Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

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Poster Session #268
EAB Sunday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
9. Next-Day Responsibilities Alter the Reinforcing Value of Alcohol Among Community Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BRANDON PATRICK MILLER (University of Kansas), James Murphy (University of Memphis), James MacKillop (McMaster University), Michael Amlung (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that next-day responsibilities impact preference for alcohol, however, this work has exclusively used undergraduate samples and a narrow range of responsibilities. Thus, the goal of this project was to extend this work by examining the effect of a wider range of responsibilities on demand for alcohol among community adults using a hypothetical purchase task. Our sample included 261 community adults (60% male; 39% female; 1% non-binary) with a mean age of 38.42 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. All participants first rank-ordered eight hypothetical next-day responsibilities across 3 categories (i.e., work, caregiving, and recreational). Participants then completed an alcohol purchase task with no explicit responsibilities before completing two additional purchase tasks in the context of their two highest ranked responsibilities. Several stages of attention and data quality checks were implemented prior to all data analysis. Analyses revealed that demand was highest for the no responsibilities condition and found no differences between 1st and 2nd ranked responsibilities. Those ranking work and caregiving responsibilities highest showed the greatest suppression of demand, followed by those ranking caregiving and recreational activities highest. Our results build on previous research by demonstrating contingencies may alter preference for alcohol in sample of community adults.
 
11. Functional Equivalence in Rats II: Increasing Set Size via Class Expansion
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MADELEINE MASON (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Elijah Richardson (University of North Carolina - Wilmington), Cassondra Giarrusso (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sophie Lorraine Pinneke (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Spencer Bruce (University of North Carolina - Wilmington), Hawken V. Hass (University of North Carolina - Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
Abstract: Stimulus equivalence has not been reliably demonstrated in nonhumans though a simple discrimination reversal procedure (e.g., Mason et al., 2021) has yielded evidence of functional equivalence classes. The present study is an assessment of whether functional classes formed using this procedure demonstrate two fundamental properties of equivalence classes: transfer of function and class expansion. In Phase 1, using a go/no-go arrangement, rats were trained to nose-poke in the presence of three odors arbitrarily designated as members of Set 1, while responding to members of Set 2 was not reinforced. Contingencies (i.e., which set was positive) were repeatedly reversed each time subjects met mastery criteria. In Phase 2, class expansion was investigated by presenting novel odor discriminations in training sessions with only one member of each set, implementing a series of reversals, then subsequently testing for transfer of function between existing and novel set members, which had never been presented in the same session. This sequence was completed for three pairs of novel stimuli. While class expansion has not yet been demonstrated, results showed evidence of transfer of function across set members with relatively little reversal training compared to previous experiments, perhaps due to manipulations to training sequences and reinforcement parameters.
 
13. Matching-to-Sample with Different Delays in a Person with Alzheimer’s Disease
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANETTE BROGAARD BROGÅRD ANTONSEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
Abstract: In the present study, a 91-year-old woman with Alzheimer’s disease served as a participant. She had earlier been presented with identity simultaneous matching-to-sample (SMTS) and MTS with 0s delay (Brogård-Antonsen & Arntzen, 2020). With the purpose of identifying the longest level of delay where the participant responded in accordance with the mastery criterion, she was presented with identity matching training and testing with the delays of 12s, 13.5s, 15s, 18s, and 24s. The stimuli used was three colors (yellow, blue, and red). The results showed that the participant met the mastery criterion with delays of 12s and 13.5s.
 
15. Using Train-to-Code to Teach the Order of Events in a Discrete Trial: Error Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PATRICK DAVIDSON (Assumption University), Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University), David A. Eckerman (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), Will Roche (Assumption University), Roger D. Ray ((AI)2, Inc.; Rollins College)
Discussant: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
Abstract: Variation in procedure during the delivery of discrete trial (DT) programs results in poorer learner outcomes. This study is part of an on-going project investigating use of Train-to-Code software in teaching staff to recognize correct and incorrect delivery of DT programs in order to improve their delivery of those programs. Participants view video clips of DT programs and code whether the trial was delivered correctly and, if not, the type of error made. Participants are undergraduate students studying applied behavior analysis or active behavior therapists. Prior to coding clips, participants are taught to identify the order of events in a DT for three programs (motor imitation [MI], receptive labeling [RL], and social questions [SQ]). We present the results for Phase 2 pretraining (see Table 1), which has been completed by two participants thus far. Mean training time was 161.8 minutes. Participants reached criterion with the fewest codes for RL, followed by MI, and SQ. For one participant on SQ, coding errors only occurred when the example was incorrect; the example was miscoded an equal number of times as having no error or having a different type of error than depicted. For the second participant on SQ, 22% of errors were miscoding of correct examples as having an error. Of the remaining coding errors, 67% were miscoding an error at the beginning of a trial. Analysis of error patterns can be used to improve DT training for staff in service delivery.
 
17. The Effects of Contingency Experience on Infant Visual Discrimination Learning
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
D. WAYNE MITCHELL (Missouri State University), Katelyn Rachelle Jones (Missouri State University), Lyric Arvizu (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Jillian Rung (University of Florida)
Abstract: Thirty-five 4-month-old infants’ visual discrimination learning was assessed via a 10-trial synchronous reinforcement task. Infants were assigned randomly to one of two groups: A Contingency or Control group. Infants in the Contingency group received 4 pretraining trials of a simplified visual discrimination task so to gain reinforcement experience with the discriminative cue (the least salient stimulus component) employed on the subsequent 10-trial synchronous visual discrimination task. Infants in the Control group received no pretraining experience. Overall, the Contingency group displayed greater visual attention to the S+ compared to the Control group. Also, the number of shifts (visual comparisons between the S+ and S-) across trials were significantly greater for the Contingency group compared to the Control group. These findings support the hypotheses that contingency experience (1) guide and organize perception scanning patterns and (2) increase visual scanning which in turn increases the probability of successful visual discrimination. A two-factor visual learning model (consisting of habitual and contingency experience) is proposed to explain the developmental and individual differences in infant shift rate and discrimination learning.
 
19. Assessing gamification elements on high school students
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
L. REBECA MATEOS MORFIN (Universidad de Guadalajara), Araceli Anzaldo (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara), Kenneth D. Madrigal (Universidad de Sonora), Cinthia Hernandez (Universidad de Guadalajara (CEIC))
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Gamification is the implementation of mechanics typical of games in non-playful environments, in order to generate a change in behavior. The present study assessed the application of gamification elements, such as points and feedback in high school students. All the students were taking a course on self-care. Before reviewing each class topic, students had to solve some questions about the target topic. Forty students divided into four groups participated, for some students their answers were followed by feedback and the delivery of points, in a second group the students only received points, another group received only feedback, finally, the fourth group was not exposed to the gamified task. Once the course was finished, a post-test was applied to all students in order to identify if there were effects according to the type of elements used. The students with feedback obtained the highest percentages of correct responses during the test. These results are discussed based on previous evidence, suggesting the role of feedback on learning.
 
21. High functioning autism, equivalence class formation and priming with meaningful stimuli and words
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
GURO GRANERUD (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University), Torbjørn Elvsåshagen (Oslo University Hospital), Christoffer Hatlestad-Hall (CHTD research, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital), Eva Malt (Akershus University Hospital)
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: A matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure could be used in training conditional discriminations and testing emergent relations. Another way to test for relations between stimuli is through priming; presenting a prime stimulus and a target stimulus and instruct the participant to judge if the stimuli is related or not. The priming effect is often demonstrated, more errors or longer reaction time to unfamiliar stimulus pair than related. Earlier research has demonstrated a discrepancy in the results of ability of priming in participants with autism. In the current experiment, 26 people with high functioning autism (HFA) and 29 people without any known diagnosis served as participants. They were all trained to form three 3-member classes in a many-to-one (MTO) training structure with C stimuli as meaningful, and A and B stimuli as abstract shapes. One-third of the relations were tested in the MTS format before the rest of the relations were tested in a priming procedure. All participants also conducted word priming. The results show that on an average the participants with HFA produced more errors than the group without any known diagnosis, more errors where produced with related stimulus pair than unrelated in both groups and that both groups had more errors in word priming than priming with meaningful stimuli.
 
23. Functional Equivalence in Rats III: Novel Tests of Transfer of Function
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CASSONDRA GIARRUSSO (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Elijah Richardson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Kyndra Lawson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Madeleine Mason (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Hawken V. Hass (University of North Carolina- Wilmington ), Spencer Bruce (University of North Carolina - Wilmington), Sophie Lorraine Pinneke (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Katherine Ely Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Evidence for functional class formation in non-human animals has been limited; thus, this study sought to examine whether rats would show functional equivalence using olfactory stimuli. Six rats were first trained to nose-poke using a simple discrimination reversal procedure with two sets of six olfactory stimuli (X1-X6 and Y1-Y6) in a go-no go procedure. Initially, the X set stimuli were positive and the Y stimuli were negative, and once responding was accurate, the contingencies were reversed. After repeated reversal training, we used a delayed probe procedure to test for transfer of function. In this delay probe procedure, subjects were exposed to either 10 (two-scent delay) and/or 8 (four-scent delay) of the 12 total odor stimuli with the changed contingencies, then tested for transfer to the remaining stimuli without direct training. Rats showed evidence of class formation using both two- and four-scent delay-probe procedures. Additional tests of transfer of function were also assessed. This research provides additional evidence for class formation in rats using olfactory stimuli.
 
25. The Role of Delay Discounting in Media Multitasking in the College Classroom: A Cluster Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton), Savannah Cothron (Pennsylvania Sate University, Hazleton)
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The present study examined the relation among delay discounting, students’ attitudes toward classes, and frequencies of texting in the classroom (TIC) in college students. A sample of 170 college students participated. Using a hierarchical cluster analysis with frequencies of TIC in preferred and non-preferred classes, we first identified four distinct subgroups of students: (a) students with low frequencies of TIC in both preferred and non-preferred classes (Low-Low subgroup), (b) students with moderate frequencies of TIC in both preferred and non-preferred classes (Moderate-Moderate subgroup), (c) students with moderate frequencies of TIC in preferred classes and high frequencies of TIC in non-preferred classes (Moderate-High subgroup), and (d) students with low frequencies of TIC in preferred classes but high frequencies in non-preferred classes (Low-High subgroup). We then compared the subgroups on the degree of delay discounting of hypothetical monetary reinforcers. In the delay-discounting task, participants made repeated choices between $1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results showed that the Low-High subgroup showed significantly lower rates of delay discounting than the other three subgroups. Impulsive characteristics of TIC from a behavioral economic perspective are discussed.
 
27. An Evaluation of Sibling-Peer Modeling on Increasing Consumption of Foods for Children with Feeding Disorders
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MYAH SLOANE (UNMC MMI), Laura E Phipps (University of Nebraska Medical Center; Munroe-Meyer Institute), Bethany Hansen (Munroe Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that a treatment package consisting of peer modeling and differential reinforcement (DR) is an effective intervention for increasing consumption of target foods in children. The current study aims to replicate these procedures for children with feeding difficulties wherein their siblings play a role in treatment. This study will also aim to identify the effectiveness of sibling-peer modeling (SPM) with and without commonly used DR procedures when targeting the acceptance of target foods. Participants will include dyads of children diagnosed with avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) or other feeding difficulties, and their siblings. Researchers will utilize a multiple baseline design across caregiver selected foods using a food hierarchy survey. If a component analysis is warranted, a reversal of treatment components will be conducted to assess the individual components of the treatment package. Initial findings suggest that SPM may be an effective treatment for increasing acceptance of some foods, such as foods that are not reliably refused or are refused on occasion. These results could help clinicians identify a treatment approach that includes key individuals regularly involved in the child’s daily mealtimes (i.e., siblings) without the use of more intensive feeding procedures (i.e., nonremoval of the spoon).
 
29. Laboratory Model of Physical Activity: Relapse Following an Incentive-Based Intervention
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
BRIANNA SARNO (West Virginia University), Katherine Cucinotta (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Physical inactivity is increasing in the United States, and the annual cost of health-related expenses from physical inactivity is as high as $117 billion in the United States (Department of Health and Human Services, 2018). Previous research has demonstrated efficacy of monetary incentives for increasing physical activity; however, treatment gains often subside when incentives are withdrawn. The purpose of the current study was to model an incentive-based intervention in a brief, one-session laboratory arrangement. We evaluated relapse of sedentary behavior in a three-phase arrangement. Adult participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Participants in the Incentive Group experienced a no-incentive baseline, monetary incentives for treadmill use during the second phase, and a relapse test in which the incentives were discontinued in the third phase. There were two control groups: (a) one without incentives and (b) one group that experienced incentives in the last two phases to control for fatigue. We collected data on heart rate, time spent on the treadmill, and alternative topographies of behavior (e.g., leisure activities). Physical activity generally increased in the incentive phases compared to baseline and discontinuing the incentives tended to result in relapse of sedentary behavior.
 
31. Comparing Acquisition in Discrete Trial Training using Virtual Reality to Traditional Procedures
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SABRINA OLIVERA (University of Miami), Yamna Zaman (University of Miami), Yuan Fang (University of Miami), Mohamad Hammam Alsafrjalani (University of Miami), Mohamed S Abdel-Mottaleb (University of Miami), Kim Grinfeder (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. (University of Miami)
Discussant: Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Virtual reality is an immersive 3D virtual environment within a removable headset. VR has been applied to educational and therapeutic environments to supplement learning through exposure to naturalistic and contrived environments. Although VR’s effectiveness in teaching has been proven through a treatment package, it has yet to be assessed as a stand-alone method for teaching a new skill. The purpose of the current study was to compare outcomes of typically-developing adults learning a receptive language DTT task when taught using a VR headset and traditional DTT methods similar to those in Gutierrez et. al., 2009. Furthermore, we assessed generalization of skills learned within VR to the real-world environment and maintenance of skills under both conditions with a follow-up assessment. Preliminary data suggests that VR is effective as a standalone method of teaching receptive discriminations. Data also suggests that participants had a higher degree of mastery in the VR condition. Currently, our data collection is ongoing.

 
 

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