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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #457
Monday, May 29, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
EDC
Chair: Christina Simmons (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
59. Use of Electronic and Behavioral Technologies in the Mainstream Classroom
Domain: Applied Research
JAMES BEVACQUA (Florida Tech/The Human Institute)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: An increased focus on the use of electronic technology in mainstream classrooms has established a need for the evaluation of popular educational software. The Plickers tablet application utilizes high response rates, response cards, and immediate feedback. The present study evaluated the use of Plickers in a mainstream middle-school language arts classroom. In Condition A students read fictional stories and took exams on literary analysis. Between exams, the teacher delivered a Plickers lesson that focused on common errors. A control group read the same three stories, received call-and-answer instruction after the first two, and took an exam after the third. Exams scores were higher (t(67) = 4.58, p < 0.001) for students who received the Plickers lesson. In Condition B students read non-fiction texts. The teacher presented a Plickers lesson after the first text. No skill deficits were known. The teacher presented the second and third texts with exams. No statistical difference was shown within this condition. However, scores differed significantly (t(145) = 4.66, p < 0.0001) across conditions. This suggests the increase in exam scores in Condition A is not due to the presentation of a second exam, nor due to the use of Plickers alone. Plickers was most effective when used to increase responding and give immediate feedback on common errors.
 
60. Effect of Video Self-Modeling in A Group Oral Reading Fluency Intervention
Domain: Applied Research
SHENGTIAN WU (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Video Self-Modeling (VSM) was recently utilized as an evidence-based intervention to improve the oral reading fluency of children with reading difficulties. VSM was effective not only as a stand-alone intervention, but a supplemental component in a package of interventions, although only a limited number of studies were found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to examine the supplemental effect of VSM in a group reading fluency intervention with three elementary school children with reading difficulties. Using an alternate single case design, the study compared reading fluency of participants when receiving a group intervention with and without VSM. As consequences, VSM did not further improve reading fluency when added to the group reading fluency intervention.
 
61. A Comprehensive Reading Fluency Intervention for Children with Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
SHENGTIAN WU (Mississippi State University), Matthew Ferrigno (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton-Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Repeated reading is a well-established oral reading fluency intervention for students with varying disabilities (e.g., Welsch, 2007). Repeated reading has been less explored with students with ADHD. Expanding upon a model developed by Allor and Chard (2011), this study further developed and examined an intervention based on a comprehensive reading fluency intervention model using repeated reading for children with ADHD. A multiple baseline design was used across three students. Students were provided with a behavior card and rewards contingent on compliance and academic performance. Direct instruction was provided for error correction on letter sounds, segmentation and blending, word meaning, and teaching of word tense. Reading fluency improved for all students, as evidenced by a large effect size (d =1.54, 1.49, and 1.68, respectively) and in comparison to baseline. Furthermore, an increasing trend was observed across all of the participants’ performances throughout the intervention sessions. Data collection is ongoing.
 
62. Teaching to the Function of Escape During Written Expression Assignments in an Elementary Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN STRANGE (Missouri State University), McKenzie Moreland (Missouri State University ), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The purpose of this applied study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an academic and behavioral intervention package on an elementary-aged student with Autism Spectrum Disorder who exhibited off-task behaviors during written expression assignments in his classroom. A functional behavioral assessment was conducted that consisted of direct observations in his classroom as well as indirect functional behavioral assessments (Alter, Conroy, Mancil & Haydon, 2008) to assist in developing a function-based intervention (Umbreit et al., 2007). Based upon the direct observation of the student's off-task behaviors and the indirect assessments, it appeared that the student engaged in escape behavior during his written expression activities. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to assess the effects of the research-based intervention on the students off-task behaviors. The multi-component strategy included a token economy (Carnett, Raulston, Lang, Tostanoski, Lee, Sigafoo, & Machalicek, 2014), functional communication training (Mancil & Boman, 2010), a writing intervention called POW-TREE (Santangelo, Harris, & Graham, 2007;Graham & Harris, 1993). The student received step-by-step instruction on how to use the POW-TREE strategy and to self-record his responses. His on-task behaviors increased from 54% to 98%; his written expression accuracy increased from 43% to 96% as a result of the multi-component intervention package.
 
63. Acquisition and Generalization of Mathematical Concepts for Students with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNY ROOT (Florida State University), Erica Boccumini (Florida State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Mathematical learning is imperative for having a range of career, leisure, and vocational opportunities. Functional use of mathematical concepts requires applying understanding to a variety of exemplars in academic and natural settings. Generalized responding to mathematical concepts, such as knowing when socks are the same or different or choosing a line that has less people, can improve quality of life and independence. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have extensive support needs require explicit and systematic instruction to acquire and generalize academic concepts. This study extended the work of Hicks et al. (2011) and Celik and Vuran (2014) to examine the effects of Direct Instruction (DI) on acquisition and generalization of mathematical concepts for an elementary student with ASD and extensive support needs. The intervention involved multiple exemplar training across far and near distractors with generalization to natural stimuli. Results showed a functional relation between DI and acquisition of three mathematical concepts (i.e., more, different, and long) and generalization to natural exemplars (i.e., academic and environmental). Results from this study have important implications for teaching academic concepts to students who have extensive support needs.
 
64. Effectiveness of Explicit Sentence and Paragraph Instruction With Frequency Building to Performance Criteria for Middle School Students With Learning and Behavior Problems: A Two-Part Investigation
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN MONROE-PEI (University of Iowa), Shawn M. Datchuk (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Middle school students identified with learning and behavior disabilities often struggle to produce sentences and paragraphs that are clear, coherent, and follow the standard conventions of written expression. There is an ongoing need to examine the efficacy of supplemental instructional methods to improve writing fluency for secondary students who are expected to perform writing tasks during content area learning (e.g., science and social studies). Through a series of studies using single case design (multiple baseline and multiple probe across participants), we are examining the impact of Sentence Instruction (SI), Paragraph Instruction (PI), and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC) on two measures of writing fluency: (1) correct and incorrect word sequences; and (2) complete and incomplete sentences. SI and PI both include explicit instruction (follow-lead-test procedures), along with picture-word prompts. SI emphasizes discrimination between critical parts of a simple sentence (a part that names and a part that tells more), production of syntactically correct simple sentences, and matching subjects with the correct verb form. PI participants use skills mastered during SI to craft and edit connected simple sentences using conventional paragraph format. Following SI and PI, students in the FBPC phase repeatedly write sentences or paragraphs during timed trials. After each trial, the instructor scores the students writing and gives supportive and/or corrective feedback. Then, students have up to two additional chances to improve their scores. The FBPC phase concludes when students have met individualized performance criteria determined by scores on screening measures. For the dependent measures, students write sentences or paragraphs during a 1-3 minute exercise using picture-word prompts at the end of each SI, PI, and FBPC session. After intervention has concluded we will collect maintenance data. Data collection started in September, 2016 and will continue through May, 2017. As of October, 2016, all three SI students have shown improvement in two measures of writing fluency; it appears that there is a functional relation between the instructional procedures and the number of correct word sequences and complete sentences written for the first three participants receiving intervention.
 
65. A Comparison of Reinforcement Topographies on Academic Achievement Using Cover, Copy, Compare
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARGARET BERNHEIM (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Cover, Copy, Compare (CCC) has been well-established throughout research as an efficient academic intervention used to improve accuracy, fluency, and maintenance across multiple types of students, settings, and academic subjects. To date, however, little research has looked at the effects of changing reinforcement topographies on the academic achievement results of CCC. In the present study, an alternating treatments design was used with CCC to compare the effects of four different reinforcement conditions on the multiplication skills of a sixth-grade male with Moebius Syndrome and Duane Syndrome. The participant was randomly exposed to: a trial-based reward condition with a minimum standard required (TBwMS), a trial-based reward condition without a minimum standard required (TBwoMS), a problem-based reward condition with a minimum standard required (PBwMS), and a problem-based reward condition without a minimum standard required (PBwoMS). Preliminary data indicate that both problem based reward conditions (with and without a minimum standard required) were more effective than the trial based reward conditions. The researcher plans to continue gathering data with the participant in all four conditions.
 
66. Masked Functions of Severe Self-Injury With and Without Restraint
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROSE NEVILL (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Ohio State University), Molly K Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Thomas Banz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Catherine Maruska (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine)
Discussant: Melinda Robison (Child Study Center)
Abstract: The current study presents data from functional analyses of patients in an inpatient pediatric unit for children with developmental disabilities and severe behavior problems which support the existence of masked functions. Masked functions of SIB have previously been reported in select studies (McKerchar, Kahng, Casioppo, & Wilson, 2001; Contrucci Kuhn & Triggs, 2009), defined as multiply-maintained behavior with functions varying dependent on whether protective equipment is applied. Data are presented from retrospective chart reviews of children (n = 5) admitted to an inpatient pediatric hospital unit for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Functional analyses were conducted with each patient using either a multi-element or paired stimulus format to identify the function of SIB. For the majority of patients, SIB was automatically maintained with all equipment removed, but served primarily an attention function when protective equipment was applied. Functional analysis data and common effective treatment components written into treatment plans across patients will be presented to further inform understanding of effective assessment and intervention components for SIB with masked functions.
 
67. An Evaluation of a Reinforcer-Validation Procedure for Increasing Writing in a Second-Grade Student
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE HOFF (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Nicole C Bricko (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Nathan Speer (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Cassandra Renee Dietrich (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Pooja Parikh (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: When students fail to complete instructional exercises in the classroom, differential reinforcement (DRA) is the treatment of choice. This study examined a direct method for testing preference by offering a choice of multiple consequences for meeting a criterion on an assigned instructional task. To examine this reinforcer-validation procedure, a 2nd-grade male was given the choice between four activities as consequences for increasing the number of words written during a writing task. He was told that if he met a criterion to be revealed after the exercise, he would have brief access to the chosen activity. Multiple sessions were conducted with the previously chosen item(s) removed from subsequent sessions. The student’s performance increased in all sessions. The chosen activities were then used as a part of a DRA treatment package in the general education classroom during a time devoted to writing exercises. Results were measured as number of words written and active engagement (based on direct observations). Responding increased in both areas relative to a baseline. Results suggest that more direct tests of reinforcer efficacy can be conducted through a reinforcer-validation like the one conducted in this study, and will be discussed accordingly.
 
68. The Effect of a Behavioral Coaching Intervention on Faculty Adoption of Technology-Enhanced Teaching Practices
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE DOMONCHUK (Lambton College)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: College faculty members face increased pressure to incorporate technology into their teaching approach. Without the support of comprehensive professional development, it is unlikely that instructors will adopt practices that enhance student outcomes. To date, researchers have explored various approaches to faculty professional development, some of which have been related to the adoption of technology-enhanced teaching. A common limitation to these studies has been their reliance on self-report and delayed reflection to evaluate changes in practice. In response to these findings, a behavioral coaching intervention that included direct observation of classroom teaching sessions was developed to support faculty adoption of technology-enhanced teaching practices. This poster will describe the effect of a modified behavioral skills training intervention implemented with a small group (n=6) of college faculty members. The intervention incorporated goal setting, instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and performance feedback. Results indicate that the intervention was successful as all participants adopted new teaching approaches and expressed satisfaction with the intervention. This suggests that behavioral coaching may be an effective approach for professional development within higher education.
 
69. Increasing Reading Fluency Using a Reading Mastery Intervention for General Education Students
Domain: Applied Research
DEREK JACOB SHANMAN (Nicholls State University), Haley Keller (Nicholls State University)
Discussant: Tyler Erath (University of Kansas)
Abstract: In this study we tested the effects of a Reading Mastery intervention on Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores in three general education grades. The participants in this study were students who were identified as needing intensive intervention by the DIBELS curriculum based measurement at the beginning of the school year. A group within subjects design was used to test the effects of the intervention. The results were compared to a pre-test post-test of those not receiving intervention. Sixty-two participants across three grade levels were given the Reading Mastery intervention. While the intervention is ongoing, the results so far demonstrate that Reading Mastery is having an effect on DIBELS progress monitoring scores at a rate greater than that of those students identified as needing intensive intervention who are not receiving the Reading Mastery intervention. Additionally, gains are equal to that of those identified as not needing intervention. Outcomes, limitations, and future research will be discussed.
 
70. Assessing the Effects of Corrective Reading Decoding Level A with a Fourth-Grade Student with a Specific Learning Disability
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA MICHAEL PULOS (The University of Oklahoma), Nancy Marchand-Martella (University of Oklahoma), Margaret Johnson (The University of Oklahoma)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Promoting college and career readiness is predicated on a strong foundation of literacy skills; students who lack decoding skills cannot navigate text and are hindered in their comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Direct Instruction program, Corrective Reading Decoding Level A. This case study involved a fourth-grade student diagnosed with a specific learning disability in reading. Over the course of 16 weeks, a graduate student in special education conducted one-on-one decoding-based lessons using the program; fidelity checks were completed every 10 lessons. Pre- and post-data were gathered using CORE Phonics Survey and Corrective Reading Decoding Placement Test along with in-program formative assessments. Anecdotal data on the student’s performance in school were provided by the student’s mother. Results revealed post-test improvements in decoding skills and positive academic performance changes in the classroom. Implications for both practice and future research will be addressed in relation to Corrective Reading.
 
71. Developing A Disseminable Technology for Teaching Automaticity in Word Recognition: A Case Study.
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL CUMMINGS (The University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: A child has achieved automaticity in individual-word reading when words are read accurately, rapidly, and effortlessly. The participant in the current study was a typically developing 7-year-old boy who read consonant-vowel-consonant words with high accuracy, but not rapidly. When presented individual words, his latencies were approximately 4s, because he produced word components before producing a whole word (e.g. b….at…bat). To shape more rapid responding, we used a combination of instructions and a Changing Criterion design, in which the number of seconds he was given to produce an accurate, whole-word response was systematically decreased. We used PowerPointTM to develop teaching sessions that presented single words that disappeared after a designated number of seconds. The number of seconds was decreased contingent on accuracy. Results showed our training was successful in decreasing his latency to approximately 1s. He also showed generalization by rapidly reading words that had not been involved in automaticity training. Because of the precise timing involved, these procedures would be very difficult to implement without automation, and PowerPointTM is a readily available means of doing so. Thus this study expands the literature by demonstrating disseminable procedures to solve a problem that is common among struggling readers.
 
72. Evaluating the Use of Brief Experimental Analyses of Writing Interventions with Elementary Students
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Sarah A. Law (Stephen F. Austin State University), GLEN L. MCCULLER (Stephen F. Austin State University), Ginger L. Kelso (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of a brief experimental analysis (BEA) in predicting elementary student’s responses to extended writing interventions and to determine if writing interventions combined with contingent rewards were more effective than instructional interventions alone. An ABCDEF changing conditions design was used during the BEA to compare the effects of a graphic organizer, re-writing, a proofreading prompt checklist, and contingent reward on the percentage of correct writing sequences and total words written during three-minute timed writing sessions. Following the BEA, an extended intervention employed an ABCBC reversal design during which the most effective intervention identified during the BEA was compared with and without the addition of contingent reward. Four 4th-grade students from a university affiliated charter school participated in the study. Results indicated that no superior writing intervention emerged for any participants during the BEA, although all participants demonstrated improved writing performance at the completion of the study. Two of the four participants demonstrated improved performance when contingent reward was combined with the most effective instructional strategy during the extended intervention. An analysis of these findings is offered in addition to implications for applied practice and future research.
 
73. Implementation of a Multi-Component Intervention to Decrease Escape/Attention Motivated Behavior During an Academic Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Katelyn Harting (Missouri State University), DYLAN MYERS (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: A Functional Behavior Assessment was conducted in an elementary school site with an 11-year-old student diagnosed with learning and attention problems. This study employed an ABAB withdrawal design. The student engaged in off-task behaviors during math instructional time. The function of the student's behavior was hypothesized to be escape motivated and maintained by adult attention. During baseline, the student was observed to be off-task on an average of 81% of the time during his math sessions. In conjunction with direct classroom observations, indirect assessments were also completed on the students. Indirect assessments include the following: Motivation Assessment Scale (Durand & Crimmins,1988), Problem Behavior Questionnaire (Lewis, Scott, and Sugai,1994), Student Assisted Functional Assessment Interview (Kern, Dunlap, Clarke, Childs, 1994), and a Reinforcement Inventory Questionnaire (Cautela & Brion-Meisels, 1979). A multi-component intervention that included a token economy (Carnett, Raulston, Lang, Tostanoski, Lee, Sigafoos, & Machalicek, 2014), functional communication training (Wacker et al., 2012), and self-monitoring (Maggin, Robertson, Oliver, Hollo, & Moore Partin, 2010) was implemented to teach to the dual function of escape and attention. His on-task behavior during baseline was 19% and increased to 96.4% during treatment phases.
 
74. Embedding Trial-Based Functional Analysis Within a Continuum of Assessment in Preschool Settings
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE BADGETT (University of Washington), Scott A. Spaulding (University of Washington)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) is well-suited for identifying the function of problem behavior in general education classrooms. Although research supports the use of TBFA by teachers following minimal training, less clarity exists for when TBFA is most appropriate, who should conduct these analyses, and how to address inconclusive results. We conducted four functional behavior assessments in an inclusive, university-based preschool. Students were 4- and 5-years old, had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, and varied in communicative abilities. Educators, whose training ranged from novice instructional assistants to teachers with 8-years of experience, implemented the TBFAs. The assessment procedures for each student varied based on ability to determine a functional relation between problem behavior and environmental condition and clarity of intervention results. Assessment components included TBFA, traditional functional analyses, descriptive assessment, simple schedule arrangement, and latency and demand analyses. Intervention procedures used bug-in-ear and direct coaching of educators. Results showed a clear functional relation for a single condition for each student. However, for some students, initial results from the TBFA required clarification through secondary analysis of conditions (e.g., latency analysis, demand analysis). Our findings suggest that while useful in building interventions, closer analysis and synthesis of some TBFA conditions may be necessary.
 
75. Evaluation of Behavioral Packages Including Functional Communication Training to Reduce Refusal Behavior and Increase Access to Vocational Programming for Students With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LOUIS LEIBOWITZ (Ivymount School & Programs), Lauren Lestremau (Ivymount School & Programs), Brittany Frey (Ivymount School & Programs)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Access to hands on vocational training experience including career sampling and exploration both in school and community settings is critical for individuals with developmental disabilities in preparation for the transition to adulthood. Refusal behavior occasioned by novel or non-preferred vocational activities (e.g., working in the absence of a peer, lunch at community sites) and maintained by avoidance serves as a barrier to accessing meaningful community vocational training for individuals with disabilities. Without appropriate training for individuals with developmental disabilities, long term employment outcomes are negatively impacted. This study evaluates two behavioral packages including functional communication and tolerance training in order to reduce refusal behaviors that interfered with access to vocational programming for two high school students with developmental disabilities, when universal behavior support procedures were ineffective. Both participants have a history of anxiety that resulted in school refusal on days when triggering antecedent tasks or activities were scheduled. Results showed that functional communication and tolerance training were effective in reducing refusal behaviors maintained by avoidance. These results are particularly meaningful given the limited research on problem behavior as it relates to vocational training programs and the long term impacts of student failure to access vocational training in adolescence.
 
76. Influence of Recording Sheet on Reactivity in Self-Monitoring for Student with Autism in Regular Classroom
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KEN HANDA (National Institute of Special Needs Education), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: The present study examines the influence of a recording sheet on reactivity in self-monitoring for a student with autism spectrum disorders in a regular classroom. Both a multiple-baseline-across-settings design and an alternating-treatments design were used. Assessment information of target behaviors was gathered through an interview with the class teacher and through observation in the classroom setting. The selected target behaviors were (a) listening to the teacher with head raised and (b) listening to the teacher without touching stationaries. The influence of the recording sheet on reactivity in self-monitoring was assessed in classes of Japanese and mathematics, under the following three conditions. First, the recording sheet was placed on the upper left-hand corner of the participant’s desk (on-desk). Second, the recording sheet was placed inside the participant’s desk (inside-desk). Third, the target behaviors were explained to the participant by the instructor before the class (instruction). The effects of each of the three conditions were then measured by behavioral observation in class. Because of the assessment, the on-desk conditions were chosen for the subsequent intervention as these conditions caused the most significant improvement in the participant’s behaviors. Following the intervention, the participant’s behavior was found to have improved.
 
77. Feasibility of Evidence-Based Practices in Schools: Recommendations for Behavior Analysts Conducting Applied Research
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
COLLIN SHEPLEY (University of Kentucky), Sally Bereznak Shepley (University of Kentucky), Justin Lane (University of Kentucky )
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Public school teachers are mandated by federal law to use research and evidence-based practices with students; however, a gap between research and practice exists in the field of education. Although bridging the gap is a complex process, ensuring prescribed practices are feasible for teachers and staff is critical for ensuring successful implementation. In this poster we will promote discussion about the importance of ecological validity (i.e., the feasibility of implementing a practice under “real world” conditions) and how behavior analysts can contribute to research in this area.
 
78. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Functional Behavior Assessment-based Interventions: A Systematic Review
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
YUNJI JEONG (University of New Mexico), Susan Copeland (University of New Mexico)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: This review examined the quality of studies comparing effects of functional behavior assessment-based interventions (FBAIs) and non-functional behavior assessment-based interventions (NFBAIs) and identified methodological implications for strengthening future research in this area. I identified twenty peer-reviewed studies (i.e., 18 single case studies, a study using both a single case and a group design, and a group study) that implemented functional behavior assessments and compared the effects of FBAIs and NFBAIs. While the 18 studies using a single case design (SCD) reported relative effectiveness of FBAIs over NFBAIs, the remaining two studies showed no significant difference between the effects of the interventions. One of the SCD studies met all of the Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research (Horner et al., 2005) with one participant. Three studies met the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCDs (Kratochwill et al., 2010) including one case of strong evidence and six cases of moderate evidence. The application of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education (Cook et al., 2014) suggested that one study using a SCD was a methodologically sound study, but none of the group studies was evaluated as a methodologically sound study. Taken together, this review indicated that majority of reviewed studies reported the relative effectiveness of FBAIs over NFBAIs, but had some methodologically weak points. Future researchers using a SCD should measure procedural fidelity and rigorous inter-observer agreement and specify intervention agents' backgrounds and training or qualification. Future group studies need to provide operational definitions of target behaviors, contexts of interventions, and specific procedures of interventions.
 
79. The Effects of an Observational Intervention on Conditioning Mathematics as a Reinforcer for Performance and Learning Objectives in a Fifth Grade AIL Classroom
Domain: Applied Research
COLLEEN CUMISKEY MOORE (Teachers College, Columbia University), Rachel Cunningham (Teachers College, Columbia University), Brittany Chiasson (Teachers College, Columbia University )
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: We analyzed the effects of an observational conditioning procedure on the number of learn units to objective (LtO) in mathematics. We used a delayed multiple probe across participants design with 3 typically developing fifth-grade students. Five dependent variables were measured: 1) the number of learn units to meet a math learning objective, 2) the number of learn units to meet a non-math learning objective, 3) the rate of a performance math task, 4) the rate of an ELA transcription performance task, and 5) a selection response for either a performance or a learning math task. The independent variable was the implementation of an observational intervention, where participants observed peers learning math objectives for a duration of 20 minutes; participants were then provided with an opportunity to complete the same objectives independently. Results indicated that there was a functional relation between the intervention and the dependent variables for Participant A. The study will be continued with Participants B and C.
 
80. Assessingand Prompting Philosophical Reasoning Wth Children
Area: PCH; Domain: Applied Research
MAKENSEY SANDERS (University of Mississippi), Stephanie Miller (University of Mississippi), Steven Skultety (University of Mississippi), Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
Discussant: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: There is some debate in academic philosophy of whether children can or should be encouraged to engage in philosophical discussions. Kitchener (1990) asserts that due to cognitive limitations, children under the age of 10 cannot think philosophically. Murris (2000) challenges Kitchener's arguments and concludes that more research is needed. Development psychologists suggest that children between the ages of 7 and 10 show individual differences in development of executive function relating to conscious control that may influence abstract thought (Zelazo et al., 1997). The present study assessed undergraduates’ and primary school children’s ability to answer philosophical questions in relation to a child-friendly story. We examined the relationships between age, scores on executive function tests, and level of engagement with philosophical questions. Additionally, we examined the effects of using questions related to issues of conformity and morality to prompt discussion by children. Further, we examined the impact of these discussions on the primary school children’s’ likelihood of conforming when presented a conformity task.
 

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