors can be particularly helpful in treatment development. Furthermore, interventions that may alter behaviors may not change physiological status resulting in short interresponse times between challenging behaviors. It follows that developing interventions that result in both behavior reduction and decreases in physiological arousal would be most effective. This poster will highlight physiological and behavioral data findings from this innovative assessment process.

 
170. A Model for the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANGIE VAN ARSDALE (Rollins College), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Kara L. Wunderlich (Rollins College)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Research has shown antecedent interventions might be effective for treating food selectivity in the absence of consequent manipulations; however, escape extinction is the most commonly implemented intervention in feeding research. Escape extinction in the treatment of feeding disorders, or nonremoval of the spoon, is an intrusive procedure that might not always be considered socially valid or feasible. This study describes a methodology of evaluating antecedent and consequent interventions for subjects with food selectivity, progressing from least to most response effort and/or intrusiveness. For each subject, we will move through each intervention until acceptance increases to clinically significant levels. Subjects’ responsiveness to each intervention will likely be idiosyncratic, with different procedures being more effective for different individuals. We expect this advancement-based approach to provide a means of identifying the least-intrusive yet effective intervention for subjects with food selectivity.
 
171.

Bye-Bye Bottles: Teaching Drinking from a Cup

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MICHELLE MCCULLOCH (ONTABA), Tammy Frazer (ONTABA), Kelly Miller (ONTABA), Josie Spatafora (ONTABA), Meagan Campbell (ONTABA), Hanna Vance (ONTABA), Amanda Sim (ONTABA)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Stimulus fading, differential reinforcement and escape extinction have been used to treat feeding issues in individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder. These strategies have been used to increase food and fluid acceptance by gradually introducing the stimulus (food/fluid amount and presentation), providing reinforcement for acceptance of the stimulus, and non-removal of the stimulus contingent on problem behaviour. Additionally, stimulus fading, and differential reinforcement have been used to treat phobias in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Stimulus fading, differential reinforcement and escape extinction were used to increase drinking milk from a cup in an 8-year-old boy with autism. Prior to beginning treatment, the participant would only accept and consume milk when presented in a baby bottle. If milk were presented in any other way, the participant would engage in disruptive behaviours such as screaming, crying, bolting, flopping, gagging and vomiting. In addition, the participant would engage in self-injurious behaviours including, head hitting, if the cup and/or milk was not removed. Upon beginning treatment, these behaviours were observed to occur upon the presentation of an empty cup. Following the participant receiving the treatment package, the participant tolerated the presentation of the cup with milk and would independently drink the milk from the cup. This responding was generalized by having him accept and drink milk and water from the cup when presented by parents during mealtimes. Additionally, this response has been maintained and the participant continues to accept and drink any liquid from the cup.

 
172.

Training Caregivers to Implement the Structured Meal Protocol to Decrease Food Selectivity Among Young Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RONALD JOSEPH CLARK (Florida Institute of Technology), Victoria Ryan (Florida Institute of Technology ), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

This study evaluated a method for training caregivers to implement the Structured Meal protocol designed to treat food selectivity in children diagnosed with autism. A treatment package consisting of resource-light materials including written instructions and video modeling as well as in-vivo prompting and feedback (if necessary) were used to teach participants to conduct the protocol. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of training. In addition to the primary dependent variable (i.e., correct caregiver implementation of the Structured Meal protocol), data on three secondary dependent variables (i.e., child bite acceptance, mouth cleans, and inappropriate mealtime behavior) were collected. Results showed that training of the Structured Meals protocol using the resource-light materials only, increased participant implementation of correct steps from baseline, but all participants required in-vivo training and feedback to reach mastery criteria. Thus far, 1 out of 2 children who have completed the study saw an increase in quick acceptance (i.e., bites accepted within 8 seconds of bite presentation) to clinically significant levels using the Structured Meal protocol. Results warrant further investigation of differing training methods to train caregivers using resource-light materials. Furthermore, results suggest the importance of distinguishing between mild and severe food selectivity as interventions used to target either should vary based on the severity of the child's feeding disorder.

 
173. Mitigating Renewal of Pediatric Feeding Problems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RONALD JOSEPH CLARK (Florida Institute of Technology), Ryan Joseph Walz (Florida Institute of Technology), Marissa E. Kamlowsky (Florida Institute of Technology ), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Feeding problems are common in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although behavioral treatments are effective at reducing feeding problem behaviors in the clinic, they can return when caregivers implement treatment at home. This study evaluated multiple techniques for mitigating the renewal of feeding problem behavior, namely multiple-context training and treatment cues. A functional analysis was conducted to determine the variable maintaining food-refusal behaviors – in all cases, behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape. During the first condition, caregivers fed their child in the clinic (Context A). Next, a therapist provided treatment of the feeding problem behavior to increase quick acceptances and decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior (Context B). Once mastery criteria were met, trained caregivers implemented the intervention in Context A. This will be followed by multiple-context training to mitigate renewal of problem behavior, and then a return to context A. For both participants there was an increase in quick acceptance and a decrease in inappropriate mealtime behavior to clinically significant levels during treatment in Context B. Thus far, return to Context A shows an increase in inappropriate mealtime behaviors and a brief decrease in quick acceptances across sessions with and without the treatment cue.
 
174.

Evaluating the Degree to Which Social Interactions are Reinforcing or Aversive

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Samuel L. Morris (University of Florida), MADISON MOLVE (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Call, Shillingsburg, Bowen, Reavis, and Findley (2013) described a method of assessing the extent to which social interactions were reinforcing or aversive which used time allocation as a dependent measure. We replicated the method described by Call et al. and evaluated several extensions aimed at increasing the feasibility, efficiency, and utility of the assessment results. Seven children diagnosed with ASD participated. Social interaction was concluded to be reinforcing for five subjects and aversive for two subjects. The data for two representative subjects from each of these groups is presented and discussed in detail. Limitations and implication of this study as well as future directions in this line of research will also be discussed.

 
175.

Comparing GIF and Picture-Based Preference Assessments for Social Interaction

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Samuel L. Morris (University of Florida), BRANDON COLVIN (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Researchers have recently begun to evaluate video-based preference assessments; however, only two studies have evaluated the efficacy of this preference assessment modality in assessing preference for social interactions. Four individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who could not match or identify social interactions participated. We compared picture and GIF-based paired-stimulus preference assessments for social interaction and evaluated the preference assessment hierarchies by conducting a concurrent operant reinforcer assessment including all social interactions. The GIF-based preference assessment produced similar hierarchies to the reinforcer assessment for all subjects, whereas the picture-based preference assessments produced similar hierarchies to the reinforcer assessment for two of four subjects.

 
176. Autism Symptom Onset for an Infant Sibling in the First Year of Life: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA P. F. MACDONALD (New England Center for Children), Alison MacDonald (The New England Center for Children), Kathryn Couger (NECC), Hannah Marie Krueger (The New England Center for Children), Anna Kathryn McFadden (The New England Center for Children ), Pamela Nichole Peterson (New England Center for Children), Samantha A Stevenson (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Infant siblings of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a 18% recurrence risk at 3 years old (Osnoff et al., 2011). Graupner and Sallows (2017) reported symptoms in children under 3 months of age. The purpose of the current investigation was to document the early emergence of symptomatology and to replicate the findings of Graupner and Sallows (2017). The participant in the study was a sibling who had two older brothers with an ASD diagnosis. Using weekly developmental assessments, early markers were first noted at 8 weeks of age and included: flat affect, no response to sound out of sight, no response to name/voice, eye contact avoidance, and inconsistent tracking of visual stimuli. The attached table shows the skill deficits identified during the first year of his life and the age at which typical children acquire each skill. Interobserver agreement was assessed with an average of 95% across sessions. The participant was three to five months delayed across domains, with the largest delays being in the social and communication areas. Results are discussed as they relate to early markers for ASD and the importance of early intervention.
 
177.

An Evaluation of Social Situations on Vocal Communication Exhibited by a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ivey Tenny (University of Georgia), Sarah Jacqueline Frantz (University of Georgia; University of Iowa), ANDREA ZAWOYSKI (University of Georgia), Megan Lee (University of Georgia), Janeigh Castillo-Barraza (University of Georgia), Ketura Graham (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience communication challenges. Typically, the presence of ASD rules out selective mutism as a diagnosis. Regardless, children with ASD may present with communication challenges that appear similar to selective mutism. In the current investigation, we conducted a behavioral assessment to identify (a) differential responding as a function of adults present (parent or therapist), and (b) the impact of environmental variables (e.g., tasks, free play) on vocal communication exhibited by a five-year-old male with ASD. Results of the evaluation indicated that vocal communication occurred solely in the presence of the child’s mother. When clinic staff were present, the child did not exhibit vocal communication. As well, the other environmental conditions arranged during the assessment did not affect the likelihood of communication. These results are discussed with respect to their similarities with verbal behavior exhibited by individuals diagnosed with selective mutism, as well as strategies for assessment of these conditions, implications for diagnosis, and relevance to treatment.

 
178. Autism Symptom Onset and Treatment for an Infant Sibling in the First Year of Life
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN COUGER (NECC), Victoria Weisser (New England Center for Children), Anna Kathryn McFadden (The New England Center for Children ), Alison MacDonald (New England Center for Children), Hannah Marie Krueger (The New England Center for Children), Samantha A Stevenson (New England Center for Children), Pamela Nichole Peterson (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Although the preponderance of evidence suggests autism symptomatology emerges during the first year of life, more recent data from the Wisconsin Early Autism Program (Graupner & Sallows, 2017) suggest that symptoms of autism can emerge as early as the first two months of life. The purpose of the current investigation was to document early emergence of symptomatology in a sibling. Early markers were first noted at eight weeks and included: flat affect, no response to sound out of sight, no response to name/voice, eye contact avoidance, and inconsistent tracking of visual stimuli. At three months, parent-implemented treatment was initiated with little change in symptoms. At six months, 15 hours of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) began with greater gains in skills. The attached table indicates the progress made on each skill before 12 months of age. Interobserver agreement was assessed with an average of 82.9% across sessions. Therapist-implemented treatment was more effective than parent alone and that progress was seen across domains. However, the participant continued to perform below age level by 12 months of age. These findings will be discussed as they relate to the findings of Graupner and Sallows (2017).
 
179.

Assessing Vocalizations Across the Picture Exchange Communication System and the Addition of a Vocal Model

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY WHITE (The University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Rachel Cagliani (University of Georgia), Kelsie Marie Tyson (The University of Georgia )
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

The current study examined vocalizations that occurred during training of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for three preschool aged participants with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants received services in an applied behavior analysis intensive preschool located in a public school. Prior to PECS training, all participants engaged in low levels of functional communication and had limited vocalizations. During training of PECS Phases I-III, no participants vocalized during exchanges. In Phase IV, the protocol incorporates a time delay (a brief pause to reinforcement) in an effort to encourage vocalizations (Frost & Bondy, 2002). When the time delay alone failed to increase vocalizations for these participants, researchers implemented a vocal model after the time delay and continued to measure vocalizations, similar to procedures found in Gevarter et al. (2016). Two of the three participants showed an increase in independent vocalizations after the addition of the vocal model and these vocalizations maintained over time.

 
180. Food Selectivity and Chewing Behaviour: Sensory Issue or Skill Deficit?
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
TAMMY FRAZER (On Solid Ground Inc), Michelle McCulloch (On Solid Ground Inc), Amanda J Sim (On Solid Ground Inc), Hanna Vance (On Solid Ground Inc)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Food selectivity or 'picky eating’ is a common issue for children with autism. The absence of the oral motor movement/behaviours that are required for chewing, can be a factor that impacts a child’s willingness and ability to accept novel food presentations and textures. Attempts to swallow food before masticating can lead to gagging and vomiting that may be interpreted as a ‘sensory processing’ or texture issue. Limited research exists on how to teach children with autism the micro behaviours that, when combined, produce effective chewing and swallowing outcomes. The participant was an 8.5-year-old boy with autism whose diet consisted exclusively of pureed foods that he would ‘gulp’ and swallow without chewing or moving the food around in his mouth. The current study demonstrated the effectiveness of pinpointing and teaching target oral behaviours necessary for chewing to systematically teach an 8.5-year-old boy with autism to masticate food and subsequently accept food texture changes.
 
181. A Behavioral Account of Confidence: Using Precision Teaching to Increase Social Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILLIENNE M NADEAU (ABC Group Hawaii), Kelly Deacon (ABC Group Hawaii)
Discussant: Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Children who have social skills deficits are often perceived as “lacking confidence” or being “shy.” However, those evaluative labels don’t precisely indicate behaviors that can be assessed, leading to potentially unclear definitions and treatment objectives. A behavioral account of confidence points to the frequency in which a child makes clear and direct requests, initiates social interactions, responds to social questions, and makes positive statements, especially in novel or untaught situations. Traditionally, social skills training can be imprecisely defined, and occurs incidentally in the natural environment, often with not enough frequency, and with unclear generalization and maintenance criteria. This may be due to a lack of consistently available resources, such as peers and social environments in which to directly teach these skills. This poster will illustrate how precision teaching can be utilized as a tool to not only teach the component skills of academics but also the components of effective social skills. We attempt to break down those behaviors that make up “confidence” into pinpointed skills which can be directly taught to fluency, and then measure the effects these teaching procedures have on social behavior in the natural environment, particularly in novel and untaught situations.
 
182.

Teaching Piano Skills to Children With Autism With Equivalence-Based Instruction in a Direct Instruction Curriculum

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE CHAN (PlaySmart Child Development Society; Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Yuna Lee (PlaySmart Child Development Society)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Some characteristics of children with autism have significantly hindered them from accessing to regular music education, therefore, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effects of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) in teaching piano skills among children with autism, and thus provide guidance to future music curriculum development for this population. Six children with autism have been learning to play corresponding keys on keyboard by reading textual symbols (C, D, E, F, G, A, B) and musical notes, without direct teaching. Then, participants are asked to play a novel song on keyboard by reading combined musical notes. Without direct teaching, participants also have been learning to identify corresponding sounds, textual symbols and musical notes by listening to a key played on keyboard. Current results have shown that stimuli became substitutable for each other and acquired a common behavioral function. Data suggest that EBI is an effective and efficient procedure to teach piano skills to children with autism.

 
183. Learning to Play Nicely in the Sandbox: Review and Discussion of Research on Speech and ABA Collaboration in Autism Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
NAIRA KIRAKOSYAN (University of Southern California; Learning and Behavioral Center), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are very commonly treated by behavior analysts and speech pathologists at the same time and interdisciplinary collaboration between the two professions would therefore seem to be called for. However, barriers to collaboration may exist, including assumptions and stereotypes about the other discipline. It seems clear that clients with autism would benefit most from productive collaboration between the two disciplines, rather than competition or isolation, and yet relatively little research has evaluated this possibility. This poster reviews research within the combined fields of speech pathology and applied behavior analysis, in particular, the collaborated use of speech therapy techniques as well as behavioral approaches to teaching communication skills. A variety of collaborative studies have been published, particularly focusing on establishing mands, as well as other verbal operants, as well as addressing a variety of conditions, including selective mutism and aphasia. Directions for future research will be discussed, as well as preliminary practice guidelines.
 
184.

Development and Validity Study of the Yonsei Cambridge Mindreading Face Battery for Children

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEE WON KIM (Yonsei University), Eun Sun Chung (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Having difficulties in recognizing complex emotions is one of the central characteristics of ASD. However, objective tools for complex emotion are limited. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Yonsei Cambridge Mindreading Face Battery for Children (YCAM-C) by selecting pre-items used in the development of YCAM, a computerized task with 48 video clips measuring complex emotions. The pre-items of YCAM which consist of 113 video clips with 18 commonly used emotional expressions in Korea were evaluated in terms of item discrimination on 438 Asian children aged 8 to 11. As a result, 18 emotions and a total of 54 items (3 items each for an emotion) were included with each item consists of 4 point likert scales. YCAM-C showed a moderate level of internal consistency and item-total correlation coefficients fall within acceptable range. The result showed that YCAM-C had a positive correlation with social interaction ability measured by MESSY and SSIS, but there was no significant correlation with the executive functioning. YCAM-C can be a useful tool to monitor improvements in emotion recognition of ASD children and to promote diagnostic assessment for ASD.

 
185.

Development and Validity Study of The Yonsei-Cambridge Mindreading Face Battery for Adolescents

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
SUNGHYUN CHO (Yonsei University), Eun Sun Chung (Yonsei University), Hee Won Kim (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Significant portion of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show difficulties in recognizing facial expressions. However, objective instruments measuring emotional recognition ability are hard to find for this population. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale for measuring emotional recognition ability for adolescents, YCAM-A. Comprising 18 widely used complex emotions, 5 seconds-long video clips of emotional expressions were recorded with 56 actors whose age ranged from 20 to 40. A total of 309 middle and high school students completed the first version of YCAM-A. Next, three video-clips of each emotion were selected upon the item discrimination. The YCAM-A was finalized with 51 items of 17 emotions in 7 point Likert scale. Cronbach's alpha for the YCAM-A was .78, indicating adequate internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was also assessed on 20% of participants (n = 61) approximately 2-3 weeks after initial assessment, showing adequate reliability (r = .64). Finally, validity of YCAM-A with 4 other scales showed YCAM-A is a fine-assessment tool for emotional recognition ability for adolescents. Further implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

 
186.

Test of Usability on App-Based CBT Program on Anxiety and Anger for Individuals With High Functioning Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AARON SU (Yonsei University), YoonJung Yang (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Individuals with High Functioning Autism (HFA) have impairments in communication, emotion regulation, and social interaction. These difficulties frequently lead to anger outburst and anxiety attack, resulting in injuries and serious adjustment issues. The purpose of this study is to assess usability of two newly developed application-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) programs for persons with HFA: HARU-ASD Anxiety and HARU-ASD Anger. Each program consists of 48 sessions which were divided into five zones (psycho-education, relaxation training, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, and problem solving) and required a daily commitment of 10 to 15 minutes. Participants were 13 typically developing adults and were asked to fill out the System Usability Scale (SUS) with 10 items using the 1-5 Likert scale. The average score for the population was 74 out of 100 and ranged from 47.5 to 90.5, suggesting app being profitable and user-friendly to deal with anger and anxiety in ASD population. Also, needs for modification are indicated in terms of integrity and organization of functions and reward system. Continuous efforts should be made to improve both contents as well as UX/UI design parts to develop more effective mobile applications.

 
187.

A Preliminary Study of Culturally Adapted Social Communication Training on Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YINI LIAO (Sun Yat-sen University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Teaching social communication is important for children with ASD because children needs to learn to work in groups, build social relationship and communicate with peers. Social communication in eastern culture, like China may be different from the west. The purpose of this study is: (1) To examine the efficacy of using peer modelling and token economy strategies on behavior changes for a group of children with ASD (2) To explore whether parents can implement strategies on their children after the Behavior Skills Training (BST). Multiple baseline design, with cultural adapted teaching procedure, was utilized on 5 children and 5 parents at an outpatient setting. Considering the cultural differences, the operation definition of the selected target social behaviors were discussed with parents and therapists. Parents’ behavior changes were measured by the percentage of BST steps completed. Children showed improvements in four target behaviors. Parents’ skills of teaching their children also improved after the BST training. However, parents reported the difficulty of dealing with children’s behavior, such as emotional problem and challenging behaviors at home or other community settings.

 
188.

Comparing the Effectiveness of Response Interruption and Redirectionand Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors on the Reduction of Vocal Stereotypy: A Case Study

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDER VIGOUREUX (University of South Florida), Viviana Gonzalez (Engage Behavioral Health), Rachel Scalzo (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Vocal stereotypy, a behavior common in individuals with autism, is pervasive as it impedes social and academic learning. The purpose of this case study was to compare the effectiveness of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) to differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) as interventions to reduce vocal stereotypy. The participant was a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in frequent vocal stereotypy that interfered with typical daily functioning. This study was conducted in a classroom setting at a private school for children with special needs. It was found that DRO was more effective than RIRD at reducing vocal stereotypy. Frequency of vocal stereotypy remained stable in the RIRD condition, even showing a slight upward trend. It is suspected this may have occurred as a result of the increased demands. Vocal stereotypy was lowest, near zero levels, in the DRO condition with the red card present. Likely the visual stimuli aided in discriminating when reinforcement was available in the absence of vocal stereotypy.

 
189.

Effects of an Early Start Denver Model-Based Training Program for Parents of Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SEUNGMIN JUNG (Yonsei University), Hoomyung Lee (Yonsei University), Hyeonsuk Jang (Korea ABA), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) has been established as an evidence-based treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of ESDM group training for parents of children with ASD. 18 parents of children with ASD (aged 2-5) were recruited as a group of 3 to 5 people and attended two-hour session once a week for 12 weeks. They were trained for ESDM principles and techniques, and supervised for applying acquired skills to their own children at home. Effectiveness of the training on parent-child interaction was assessed by direct observation scale (PCI-D) as well as 4 questionnaires (BPI, CBCL, Vineland, SCQ). Collateral effects on parents were also evaluated via 3 self-report forms (PSI, MES and BDI). The results of direct observation showed significant increases in positive interaction between children and parents in play. Furthermore, parents reported significantly lower scores on Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and higher scores on Maternal Efficacy Scale after the parent training program.

 
190.

Increasing Vegetable Consumption Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder During School Lunch Using a Group-Oriented Intervention

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRED CARRILES (Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg), Lauren Davison (Hogan Learning Academy), Brittney Miller (Hogan Learning Academy), Allison Normile (Hogan Learning Academy), Megan Gring (Hogan Learning Academy ), Jonathan W. Ivy (The Pennsylvania State University - Harrisburg ), Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center), Kathryn Glodowski (Penn State - Harrisburg)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The majority of children do not eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Numerous studies have shown children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have problems with food selectivity and are less likely than children without special needs to consume the recommended daily amounts of fruits and vegetables. This study evaluated an intervention for increasing vegetable consumption in children with ASD within a private school setting. Participants included 33 children with a diagnosis of ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group A or Group B. During baseline, the participants were given five bites of two different vegetables, along with their packed lunch. There were no programmed consequences for mealtime behavior. During intervention, the participants in Group A were given access to the vegetables prior to the start of lunch. As with baseline, there were no programmed consequences for mealtime behavior. A multiple-baseline across groups design was used to examine the effects of the intervention. Preliminary analysis of the results shows single-stimulus presentation produced higher participant consumption of food items than the control condition.

 
191. Stability of Socially Maintained Functions of Problem Behavior Over Time
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLER STREET (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: This study examined the stability of behavioral function over time, specifically focusing on socially maintained problem behavior. We analyzed functional analyses of clients readmitted to the Severe Behavior clinic at Marcus Autism Center. Results of initial and secondary assessments were compared to determine if the function of problem behavior changed over time. We will present data on 10-20 clients readmitted for treatment. These data will provide clinicians with information regarding the likelihood problem behavior will occur over time for the same reason.
 
192. Evaluation of Necessary Components of Chain Procedures for Clinical Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON HAWKINS (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Catherine Kishel (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Shin Teh (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Behavior chains are a commonly used teaching strategy within applied behavior analysis, especially for teaching vocational and self-help skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. However, little guidance is provided by the literature with regard to the conditions under which chaining procedures are effective and efficient (Donnelly & Karsten, 2017). Additionally, the components of chains procedures that are described in published literature vary widely (e.g., Carlile, Reeve, Reeve, & Debar, 2013; Gruber & Paulson, 2016), which may lead to difficulty in replicating research-based procedures in clinical practice. To increase the replicable precision of chains procedures in research and clinical practice, identifying the components that are essential to include in written chains procedures is necessary. To provide guidance, Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the components of a chain that should be included in written methods to be able to replicate the procedure in clinical practice. Initial responses (n = 12) indicate agreement on core components of behavior chains with disagreement over components that may differ based on client preference or ability. The results will be discussed with regard to their impact on the research and clinical programs that include chain procedures.
 
193. An Individualized Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Social Avoidance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY GOTTLIEB (Marcus Autism Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University)
Discussant: Joshua K. Pritchard (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Social avoidance is a specific type of escape maintained problem behavior where the individual engages in problem behavior in order to avoid social interaction (Harper, Iwata, & Camp, 2013). The purpose of this study was to present three case studies on individuals with a confirmed social avoidance function and how each was assessed and treated. Assessment involved close proximity to the participant or therapist delivery of attention. Contingent on problem behavior the therapist moved away or discontinued providing attention. For two participants, treatment incorporated a DRO interval that was increased following systematically decreasing proximity to the participant. For the remaining participant, treatment incorporated functional communication for being left alone. Implications for treatment will be presented. References Beavers, G. A., Iwata, B. A., & Lerman, D. C. (2013). Thirty Years Of Research On The Functional Analysis Of Problem Behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 1-21. Harper, J. M., Iwata, B. A., & Camp, E. M. (2013). Assessment and Treatment Of Social Avoidance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 147-160.
 
194. Distance-Based Collaborations for Assessing and Treating Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL METRAS (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Santiago, Hanley, Moore, and Jin (2016) have shown that the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA; see Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) and resulting function-based treatments can result in socially valid outcomes for clients exhibiting problem behavior when they are implemented by ecologically relevant professionals (i.e., a teacher and a home based provider). However, many individuals who would benefit from receiving similar functional analytic services do not have access to professionals trained to implement an IISCA or function-based treatment. In similar situations, parents have been able to achieve differentiated functional analyses (Wacker, Lee, et al., 2013) and teach their children functional communication responses (Wacker, Lee, Dalmau, Kopelman, et al., 2013) with telehealth support from behavior analysts. We trained caregivers of children exhibiting severe problem behavior to implement the IISCA and skill-based treatment process through distance-based collaborative consulting without local professional support.
 
195.

The Effects of Paternal Contingent Imitation on the Development of Vocal and Motor Skills of an Infant

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY HENKLE (University of Nevada, Reno), Maria T. Stevenson (NNCBS)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Caregiver vocal imitation of infant’s vocalizations have been shown to impact the trajectory of language development. Likewise, contingent motor imitation has been associated with increases of motor imitation skills. The present study investigates the effects of parent contingent imitation across response classes on the development of vocal and motor imitation skills by a 12-month old girl with developmental delays. Parent contingent imitation is a procedure whereby the caregiver imitates the infant’s vocalizations and motor movements. After the implementation of parent contingent imitation, increases in vocalization rates and motor imitation were observed. Deficits in vocal and motor imitation may impede the acquisition of more complex skills, and thus underscore the importance of establishing imitative repertories in early development. While additional research is needed, caregiver vocal imitation may be an effective strategy for increasing imitation across response classes for infant’s with developmental delays.

 
196.

Function Based Video-Self Modeling for Individuals With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATE SADLER (University of Virginia), Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism), Lisa Gail Falke (Virginia Institute of Autism), William Therrien (University of Virginia)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Reports suggests that 50% of individuals with autism engage in aggressive behaviors (Mazurek, Kanne, & Wodka, 2013). Video Self-Modeling (VSM) is an evidence-based intervention for individuals with ASD, often producing substantial changes in student behavior without the need for intensive services (Bellini & Akullian, 2007). Some research has suggested that VSM can decrease aggression without the need for intensive supports (Buggey, 2005; Cihak, et al., 2010; Cihak, et al., 2012; Sadler, 2019). This study contributes to the literature by evaluating a function-based VSM (FB-VSM). An FB-VSM uses a traditional VSM to depict a functionally equivalent replacement behavior. In the current study, the self-video model was created using the results from an Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA). The FB-VSM offers an alternative to traditional procedures such as a functional communication training (FCT). The following research questions guided this study: (1) To what degree does a function-based VSM impact aggressive/disruptive behavior? (2) To what degree does a function-based VSM impact replacement/alternative behavior? Results for three male participants with autism (ages 8, 16, and 21) showed decrease in aggressive/disruptive behavior and increases in the replacement/alternative behavior. The preliminary results suggest that the IISCA-informed VSM intervention is a viable clinical approach.

 
197. Evaluating the Feasibility of the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis at an Autism Service Agency
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATE SADLER (University of Virginia), Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism), Lauren Haskins (Virginia Institute of Autism), William Therrien (University of Virginia)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Recent surveys suggest that practitioners of applied behavior analysis are unlikely to conduct functional analyses (Oliver, Pratt, & Normand, 2015; Roscoe, Phillips, Kelly, Farber, & Dube, 2015). These results suggest that practitioners find traditional approaches to functional analysis to be time consuming and unsafe. The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) was developed in response to these concerns (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). The IISCA is a promising approach to functional analysis due to its efficiency and practicality. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of conducting the IISCA in the context of ongoing educational and clinical services across three programs at the Virginia Institute of Autism (school, outpatient services, adult services) in collaboration with school/clinic staff (e.g., BCBAs). We also aimed to evaluate maintenance and generalization of treatment gains more thoroughly than in previous research. Finally, we aimed to evaluate the preference of behavioral service providers for the IISCA. Preliminary results with two adult participants with autism showed that the IISCA allowed for an efficient identification of a synthesized contingency maintaining severe problem behavior (self-injury and aggression). We are preparing to implement function-based treatment with these participants, as well as conducting the IISCA with additional participants.
 
198. A Multiple Schedule Arrangement for the Treatment of Social Avoidance in a School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CARA L. PHILLIPS (May Institute), Serra R. Langone (May Center), Jenny McGee (May Center School, Wilmington)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: In cases in which problem behavior is particularly severe, it may be difficult to conduct a standard functional analysis of problem behavior (FA) such as that described by Iwata,et al., (1994) due to the risk of injury to the client or therapist. A latency-based functional analysis provides an alternative format that may mitigate the risk of harm (e.g., Thomason‐Sassi, Iwata, Neidert& Roscoe, 2011). In the current evaluation, we conducted a latency-based functional analysis of severe aggressive and disruptive behavior of a 16 year old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and cognitive difficulties. During the assessment, staff evaded and left the room contingent on aggression. Over the course of the FA, the participant became increasingly efficient across conditions, leading us to hypothesize that his aggressive behavior might function as social avoidance. We used Functional Communication Training (FCT) to establish a mand to be alone, then evaluated a multiple schedule arrangement to thin the availability of reinforcement for the response. The treatment was effective in reducing problem behavior as the delay to the availability of “alone” was systematically increased from an average 30s to the terminal delay (i.e. 5 min).
 
199.

Effects of Noncontingent Reinforcement for Decreasing Repetitive Behaviors of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GUL HAYAL KORKMAZ (Tohum Autism Foundation School), Nergiz Kocarslan (Tohum Autism Foundation School)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has two core characteristics: (a) difficulty in social interactions and communication and (b) repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The repetitive behaviors of them may prevent their participation into social life as well as to catch the learning opportunities. Utilizing reinforcement-based interventions to intervene the repetitive behaviors create a motivating learning environment. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is one of these interventions. During NCR, the interventionist presents reinforcement for the absence of behavior during specified time intervals. This study was planned to decrease the repetitive behaviors (inappropriate motor behaviors and verbal behaviors) of a school age child with ASD by using contingent fixed interval reinforcement schedule. AB model was used. Interval recording was used to collect data and graphical analysis was used for data analysis. The researchers collected baseline data in various settings and 1-minute interval was used during intervention for delivering reinforcement for the absence of inappropriate behaviors. Dependent variable reliability was collected once in two months. So far, the findings have shown that NCR seems to be an effective strategy to decrease repetitive behaviors. This is an ongoing study and the findings will be shared with the audience during the session.

 
200.

Using Fading Along Multiple Dimensions to Increase Cooperation With Medical and Hygiene Procedures

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTIAN YENSEN (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Two young men with autism who were students a behaviorally based residential program were taught to cooperate with medical procedures (an ear exam with an otoscope or application of an anesthetic mask). Both individuals had a history of severe problem behavior in the context of medical procedures, which previously had required sedation or physical restraint. Attempting to implement escape extinction in this context would not be safe for the students or therapists. To teach cooperation we used stimulus fading without extinction and placed emphasis on errorless learning by fading gradually across multiple dimensions (duration and evocativeness). IOA was calculated for 33% of sessions with 97% agreement. Both students refused to cooperate or engaged in challenging behavior during baseline. The teaching procedure was efficient in terms of the number of sessions to mastery (42 and 48) and the total amount of time in training (21 and 39) min). Following completion of the teaching steps, both students cooperated with the targeted medical procedures with their teachers and with a less familiar medical professional.

 
201.

Increasing Sitting Tolerance Without Forced Compliance: Using Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement in an Early Intervention Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SADIQA REZA (Lindenwood University ), Margaret Dannevik Pavone (Lindenwood University)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

For very young learners, sitting is a socially significant behavior that is a prerequisite for the acquisition of other skills and inclusion in mainstream educational settings. When young learners can sit and attend to the instructor, they are then able to be exposed to additional opportunities for learning and reinforcement (Olley, 1999). Unfortunately, many sitting tolerance programs include an element of forced compliance or escape extinction (Phillips, Briggs, Fisher, & Greer, 2018). These strategies can result in the establishment of common instructional stimuli as CMO-Rs, increasing the probability of maladaptive behaviors that remove these aversive stimuli. Many studies have noted the emergence or exacerbation of problem behaviors when using EE (Lerman & Iwata, 1995). This study looked at the use of concurrent schedules of reinforcement in the absence of escape extinction as a way to increase sitting duration in a 2-year old child with ASD and developmental delays. Using a changing criterion design over 20 sessions, the student increased sitting duration, decreased inter-session variability, and also demonstrated generalization. Results suggest the use of concurrent schedules of reinforcement in EI settings may be a non-coercive method of improving early learners’ ability to sit and attend to instructional stimuli. Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1995). Prevalence of the extinction burst and its attenuation during treatment. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 28(1), 93-94. Olley, J. G. (1999). Curriculum for Students with Autism. School Psychology Review, 28(4), 595. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lindenwood.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=2676682&site=eds-live&scope=site Phillips, L. A., Briggs, A. M., Fisher, W. W., & Greer, B. D. (2018). Assessing and Treating Elopement in a School Setting. Teaching Exceptional Children, 0040059918770663.

 
202. Increasing Compliance for Relinquishing a High Preference Item Through Training With a Low Preference Item
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GEORGE MILLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John M. Huete (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Behavioral momentum theory (BMT) has been applied to increase compliance with low-probability (low-p) instructions by immediately preceding them with high-probability (high-p) instructions (Mace et al., 1988). When the low-p instruction is a request to relinquish a high preference tangible item needed to be used as a functional reinforcer, treatment can be difficult to establish. The present study demonstrates how compliance with a low-p instruction (request to relinquish a high preference item) increased following previous exposure to the relevant contingencies contacted through compliance with a hypothesized high-p instruction (request to relinquish a low preference item). The participant was an 8-year-old female diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who engaged in severe problem behavior and non-compliance maintained by escape from demands to transition from high- to low-preference activities. A multiple baseline across items design illustrated the effectiveness in increasing compliance of a multi-component intervention including rules, a storage box, and reinforcement magnitude. Contingent on meeting the compliance goal with the high-p request the treatment was then probed alongside the low-p request. Compliance with the low-p request increased from 19% of trials during baseline to 100% during the final phase of treatment. Implications of utilizing BMT for requesting high preference items will be discussed.
 
203.

Effects of Reinforcer Variation on Skill Acquisition

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FAMIDA KHAN (Florida Autism Center; University of Florida Behavior Analysis Research Clinic), Crystal M. Slanzi (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Katie Pabst (University of Florida)
Discussant: James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Results of prior research on the effects of reinforcer variation on rates of responding have been inconsistent. Some studies have shown higher rates of responding when reinforcers were varied (e.g., Egel, 1981) while others have shown higher rates when the reinforcer was held constant (e.g., Keyl-Austin, Samaha, Bloom, & Boyle, 2012). The purpose of the current study is to determine if there are any differences between variable and constant reinforcement delivery on trials to criterion in skill acquisition programs for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, participants were taught three sets of three targets in an alternating treatments design. Consequences for correct responses for each set were as follows: highest ranking reinforcer only, variation of three highest ranking reinforcers, and social praise (control). Results from two participants have not shown little to no difference in trials to criterion for each of the three conditions. These preliminary results suggest that there may be differences on the effects of reinforcer variation on restricted vs. free-operant conditions.

 
204.

A Large-N Analysis of Treatment Package Composition

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VERONICA MEDINA (Western New England University New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Although there have been several relatively large-N studies reporting functional analysis (FA) outcomes and assessing clinician reports of assessment methods used, relatively little is known about the treatments that are derived from those assessment outcomes. We collected data on the components of treatment packages at a large school for children diagnosed with autism and related disabilities. Participants included children and adolescents ranging from ages 13-20 years from a residential program. Participants engaged in problem behavior ranging from mild to severe, had verbal and listener behavior of a variety of levels of complexity, and communicated using a variety of modalities including vocally, using picture exchange, and using communication devices. We analyzed the data with regard to the inclusion of FA informed differential reinforcement, differential arbitrary reinforcement, extinction, various types of punishment procedures, and visuals signaling the availability of reinforcement. Our data shows the use of multiple components of the aforementioned used for the treatment of problem behavior. The findings are summarized and discussed in relation to FA outcomes and the prevalence of treatment components in addition to those informed by FA.

 
205.

The Utility of a Conversational Skills Assessment for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN WILEY (University of Nevada, Reno), Brian James Feeney (University of Nevada, Reno), Sean M Barrite (UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA RENO), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

ASD is typified by impairments in the domains of communication, language, and restricted interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Beyond an important and socially valid target for improvement, conversational skills may be used as sensitive measure to monitor changes and growth in these domains, as the skill itself requires many “at strength” component social repertoires and remediation of hallmark deficits (Hood et al., 2017) to be effective. A lit review was conducted to identify target conversational behaviors and methods of assessment and training. General concerns and limitations of conversational training for individuals with ASD are noted with an emphasis on the lack of direct assessment measures for identifying and evaluating treatment outcomes (Reichow & Volkmar, 2010). A modified conversational skills assessment protocol (Hood et al., 2017) utilizing permanent product from social presses and a partial interval recording system was conducted to assess and evaluate conversational skills exhibited by a teen diagnosed with ASD and evaluate the protocol’s clinical utility. Data reviewed and analyzed suggested clinical utility of the protocol in selecting relative conversational skills deficits for intervention and continued monitoring for generalization of those targets. Future steps in the development of a standardized conversational skills assessment are noted.

 
206.

Evaluation and Identification of Precursor Behaviors and Implementation of Precursor-Based Functional Analyses With Japanese Teachers

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KOZUE MATSUDA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Children Center Inc), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Neil Timothy Martin (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Despite the importance of identifying the function of a problem behavior through experimental functional analysis, not all teachers have the skills needed to address such behaviors in children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disorders—particularly in countries that are home to few trained behavioral analysts or in which cultural mores are strongly averse to occurrence of problem behavior, therefore the procedures of a functional analysis are rarely approved. Seven Japanese teachers of students who have ASD, participated in this study. The researcher trained the teachers to identify precursor behaviors and problem behaviors using Behavior Skills Training (BST). The results showed that the training was successful in teaching the participant to identify precursor behaviors. Discussion of the cultural significant of evaluating precursor behaviors vs. problem behavior will also be included.

 
207.

Teaching Community-Based Navigation Skills to Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Using GPS Navigational Devices

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TING BENTLEY (The Faison Center), Heidi Garcia (The Faison Center, Inc.)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

We are using a combination of task analysis and prompt fading to teach adults with a mild intellectual or developmental disability how to use Google Maps to navigate the Richmond City bus system. We began the study by recruiting and obtaining consent from two individuals in the Richmond community who live on the bus line. A pre-training on how to use Google Maps on their mobile devices was conducted as well as a safety training. Baseline was then conducted and then the task analysis started until 100% criteria was met. Once criteria is met we plan to fade the presence of the researcher and meet the participant at an assigned location. Finally we will conduct a probe to test for generalization and ask the participant to travel to a novel location of their choosing using Google Maps. Inter-observer agreement is being collected interval by interval and currently have an IOA mean of 100% for the first participant and 92% for the second participant. IOA was collected on 50% of sessions for participant one and 60% for participant two. We plan to have at least one more participant in January and have completed all sessions in March.

 
208.

Identifying Factors that Influence the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder Across District Types

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRITTNEY MARIE VENTENILLA (San Diego State University; Child and Adolescent Services Research Center), Melina Melgarejo (San Diego State University; Child and Adolescent Services Research Center), Jessica Suhrheinrich (San Diego State University; Child and Adolescent Services Research Center)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Although evidence-based practices (EBPs) for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exist, implementation in schools is limited and research suggests that differences in services exist between Urban and Rural school districts such as staff retention and access to services (Knapczyk, Ghapman, G, Rodes, & Ghung, 2001; Murphy & Ruble, 2012). Understanding systematic variability in factors that support EBP use will inform implementation efforts that are tailored to school district characteristics. To identify district factors related to implementation and sustainment of EBPs for ASD, six focus groups were conducted. Participants worked in Urban (n=20) and Rural (n=10) school districts and 93% female. Transcriptions were independently coded by research associates, and inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing coding and discussing discrepancies to arrive at agreement. N*Vivo software was used to evaluate code frequency and identify themes across district types. Results identify common and varied barriers and facilitators across district types. Although both groups identified district structure as a barrier, Urban participants emphasized policy, communication with leaders, and growth as concerns, whereas Rural participants discussed travel time and high staff turnover. These clear differences across Urban and Rural districts indicate support for tailored implementation plans to maximize EBP use and sustainment.

 
209.

Using Modeling and Contingency Management to Improve Turn Taking Exchanges Between Siblings With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANYA FROELICH (Nationwide Children's Hospital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Kara Waters (Nationwide Children's Hospital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Alexandra Ament (Nationwide Children's Hospital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Brittany Swartz (Nationwide Children's Hospital Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

This project will look at improving social play interactions between two siblings diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Specifically, the project focuses on utilizing the combination of modeling and contingency management to increase the frequency of requests and relinquishing of items and decreasing the frequency of problem behaviors between siblings during turn taking exchanges. Past research reviewed (Rieth, S., et.al., 2014) concentrated on improving social behaviors, including turn taking, by utilizing a combination of modeling and contingency management implemented by a therapist. An additional study reviewed (Tsao & Odom, 2006), utilized typical siblings as peer models to increase pro-social behaviors in an individual with ASD. This project will add to existing literature by examining the effects of intervention on two siblings diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 
210.

Customized Functional Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy in a Toddler With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DANIELA S. CANOVAS (Grupo Método - Intervenção Comportamental), Priscila Crespilho Grisante (Grupo Método - Intervenção Comportamental), Maria Andrade (Grupo Método - Intervenção Comportamental)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

We conducted a customized experimental functional analysis to identify the consequences maintaining vocal stereotypy of a 30-month old boy diagnosed with autism. Vocal stereotypy was defined as the emission of nonsense or out of context sounds not directed to a listener. Participant’s vocalizations were recorded across 10-min sessions for each of the following conditions: 1. control (on the floor, preferred toys/materials, social interaction only if required by the child); 2. demand (at the table, teaching programs tasks of child’s daily routine, praise as consequence for correct responses, i.e., no tangible reinforcers); 3. ignore (on the floor, low-preferred toys/materials, no social interaction); and 4. social demand (at the table, puzzles, books and other materials, tasks of participant’s routine that required social interactions). We conducted five sessions per condition while the child was receiving ABA services (40-hour treatment per week, in a center-based service). Response rates (total number of vocalizations divided by minute) were higher during ignore and control conditions, indicating that vocal stereotypy was automatically maintained. IOA was higher than 80%. Data showed that demands competed with vocal stereotypy suggesting the possible effectiveness of response interruption and redirection (RIRD). Data collection will continue to evaluate the effects of RIRD.

 
211.

Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure: Effects on Full Naming Emergence in Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE BRASIL (Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA)), Carlos Souza (Universidade Federal do Pará)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Full naming is a higher order behavioral relationship in which the individual responds to a class of objects and/or events by combining the listener and speaker functions without direct training. Some individuals do not develop this ability in a natural way, so it is necessary to develop strategies to make this learning viable. Recently, the Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure (SPOP) has been shown to be an alternative to develop naming in individuals who do not yet have such ability. The SPOP consists of successive presentations of pairs of stimuli, requiring only the observation of the pairings, without differential reinforcement of any additional response. This study evaluated the effect of the SPOP in the emergence of full naming, with a multiple probes design between four children with autism spectrum disorder.The study consisted of: 1) Evaluation of syllable articulation; 2) Tact and selection pre-tests, 3) Bidiretional Naming Test; 4) Full Naming Probe; 5) Baseline; 6) Implementation of treatment; 7) Generalization test; 8) Maintenance test. Results showed the efficacy of SPOP in tact and listener response acquisition, but not for the emergence of full naming. Repertoires and prerequisites of participants were discussed as possible variables that influenced the results.

 
212.

Increasing Leisure Item Engagement Across Multiple Stimuli in an Individual With Restricted Interests

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Valerie Hall (Western New England University; The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), KALEY KNAPP (Western New England University; The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often display restricted behavior patterns, including stereotypy or repetitive forms of engagement. We assessed levels of item engagement across multiple leisure items in an 18-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder, who repetitively engaged with an iPad to the exclusion of other activities. During response restriction preference assessments, when the iPad was restricted, we did not observe increases in item engagement to the other items. As a result, we conducted leisure item training that included prompting alone and in combination with reinforcement. A multiple baseline design across leisure items was used to evaluate the effects of training on simple and complex forms of engagement. Prompting was effective in increasing simple engagement to criterion levels, whereas prompting combined with differential reinforcement was necessary for increasing complex forms of engagement. Following training, when the response restriction preference assessment was reimplemented, increases in complex item engagement with leisure items targeted in training were observed. Interobserver agreement was calculated during 33.3% of sessions and averaged 98%.

 
213.

Transformation of Stimulus Function in Children With Autism Predicted in Relational Density Theory

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNALISE GIAMANCO (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Relational Density Theory (Belisle & Dixon, in press) was put forward as a model to predict the self-organization of equivalence classes. Early research suggests that two emergent properties (resistance and gravity) can be predicted by modelling relational mass as a function of relational volume (class size, nodal distance) and relational density (relational response strength). In the present study, we sought to evaluate a transformation of stimulus functioning within a common word puzzle that result from relational gravity as predicted in RDT. In a baseline training phase with three children with autism, we established 4 arbitrary 3-member equivalence classes. Of the four classes, two contained a familiar stimulus (dog, truck) and the other two contained exclusively arbitrary symbols. We predicted that the classes with the familiar high mass stimuli would emerge at greater density that the class containing unfamiliar lower mass stimuli. This initial prediction was generally supported in our results. In a subsequent transformation test, we provided the participants with word search containing CVCs from the new classes along with two familiar words. Results showed that participants identified the words that operated at greater density along with the familiar words at a faster rate compared to unfamiliar words that operated at lower density. These results suggest that RDT may have immediate implications for relational training with children with autism.

 
 

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