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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Symposium #80A
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research on Assessing and Increasing Compliance Among Children
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4C/D
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.
Chair: Hallie Marie Ertel (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Four studies examining compliance among children with autism or related intellectual disabilities will be described. The first study examined the effects of the topography of high-probability instructions during the high-probability instructional sequence. The results suggested that the topography of the high-p instruction had no effect on compliance. The second study examined the effects of teaching verbal-mediating responses (echoic rehearsals) on the acquisition and generalization of following novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., �Take out book; Put the cup on the table�). The third study examined whether a concurrent-operant assessment would predict responding in a single-operant assessment in which opposing values of high- and low-preferred parameters were manipulated. Results suggest that low-preferred parameters of reinforcement and response effort can still maintain responding of children with ID in an academic setting, and suggest that clinicians may have flexibility in selecting reinforcement parameters. The fourth study examined the use of a functional analysis and function-based treatment to increase compliance during outings among two children with autism.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): compliance, echoic responding, high-probability instructions, preference
The Effects of High-p and Low-p Instruction Similarity on Compliance Among Young Children
HALLIE MARIE ERTEL (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua Lipschultz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence involves the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It is a commonly used procedure for treating noncompliance in a variety of populations. It is possible that matching the topography of the high-p instructions with the topography of the low-p instructions in the sequence may lead to greater increases in compliance with the low-p instructions. The current study examined the high-p instructional sequence with both similar and dissimilar high-p instructions on two topographies of low-p instructions (motor and vocal) among two young children. Results suggested that the topography of high-p instructions did not have an effect on the levels of compliance for either participant. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed.
Teaching Echoic Rehearsal to Establish First-Trial Performance in Completing Two-Step Instructions
MEGAN E VOSTERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Given that one goal of early intensive behavior intervention is to prepare children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to be effective in inclusive educational environments, teaching them how to follow multistep instructions is in line with this goal. Three children diagnosed with an ASD between the ages of four and six participated. We are using a multiple baseline design across children to evaluate the effects of teaching verbal-mediating responses (echoic rehearsals) on the acquisition and generalization of following novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., “Take out book; Put the cup on the table”). After we observed low levels of instruction following in baseline, we taught children to engage in echoic rehearsals (repeat the instruction aloud). We are gradually increasing the delays and complexity of our instructions to simulate the time associated with searching for objects in a room when completing two-step instructions. After instruction with a teacher, we are assessing generalization across setting and people, including the children’s caregivers. Implications for designing early intervention programming for instruction following using a conceptual analysis of joint control is discussed.
An Evaluation of Relative and Absolute Effects of Multiple Reinforcement Parameters and Response Effort
ERICA LOZY (University of Maryland Baltimore County), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Treatments to reduce problem behavior and increase skill acquisition often emphasize the use of highly preferred qualities of reinforcement, typically identified via concurrent-operant arrangements. Although preference for particular reinforcement parameters is possible, relative preference may not accurately predict absolute reinforcing efficacy of those same parameters. In this study, a concurrent-operant assessment was used to assess preference for different parameters of reinforcement for children with ID. Subsequently, a single-operant assessment was conducted to identify the absolute effects of high- and low-preferred reinforcer parameters. Participants displayed a preference for one parameter during the concurrent-operant arrangement; however, high- and low-preferred reinforcer parameters and response effort had similar absolute reinforcing efficacy during the single-operant arrangement. This study replicated and extended the procedures used by Neef et al. (2005) to determine whether a concurrent-operant assessment would predict responding in a single-operant assessment in which opposing values of high- and low-preferred parameters were manipulated. Results suggest that low-preferred parameters of reinforcement and response effort can still maintain responding of children with ID in an academic setting, and suggest that clinicians may have flexibility in selecting reinforcement parameters. This might be especially important in cases in which it is not feasible to deliver highly preferred parameters.
The Assessment and Treatment of Aggression and Elopement Occurring During Public Outings
PATRICK ROMANI (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus), Jennifer Peasley (Children's Hospital Colorado), Antoinette Donaldson (Children's Hospital Colorado), Abigail Ager (Children's Hospital Colorado), Shana Garden (Children's Hospital Colorado)
Abstract: We present data from two children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in aggression and elopement during public outings to stores. Interobserver agreement was collected on an average of 46% of sessions for each child and averaged 93.8%. Each child’s evaluation was conducted within an ABAB reversal design. We first interviewed each child’s parent to develop functional hypotheses for their child’s problem behaviors within this context. Maintenance by tangible reinforcement was hypothesized for each child. We then conducted a functional analysis in either the hospital gift shop (Child 1) or the hospital cafeteria (Child 2). For both children, the test condition consisted of delivering contingent access to a preferred item (e.g., candy). Control conditions for both children permitted continuous access to preferred activities outside of the public setting. Following each child’s functional analysis, we conducted a differential reinforcement of compliance treatment program. Results for both children showed elevated rates of problem behavior and moderate levels of compliance during the functional analysis. Problem behaviors decreased upon introduction of treatment, which was correlated with an increase in compliance for both children. These data will be discussed in terms of strategies to increase compliance with parent requests during public outings.
 

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