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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #247
Sunday, May 28, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
Chair: Scott P. Ardoin (UGA Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research)
35. Test Driving Interventions for Escape Maintained Behavior in Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CLELIA SIGAUD (University of Southern Maine), Jamie Pratt (University of Southern Maine), Mark W. Steege (University of Southern Maine)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Youth with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) have been historically underrepresented in behavior analytic research. Test-driving interventions in the clinical setting is one way to bridge the gap between research and practice, given the relative scarcity of research from which to design treatment packages for the EBD population. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential utility of an assessment methodology for identifying the most effective evidence- and function-based treatment for any given individual after the completion of a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA). FBA data led to the identification of several evidence and function-based interventions, so the assessment methodology was used to evaluate relative effectiveness of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and functional communication training (FCT) interventions (both with and without choices for break-time activities) for reducing work-avoidance behaviors displayed by two school-aged youth with EBD. Participants responded idiosyncratically to four different interventions involving variations of choice and negative reinforcement. Findings therefore support the use of further analyses beyond the FBA process, in which the relative effects of potential treatments are compared experimentally, before selecting an intervention.
36. A Comparison on the Use of Two Different Error Correction Procedures and No Error Correction on Acquisition of Receptive Identification in Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Milagros Cima (Manhattan Behavioral Center), NICOLE STEWART (Manhattan Behavioral Center), Amy Mason (Manhattan Behavioral Center), Erika McGhee (Manhattan Behavioral Center)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Error correction, a procedure that delivers an explicit consequence and corrective feedback following a learner error, is widely used for skill acquisition tactics in applied behavioral analysis (ABA). However, behavior analysts differ in the specific tactics and procedures they use when implementing error correction, and there is a lack of research to indicate what tactics and procedures are most beneficial to learners. The current study used an alternating treatments design to compare two different error correction procedures on the acquisition of receptive identification in two pre-school aged children with autism spectrum disorder. In the first treatment condition, when an error occurred, the discriminative stimulus was re-presented prior to providing an immediate prompt. In the second treatment condition, the discriminative stimulus was not re-presented prior to providing an immediate prompt. A control condition was also used where no error correction procedure was implemented. During each condition, one unknown receptive identification target was selected for teaching in a field of three with the other selected targets. Currently, data are still being collected, and Child A has begun to demonstrate acquisition of the target when the discriminative stimulus is presented prior to providing the prompt.
37. The Effect of Self-Monitoring, I-Connect, to Increase On-Task Behavior of High School Students With Autism
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA ROMANS (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Ben A Mason (Juniper Gardens Children's Project, The University of Kansas), Megan A. Boyle (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate behaviors that impair their school experiences. Therefore, the implementation of research-based strategies that will foster success for students with autism is critical (Simpson, 2005). Moreover, individuals with autism experience greater challenges transiting from high school to post-secondary opportunities, including education, jobs, and independent living (Hendricks, 2010; Lee & Carter, 2012). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a web-based program designed to increase student engagement and academic gains through the use of the I-Connect self-monitoring application installed on a mobile device (Wills, 2012) in a high school setting. An ABAB withdrawal was employed with two high school students diagnosed with Autism, to evaluate the effectiveness of the I-Connect self-monitoring system on their on-task behaviors and academic performance. In previous studies, implementing self-monitoring interventions have increased academic and on-task behaviors for both individuals with autism (Bruhn et al., 2015; Berznak et al., 2012). In the results of this I-Connect intervention, participant one increased his on-task behaviors from 47% to 100%; academic accuracy from 20% to 98%. Participant two increased his on-task behaviors from 47% to 94%; academic accuracy from 51% to 63%.
38. Examining the Effects Token Board Choice has on On-Task Behavior and Problem Behavior During One-to-One Instruction
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE PRITCHETT GREENWAY (University of Georgia), Rachel Cagliani (University of Georgia), Erinn Whiteside (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Reinforcement is an evidenced-based practice and token economies are a tool that can be used to implement reinforcement (Wong et al., 2013). Most studies on choice have evaluated choice with reinforcers or preferred items (Tiger et al., 2006; Schmidt at al., 2009; Sran & Borrero, 2010), but there is no literature that examines token board choice. The current study examined token board choice between a plain token board (only included the childs name, star tokens and two pictures) and token boards that mirrored the individual's interests (e.g. Angry Birds, Spongebob, soccer goal and bucket). The purpose of this study was to see if token board choice effects on-task behavior and problem behavior during one-to-instruction. Choice conditions and no choice conditions were counterbalanced by day and instructional protocols, based on the participants Individualized Instructional Plan, were implemented during sessions. Based on PND (Gast & Ledford, 2014), on-task behavior was slightly higher in choice conditions for both participants. Problem behavior was variable.
39. Identification of Alternative Instructional Methods When Physical Guidance is Contraindicated
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), ERIN HOWARD (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Andrew Sodawasser (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Despite its commonality in many instructional strategies, physical guidance may be aversive to some individuals, evoking problem behavior that competes with skill acquisition, or may be difficult to implement with larger individuals. The current study systematically evaluated the efficacy of alternative instructional strategies to teach chained tasks to two participants, aged eight and fourteen, at a day-treatment clinic for problem behavior. In Study 1, a multiple baseline across three equally-matched arbitrary tasks was conducted to compare the effectiveness of a multiple opportunity probe, a single opportunity probe, and three-step guided compliance. Data were collected on percentage of steps completed independently, completion time, and problem behavior. For Participant 1, skill acquisition was only achieved with the multiple opportunity probe. For Participant 2, skill acquisition did not occur with any of the three instructional strategies. Backward chaining was systematically introduced across tasks and resulted in skill acquisition and maintenance. In Study 2, the instructional strategy identified as most effective in Study 1 was successfully used to teach chained work tasks. Results of social validity questionnaires indicate the social validity of procedures identified in Study 1. The current study provides a methodology to evaluate alternative instructional methods when physical guidance may be contraindicated.
40. Teaching Geography Skills to Children with Autism Using Relational Training
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANI ALHOLAIL (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Megan Galliford (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: The current study utilized stimulus equivalence training procedures for teaching two children with autism fundamental geography skills. Participants were directly taught to match a vocal stimuli of country names to their location on an unlabeled map, then the locations on the map to the countries’ flags, and finally taught to match the countries’ flags to the corresponding continents on a map. Test trials were conducted to evaluate the emergence of derived relations between continents and countries’ names, flags and countries’ names, and continents and locations on a map. Generalization probes were conducted using a touch screen application in which participants were able to move around a virtual globe in order to respond correctly to the location relations. Argentina, Kenya, and Mongolia were utilized as the countries in the study along with their corresponding locations, continents and flags. The participants were unable to identify these countries prior to the study. All three participants were able to effectively identify all trained, derived, and generalized relations between the countries, flags, continents, and locations on a map following training. The results of the study indicated that stimulus equivalence training was effective for teaching basic geography skills for children with autism. The results implied that future use of stimulus equivalence procedures may be beneficial for teaching various academic skills.
41. A Systematic Review of Functional Skills Instruction for Young Children With Moderate Developmental Disabilities in School Settings
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Amy Callender (Tennessee Technological University), SETH KING (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Mastering functional skills at an early age (years 3-9) may propel children with moderate developmental disabilities (MDD) toward greater independence in later years. Although the efficacy of functional skill interventions for adults is established, special educators and other school personnel may require additional tools to meet the needs of young children with SDD. This poster presentation reviews functional skill interventions for young children with severe developmental disabilities in education settings. Studies (n = 15) were evaluated using the What Works Clearinghouse standards. Studies generally involved toileting and provided limited information regarding significance of outcomes and intervention feasibility. In many instances, researchers did not provide evidence of the social significance or generalization of measured outcomes. More high quality research pertaining to a broader range of functional skills is needed. Research further suggests that many practitioners will require guidance in making data-based adaptations to existing interventions in order to succeed with this population. Recommendations for practice will also be presented.
42. Using a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure to Embed Academic Core Content When Teaching an Employment Skill
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MISTY TERRELL (University of North Carolina Charlotte)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: With the growing focus on standards based academic education for students with disabilities, teachers and practitioners need more interventions that allow them to teach critical functional skills and academics at the same time. This investigation used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of using a prompting procedure to teach 4 secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities the employment task of caring for plants in a greenhouse with embedded science core content of photosynthesis as nontargeted information inserted with instructional trials on the task analysis. Following the intervention, all 4 participants achieved criterion on the employment task and increased their knowledge of core science content. Maintenance data indicated students retained both skills for up to 8 weeks following intervention. This study contributes to the growing body of research which demonstrates how teachers can use systematic instruction to teach academic and functional skills in the classroom.
43. An Evaluation of the Preschool Life Skills Programme Within an Irish Preschool Context
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER HOLLOWAY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Many of the risk factors for the development of problem behavior are evident at the preschool stage and indicative of challenges later in development. Such risk factors are increasingly prevalent in the early childhood educational context. The current research evaluated the Preschool Life Skills (PLS; Hanley et al., 2007) program with children in an Irish preschool. This preventative program involved teaching 13 target skills termed preschool life skills, which have been identified as core skills for success in later educational settings and are the most commonly taught functionally equivalent and alternative skills in intervention for problem behavior. Results from between-group and within-group analyses in the current study indicated that the implementation of the program led to an increase in levels of the target preschool life skills and a decrease in levels of problem behavior. Evidence of generalization and maintenance of the acquired skills were also demonstrated. These findings are significant in informing quality in early childhood education including staff training and further development of the PLS program.
44. Teaching Coin Names and Values Using Equivalence Generating Procedures in a Special Education Classroom
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
GINO DOUGLAS BINKERT (George Mason University), Rekha Sharma (George Mason University), Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Prior research has demonstrated emergence of untrained functional relations following training in specific conditional discrimination training procedures, as a function of generalization of conditional stimulus function. We extend this research in the context of instruction delivered in a Special Education classroom by a teacher and two instructional assistants, using commonly available software packages. Students with a variety of disabilities were first taught to select the back of a coin (penny, nickel, dime, quarter), given the front. Next, they were taught to select the name of a coin given the front of the coin. Finally, students were taught to choose a coin's value given the front of the coin. Pretest and posttesting after each training on each relation demonstrated emergence of symmetrical and transitive relations following the respective training. Implications for extension to other types of instruction are discussed.
45. Establishing Equivalence Relations to Teach Geography in a Special Education Classroom
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Gino Douglas Binkert (George Mason University), RAYA MUTTI-ROBERTS (George Mason University), Rekha Sharma (George Mason University), Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
Discussant: Denys Brand (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Mandated educational testing requires that students meet performance standards in United States geography. A Special Education teacher conducted conditional discrimination training procedures delivered by commonly available computer software to teach students to name states, locate states on a map of the United States, and select states given state names. Pretesting showed presence of reflexive relations for all participants. Training in the initial relation resulted in improvement in that relation on posttesting, but no improvements in transitive relations. Data collection continues, with training on the second relation set to begin in the coming week. It is anticipated that we will see both improvements in that relation's performances on the posttest, but emergence of transitive relations, as well. Application of this technology in Social Studies instruction
46. Using the Class Pass Intervention for Children with Disruptive Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Madison Andreu (University of South Florida), Kwang-Sun Blair (University of South Florida), TAYLOR NAROZANICK (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: This study aimed to expand the literature on the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) by targeting elementary school children and to assess its impact on disruptive behavior maintained by attention and academic engagement. The CPI was originally designed for children who engage in escape-motivated problem behavior and who are not responsive to Tier 1 universal supports. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used with 4 children to demonstrate the intervention outcomes. Results indicated that the children’s classroom teachers implemented the CPI with high levels of fidelity during targeted problematic academic time periods, and their implementations were functionally related to the increased academic engagement and decreased disruptive behavior for all 4 children. The intervention effects were maintained after undergoing fading for all children and during 2-week follow-up for 2 children. The results of social validity assessments indicated the children and teachers found the intervention to be acceptable and effective. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
47. Decreasing Off-Task Behavior Using Group Contingencies
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLYN TRUMP (University of Georgia; Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research), Paige McArdle (University of Georgia; Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research), Vickie Floyd (Clarke County School District), Kimberly Ruark (Clarke County School District)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Practitioners developing and implementing interventions within public school settings must account for numerous variables, including teacher buy-in, feasibility, procedural fidelity, and peer-reinforced problem behavior. To address these issues, the authors trained multiple teachers to implement group contingencies during various instructional activities. Specifically, teachers implemented Class-Wide Function Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT). The intervention involved using behavioral skills training to teach students three classroom rules (e.g., ignore inappropriate behavior, get the teacher’s attention appropriately, and follow directions the first time), dividing students into groups, determining an interval, rewarding groups that followed all three rules throughout the interval’s duration, and providing feedback. Eventually, all teachers thinned the reinforcement schedule to more manageable intervals and implemented the group contingency across different activities. Preliminary results, across several primary school classrooms, indicate off-task behavior was reduced during the group contingency, and procedural fidelity averaged above 95% across a minimum of three observations in three separate classrooms.
48. High Probability Request Sequence: A Systematic Review and Practical Illustrations for Success
Area: EDC/PCH; Domain: Applied Research
ERIC COMMON (University of Kansas), Leslie Ann Bross (University of Kansas), Kathleen L. Lane (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: This poster begins with an overview of high probability request sequence (HPRS), an antecedent based intervention grounded in the theory of behavior momentum and principles of applied behavior analysis. The strategy is applied when a learner is presented with two to five easy tasks with a known history of compliance (the high-p requests) followed immediately by a target task which has a history of non-compliance (the low-p request). Increasingly educators face pressure to implement evidence-based practices (Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 2015; Individuals with Disability Education Act, 2004). We describe the construct and conceptualization of evidence-based practice and quality of research standards as operationalized in Council for Exceptional Children's Standards (2014). We present findings from a systematic review of the literature to classify the evidence-base for HPRS as a strategy to improve students academic and behavior outcomes in general and special education settings across the K-12 continuum. We conclude with recommendations for researchers and practitioners to guide future implementation of the HPRS intervention.
49. Tier Two Behavior Support and High Offending Students in a High School Setting: Faculty-student Mentoring
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY EILEEN SINCLAIR (The University of Oklahoma)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Examining School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports at the high school level is gaining momentum. Further studies involving secondary interventions and high school aged students are a necessary component to build a research base. Tier two behavior supports are specifically designed to address problem behaviors in individual students not responding to the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support program. The purpose of this study was to determine if faculty-student mentoring decreased the number of discipline referrals for students that are high offenders. This case study involved four students with disabilities at a rural high school in Tennessee. Baseline data was collected in regards to disciplinary actions. A daily faculty-student mentoring program was implemented with each subject. The number of office discipline referrals was analyzed for any decreases after implementation of the tier two positive behavior support. The results of this study suggest that the tier two intervention of faculty-student mentoring is promising as an effective way to decrease the amount of displayed inappropriate behaviors in high school students who do not respond to the primary support level of school-wide positive behavior programs.
50. Student Perceptions of Fairness Regarding the Procedures of Behavior Support Plans
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Danielle Dumas (SUNY Plattsburgh), PATRICIA EGAN (State University of New York Plattsburgh), William Gaeddert (SUNY Plattsburgh)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Student perceptions of the fairness and effectiveness of individualized positive behavior supports implemented in their classrooms were explored. Seventy-seven participants enrolled in fourth or fifth grade from two elementary schools in rural northern New York were interviewed using a questionnaire provided by Austin, Watson, and Sewell (2013) that was adapted to meet the goals of this study. Qualitative analysis of participant responses suggests students may respond impartially to individualized positive behavior support plans or perceive and accept them as fair.
51. Interdependent Group Contingencies to Decrease Disruptive Behavior in Adolescent Group Therapy Populations
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTEN BROGAN (Auburn University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), John Falligant (Auburn University)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Adolescents who have been adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior may receive treatment that requires attending group therapy sessions and classes. For some adolescents, non-sexual problem behavior (e.g., verbal outbursts, noncompliance) interferes with their ability to participate in group treatment. We used a multiple baseline across groups design with an embedded changing criterion design to evaluated the effects of an interdependent group contingency for decreasing disruptive behavior in adolescents across two different group therapy populations. Results indicated that the procedure was effective in reducing disruptive behavior emitted by adolescents in group therapy. Measures of social validity indicated that both the therapists and students viewed the overall procedures and outcomes as acceptable. Implications for interdependent group contingencies across diverse populations are discussed.
52. Comparison of Three Interdependent Contingencies on Positive Peer Reporting in a General Education Classroom
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KATRINA OSTMEYER (Integrated Behavioral Technologies, Inc.), Kara Koehler (Lansing Elementary School; Integrated Behavioral Technologies, Inc.)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: There are three different types of group-oriented contingencies identified in the behavior analytic literature: independent, dependent, and interdependent (Litow & Pumroy, 1975) with all three shown to be effective in general education settings (Little, Akin-Little, & O'Neill, 2014). Few studies have compared different group-oriented contingencies and their effects on targeted behavior. The current study examined the effect of three different interdependent group-oriented contingencies (a group total, all students writing a minimum number of positive peer reports, and students making novel connections) on positive peer reporting in a third grade classroom. Initial results suggest that the group total leads to a faster rate of overall positive peer reports; however, the writing of peer reports falls on a select few students and many children few if any positive reports from peers. The other contingencies appear to have similar, yet slower, rates of positive peer reporting; however, result in a more even distribution of positive peer reports received and written. Results and discussion explore the pros and cons of each group oriented contingency for increasing positive peer reporting in a general education classroom.
53. Implementing Token Economies With Different Populations
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
MALARIE DEARDORFF (University of Oklahoma )
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to provide practical and effective strategies for implementing token economies within early childhood, primary, and secondary classroom settings. Reinforcing appropriate behaviors has been identified as an evidence-based practice to address maladaptive behavioral concerns in the general and/or special education classrooms. Token economies provide educators with a way to reinforce appropriate behaviors consistently while addressing inappropriate behaviors through consequences of response cost. Token economies are effective for promoting appropriate of preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with and without disabilities. Successful implementation of a token economy is provided through a structured design that identifies target behaviors and addresses the elements of token training, reinforcement menus, and establishing an exchange ratio. Also, reinforcers provided during token economies should be purposefully faded using applied behavior analytic techniques. In addition to social/emotional benefits of using a token economy in the classroom, real-world connections are made through the use of a token-based system.
54. Effects of ActiveExpression 2 on Students' Time On-Task and Rate of Participation
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
John Thomas Lacy (Stephen F. Austin State University), GLEN L. MCCULLER (Stephen F. Austin State University), Ginger L. Kelso (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: In this study, an ABABA reversal research design was used to compare the effects of two modes of student responding, hand-raising and ActivExpression 2, on students time on-task and rate of participation. Participants for this study were 17 third grade students and their teacher from a university affiliated charter school. Results show that ActivExpression 2 increased average rate of participation across all students in comparison to hand-raising; however, average rate of students time on-task remained stable across both experimental conditions. An analysis of these findings is offered in addition to implications for applied practice and future research.
55. A Classroom Assessment System for Non-Academic Behaviors
Area: EDC/DEV; Domain: Theory
LAURILYN DIANNE JONES (The Mechner Foundation/Oslo & Akershus University College), Francis Mechner (The Mechner Foundation)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: For the past four years the Mechner Foundation has been developing a system, including software, to allow classroom teachers to record their students' non-academic behavior. Use of the system requires very little of the teacher's classroom time and accumulates information on students' actual behavior (rather than general evaluations or vague constructs). This information is compiled and communicated to teachers in periodic reports, on the basis of which they can then assign interventions (consisting of modular instructional units) responsive to students' needs. The system has gone through several major redesigns during the years of development and testing. Results from the latest beta test, carried out in three small schools, will be presented. 13 observable non-academic behaviors were rated as either positive, neutral or negative. For ease of access and to make the reports easy to use, the 13 behaviors were grouped into three broad categories: Social Behavior, Self-Management, and Curiosity/Motivation to Achieve. The behavioral recordings included ratings by multiple teachers, most of whom had daily contact with each of the rated students. Teachers could also make notes to accompany each behavioral rating if they desired, and consult those notes later.
56. Academic Procrastination Behavior Related to Self-Report of Academic Behavior
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University), Lexys Sandman (South Dakota State University), Paige Guge (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Sara Razia Jeglum (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Students are faced with choices between spending time on academics or other activities. Academic procrastination often results in poor academic performance. In this study, students completed online activities throughout the semester as part of their course requirements. The amount of time students delayed before completing quizzes and the amount of time students spent engaged in the online activities were recorded. Academic behavior was compared to self-report of academic behavior and prediction of academic behavior by estimation of study times in six scenarios. Students also completed Lays Procrastination Scale. Students scoring low on the Procrastination Scale were most likely to rank academic tasks their highest priority, while students scoring high were most likely to rank leisure activities their highest priority. Students scoring high on the scale self-reported studying more each week for classes that were in their major compared to those scoring as low procrastinators, but less for courses not in their major. Those with high scores also reported studying significantly less for exams and waiting much longer to start studying than students scoring low on the scale. There was not, however, a consistent relationship between procrastination scores and how much time students spent in online activities, how long they waited to take online quizzes, or their predictions of how much time they would spend studying in different situations.



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