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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #65
Saturday, May 27, 2017
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall D
DDA
Chair: Eric Boelter (Seattle Children's Autism Center)
122. An Evaluation of Automatically Maintained Self-Injury Mediated by Level of Arousal
Domain: Applied Research
STEPHEN E. RYAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John M. Huete (Kennedy Krieger Institute), George Papuchis (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Many researchers define self-injurious behavior (SIB) as any behavior that results in tissue damage to one's own body. The majority of individuals who engage in SIB do so for social consequences, but a subset of this population engages in these behaviors to access automatic reinforcement. Behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are hypothesized to produce their own reinforcement independent of social consequences. One area that has received little study is how arousal level may affect the frequency of SIB. This case study examined the role of arousal level in predicting SIB frequency by manipulating the intensity of play to which the child was exposed. Silas was a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with severe intellectual disability who was evaluated within a severe behavior outpatient clinic. Upon admission, his topographies of SIB included hand-biting and arm-slapping. A functional analysis of SIB produced undifferentiated results, but parent report indicated that self-injury was likely to occur when Silas was highly aroused. Three antecedent conditions were probed in the assessment: high-intensity attention, low-intensity attention, and ignore. Hand-biting was shown to differentially occur at high frequencies during high-intensity attention, while arm-slapping occurred frequently during the ignore condition. Treatment data and implications are discussed.
 
123. Assessment and Treatment of Inappropriate Behaviors Related to Fecal Matter with Two Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
Noor Javed (Kennedy Krieger Institute and University of Maryland, Baltimore County ), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joshua Jessel (Child Study Center), Ainsley Thompson (Continuum Autism Spectrum Alliance), MWUESE NGUR (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kaitlin Hendrickx (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Fecal play involves touching, ingesting, and/or smearing of feces on one’s own body, on another’s body, or on surfaces. In addition to hygienic concerns, fecal play is socially stigmatizing for individuals who engage in it and challenging for caretakers. The vast majority of research related to fecal play has been conducted with individuals diagnosed with dementia, and the pervasiveness of this problem for those diagnosed with other disorders such as autism spectrum disorders is unknown (Case & Konstantareas, 2011). This study summarizes functional analyses results of a precursor behavior to fecal play, attempts to touch rectum/vagina (ATR), for two females (aged 18 and 19 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe intellectual disability. For one participant, a protective clothing analysis was also conducted so as to identify the least restrictive garment necessary to effectively block ATR. Results suggested that for both participants, ATR was maintained, at least in part, by social consequences including escape from aversive stimuli and access to social attention. For one participant it was also found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. ATR was successfully treated through the use of functional communication and protective clothing.
 
124. Saving the Best for Last: Effects of and Preference for Improving Sequences of Outcomes
Domain: Applied Research
AMY KATE ROSENBLUM (University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Kennedy Krieger Institute), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Some individuals may demonstrate a preference for patterns of outcomes that improve over time, a concept referred to as “saving the best for last.” Basic research has shown that human adults prefer to postpone their more preferred outcomes relative to their less preferred outcomes (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1993). Although this research has never been extended to an applied context, it seems particularly relevant to children exhibiting severe food selectivity who may be sensitive to patterns in which preferred and nonpreferred foods are delivered. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of and preference for “saving the best for last” among individuals with pediatric feeding disorders. Participants were exposed to sequences of bite preference that improved, worsened, or remain fixed across a meal, and the effects of these sequences on mealtime behavior were measured. Subsequently, participants made choices between each of the bite sequences to determine preference for “saving the best for last.”
 
125. Effects of Teaching Turn-Taking Games on Social Behaviors of Children with and without Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY MATTER (Texas Tech University), Katie Wiskow (California State University, Stanislaus), Jeanne M. Donaldson (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: We measured the indirect effects of teaching three children ages 4 to 6 years old with varying diagnoses and one typically developing 7-year-old child to play turn-taking games on the levels of appropriate collateral social behaviors (e.g., commenting, social praise) and inappropriate collateral social behaviors (e.g., name calling, aggression). We used a multiple baseline design across two games and participant dyads to evaluate the effects of a training package on correct game play and generalization of correct game play to a similar game. On average, three participants engaged in higher levels of appropriate social behaviors and two participants engaged lower levels of inappropriate social behaviors during post-training sessions compared to baseline sessions for at least one of the two games. Additionally, both dyads required fewer teaching trials to learn the second game. The results of this study suggest that teaching children with varying diagnoses to play turn-taking games may increase appropriate and decrease inappropriate social behaviors during game play.
 
126. Preliminary Evaluation of an Indirect Assessment of Sensitivity to Aversive Stimuli
Domain: Applied Research
MARIAH HOPE (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Christina DeLapp (University of North Texas)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Aversive stimuli are commonly encountered in the everyday routines of most individuals. For individuals with intellectual disabilities, a means to assess individual sensitivities to aversive stimuli could allow caregivers to avoid unnecessary contact with aversive stimuli, teach appropriate ways to avoid or escape aversive situations, and condition tolerance to unavoidable aversive stimuli. The current study, conducted at a large, state-operated residential facility for adults with intellectual disabilities, used an anecdotal assessment, the Sensitivity to Aversive Stimuli Survey (SASS), to evaluate the relative aversiveness of an array of commonly encountered stimuli for each participant. Five caregivers completed the 25-question assessment, using Likert-type scales to rate individual participants’ affect, compliance or tolerance, and severity of problem behavior related to each stimulus. The mean scores of the raters were used to estimate the aversiveness of each stimulus. The outcomes from the SASS were then compared with outcomes of an experimental analysis in which participants could emit responses to escape stimuli that were ranked either high or low using the SASS. Relative aversiveness was evaluated by comparing the percentage of trials with escape behavior and duration of exposure for each stimulus. Preliminary results indicate that the SASS may be useful in identifying aversive stimuli.
 
127. Effects of Differential Consequences on Preference Assessment Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TABITHA COLLINS (New England Center for Children), Richard B. Graff (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Paired stimulus preference assessments were conducted with 2 children with developmental disabilities and one typical toddler. Two tangible (A), extinction (tangible without access; B), and tangible with intermittent access (C) assessments were conducted with participants. During tangible assessments (A), participants consumed the selected item, whereas during the extinction assessments (B) they did not consume the selected item. During the tangible with intermittent access assessments (C), participants were allowed to consume the selected item on a variable ratio (VR) 2 schedule. If the hierarchy established using a VR-2 schedule was similar to the tangible assessment, additional tangible with intermittent access assessments were conducted, using progressively increasing schedules (VR-4, VR-8, VR-16, etc.). For 1 participant, the tangible and tangible without access yielded similar preference hierarchies. For the other 2 participants, the tangible assessment yielded the same hierarchy as the tangible with intermittent access assessment using a VR-8 schedule. Reinforcer assessments verified that the items identified as highly preferred functioned as reinforcers. Interobserver agreement (IOA) data were collected in a mean of 48% of preference assessment trials across participants, and 100% of reinforcer assessment sessions. Mean IOA was 97% for preference assessments and 100% for reinforcer assessments.
 
128. The Effects of Functional Communication Training and a Contingent Reward System on Aberrant Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA RILEY (Gonzaga University), mary Rose (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) as well as contingent reward systems have been implemented in order to decrease problematic behaviors while increasing desirable behaviors in school, community, and home settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing FCT along with a contingent reward system aberrant behavior and the ability to attend to a non-preferred task. The participants were 2 children, one of whom was diagnosed with autism and the other had a diagnosis of developmental delay. All sessions were 5 minutes in length, and were conducted in either the home or the school. The social significance of this study was imperative since both children struggled with sitting and attending to classroom instruction and homework without engaging in disruptive behavior. Interobserver agreement was assessed for 98% of sessions and averaged 94.5%. A brief functional analysis was conducted within a multi-element design and problem behavior was maintained by escape, attention, and tangible conditions between the two participants. A multi-element, multiple baseline across conditions with a reversal intervention package was implemented. Access to either breaks, attention, and/or tangible items was granted to the participants contingent upon touching an FCT card. An edible contingent reward was presented to Thor contingent upon completing a homework sheet. Results indicated that when FCT was implemented with a contingent reward system for both participants, problematic behaviors decreased to near-zero while desirable behaviors steadily increased. Both children demonstrated an ability to increase their fixed ratio rate of reinforcement and/or generalize the use of FCT and contingent reward to family members.
 
129. Evaluating a Procedure for Vocal Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA FIRESTONE (The Shafer Center), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Diana Socie (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is an empirically supported treatment for severe problem behavior. Several aspects of mand topographies (e.g., response effort) that impact the efficacy of FCT have been examined. The selection of vocal mands for FCT may be more socially acceptable than the selection of non-vocal mands because of their likelihood to be recognized and reinforced by others in the verbal community. Despite the reasons for selecting vocal mands for FCT, non-vocal mands are often selected. Research on FCT with vocal mands is scarce and an empirically validated procedure is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a FCT procedure that incorporated a least-to-most prompting sequence, a prompt delay, and differential magnitudes of reinforcement across prompt levels on the rate of acquisition of vocal mands and reduction of problem behavior. Participants were three children with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior. For all three participants, independent vocal mands were acquired rapidly during training, mands were fluently emitted during posttraining, and problem behavior was quickly eliminated. These results suggest the vocal FCT procedure may be effective at producing independent vocal mands in a relative short amount of time.
 
130. The Effects of Motor Group Training on Physical Activity and Prosocial Behaviors in Three Students with Developmental Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ADELE CARPITELLI (Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia; Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente; Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento TICE), Valentina Petrini (Centro di Ricerca ed Apprendimento Allenamente)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a motor group training, implemented through Constant Time Delay (Doyle, Wolery, Ault & Gast, 1988; Mueller, Palkovic & Maynard, 2007) and Task Analysis (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007), on the increase of levels of physical activity (Larson, Normand, Morley & Hustyi, 2014; McIver, Brown, Pfeiffer, Dowda & Pate, 2009) and rate of prosocial behavior (Caprara & Bonino, 2006; Greer & Ross, 2008) in 3 students with developmental disability. Participant A was a 3 years old boy with autism and his level of verbal behavior was pre listener (Greer & Ross, 2008). Participant B was a 4 years old boy with a motor development disorder; his level of verbal development was emergent listener - emergent speaker. Participant C was a 5 years old boy with autism and his level of verbal behavior was listener - emergent speaker. For the experiment was conducted a multiple probe design across subjects. The dependent variables were the levels of physical activity and the rate of prosocial behaviors (i.e., primitive forms of communication, eye contact, physical contact with other students, verbal communication) issued by the students during the pre and post-probe sessions. The independent variables were the Constant Time Delay procedures used to teach motor activities (i.e., jump, balance, walking and fine motor activities) broken down by Task Analysis and taught with Total Task Chaining. The procedure used was effective in increasing levels of moderate and fast physical activity more in one of the three students; it was also possible to note in all participants an increasing rate of prosocial behaviors issued in the post probe.
 
131. Analysis and Treatment of Self-injurious Behavior Occurring Within an Academic Context
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Anthony Concepcion (Kennedy Krieger Institute), PAIGE TALHELM (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Catalina Rey (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: For a 12-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorders and with severe problem behavior in the form of self-injury and aggression, small toy figurines held between his fingers served to decrease problem behavior and their removal resulted in high levels of problem behavior. An analog functional analysis demonstrated that access to the toys maintained problem behavior. Unfortunately, the toys interfered with completing tasks. Efforts to fade the toys or keep them nearby failed to reduce problem behavior. Thus, extinction in the form of complete toy removal during tasks was implemented and eventually, there were reductions in problem behavior and increases in task compliance. This study demonstrates procedures used to isolate variables maintaining problem behavior during an academic context and subsequent intervention strategy used to safely decrease self-injurious behavior while maintaining high rates of compliance with academic tasks in the absence of toys. Given the severity of behavior, once the behavior was decreased, a reversal back to baseline was deemed clinically risky.
 
132. An Evaluation of Differential Reinforcement and IRT Fading to Increase Compliance with Vocational Demands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDER AREVALO (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kaitlin Hendrickx (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Clare Liddon (Kennedy Krieger Institute; John Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute; John Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: An adult female was admitted to our inpatient facility for the treatment of severe problem behavior. A functional analysis was conducted and demonstrated problem behavior to be maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands, particularly vocational demands. In addition, while at times she would attempt to complete tasks, she was often extremely slow to comply. In many settings, it can be difficult to use physical prompting or escape extinction. Thus, slow responding or no responding often goes without any consequences or follow through. In the current study, we evaluated the use of differential reinforcement with the goal of increasing compliance while decreasing interresponse time (IRT) between demand presentations to decrease problem behavior. The participant engaged in high levels of compliance and low rates of problem behavior during the intervention relative to baseline. Results suggest reinforcing decreased IRT between tasks is an effective method to increase compliance.
 
133. A Non-Medication Based Treatment Proposal For Individuals Diagnosed With A Tic Disorder
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
DYLAN PALMER (JRC)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a treatment package consisting of self-evaluation paired with a personalized token economy system on improving performance during a counseling session and reducing tics, with an individual diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Tourette’s syndrome. The study evaluated the effects of a treatment package on the following behaviors during counseling sessions 1) Appropriate Voice; 2) Tolerating Changes During The Session; 3) Staying On Topic During A Conversation; 4) Calm Body During The Session; 5) Total Matches On Self Report. Directly following each counseling session, the client was given an opportunity to complete a Self-and-Match worksheet. The higher number of matches and positive behaviors during counseling equated to higher points being awarded. The results suggested that the client was able to effectively develop a reliable self-report of their behavior within counseling sessions, and reduce the instances of motor tics to zero instances within counseling sessions.
 
134. Improving Healthy Eating in College-Aged Students with Disabilities Using a Token-Economy System
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA COSGRIFF (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: No studies exist on implementing a token-economy system with a health-promotion program to enhance healthy-eating in college-aged individuals with developmental disabilities. Token-economies are an adaptable method for treating a range of major skill needs in areas of children with developmental disabilities (Matson & Boisjoli, 2008). However, most studies on token-economies include populations of school-aged children with very few studies at the college-level (e.g., Nelson, 2010). Token-economy research primarily focuses on reducing disruptive behavior in the classroom setting, however there is some existing research combining the use of a token-economy with increasing food acceptance (e.g., Kahng, Boscoe, & Byrne, 2003). While seemingly inconclusive, it is important to continue to explore the use of token-economies across various behavioral topographies to improve autonomy and quality of life for students with disabilities. This study included five college-aged students with various diagnoses who are enrolled in a post-secondary transition program. An AB withdrawal design was used to identify whether or not using a health-promotion program paired with a token-economy system would improve healthy eating across the five college-aged students. Results indicated all students’ healthy eating increased across intervention, suggesting a brief health-promotion program in combination with a token-economy was effective in improving healthy eating.
 
135. Establishing And Testing Conditioned Reinforcers: Evaluating The Effects Of The Discriminative Stimulus Procedure Using Intermittency With Individuals With Developmental Disabilities
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YANNICK ANDREW SCHENK (Kennedy Krieger Institue; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: A common characteristic of individuals with developmental disabilities is a restricted range of interest. Developing procedures to establish new reinforcers for such individuals can promote the acquisition of new skills and ameliorate decreases in motivation related to satiation. Several procedures for conditioning reinforcers have shown to be effective in the research literature for establishing neutral stimuli as conditioned reinforcers. Most of this literature is basic research with animal subjects (e.g., rats, pigeons). Few applied studies have directly evaluated the use of these procedures. Additional research is necessary to determine their effectiveness. The purposes of this study were to: (a) evaluate two SD procedure arrangements in the establishment of discriminative stimuli while adding an intermittency of reinforcement component, (b) and evaluate the reinforcing effects of newly established discriminative stimuli when made contingent upon a response for three adults with developmental disabilities. A concurrent operants model of the SD procedure was effective for all participants in establishing a neutral stimulus as a discriminative stimulus. In addition, using a multiple baseline across participants within-subject design, the newly conditioned stimulus was successfully used to reinforce and maintain responding for only one out of three participants.
 
136. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior, Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior, and Self-Monitoring of Adult Student Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MEGHAN ANGLIM (Lipscomb University), Mary Annette Little (Lipscomb University), Jonathan D. Timm (Lipscomb University )
Discussant: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Explicitly teaching self-management skills to adults with disabilities can help them develop the necessary skills to achieve functional independence in natural settings. When coupling self-management skills – particularly self-monitoring – with function-based reinforcement, it has been shown to positively impact behavior (Frea & Hughes, 1997). In the current study, the effects of a combined intervention of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) and self-monitoring, with delayed introduction of Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior (DRL), were evaluated on the behavior of an adult student with mild intellectual disability in the post-secondary education setting. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to analyze the effects of the intervention on both the target and replacement behavior, and the transfer of those skills to the natural environment. Results indicate that when providing differential reinforcement, while the student simultaneously self-monitors the alternative replacement behavior, the rates of the target behavior and replacement behavior will decrease and increase, respectively, and maintain post-intervention phase to a socially significant degree. These results were obtained with high procedural fidelity, data reliability, and social validity ratings, which serve as evidence for the consistency of data collection and intervention implementation, and overall personnel satisfaction.
 
137. Evaluation of Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Reduce Problem Behavior and Increase Access to Vocational Programming for High School Students With Developmental Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LOUIS LEIBOWITZ (Ivymount School & Programs), Brittany Frey (Ivymount School & Programs), Lauren Lestremau (Ivymount School & Programs)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Job training and on-the-job support services contribute significantly to employment outcomes; however, efforts are needed to increase the number of students placed in integrated employment. Problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities is common and when that behavior occurs in a vocational setting, it may impact access to the training needed to receive job placement. This study describes the use of two types of function-based differential reinforcement procedures on two high school students with developmental disabilities who demonstrated challenging behaviors within a vocational setting, when universal behavior support procedures were ineffective. Results showed that these procedures were effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing on-task behavior and flexibility in the work place. These results are particularly important given the limited applied research on problem behavior in a vocational setting and the long term impacts of student failure to access vocational training in adolescence.
 
138. Using Contingent Reinforcement to Increase Purposeful Vocalizations Plus Eye Contact in Infants With Down Syndrome
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
SAMUEL DIGANGI (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Communication and other delays are common among children with Down syndrome, and can be seen during infancy. Communicative intent is one of the earliest forms of communication that typical infants learn during the first year of life, but may be delayed for infants with Down syndrome. This study used contingent reinforcement during play-based ABA therapy sessions with 3 infants with Down Syndrome, ages 15-18 months. At baseline, all infants were able to vocalize (babble), but did so without purpose (non-communicatively). The study utilized a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across subjects, ABAC design (Kennedy, 2009). Following baseline, infants were reinforced contingent on vocalizations, regardless if they were looking at the researcher (vocalization only phase; infants universally looked at the toy they wanted rather than the researcher who was holding it). After a second baseline, infants were only reinforced for vocalizations when they looked at the researcher (vocalization plus eye contact phase). Results suggest that use of contingent reinforcement may increase purposeful (mand) vocalizations and vocalizations plus eye contact for infants with Down Syndrome. Results hold promise for future research with infants.
 
139. Evaluation of the Multiple-Stimulus Without Replacement Preference Assessment With Individuals With Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
Patricia Shoemaker (University of Houston-Clear Lake), JENNIFER N. FRITZ (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Amanda Edwards (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Studies have shown that the multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment is an effective assessment format for identifying preferred items; however, it is possible that other variables, besides preference alone, might influence the selections by some individuals. MSWO results were evaluated with children and individuals with disabilities by comparing the items selected during the highest and lowest percentage of opportunities during the MSWO assessment in a paired-stimulus (PS) format. Results showed that the MSWO format did not predict the most highly preferred item for 20% of the participants.
 
140. A Comparison of Exclusion Time-Out Procedures With and Without Release Contingencies for Adults With Developmental Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
CANDACE BARRETT (Quest, Inc.), Molly Dowdy (Quest, Inc.)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Traditionally, protocols utilizing time-out procedures are suggested to include a release contingency (e.g., calm criterion of 10-s) to prevent accidental reinforcement of problem behaviors in time-out. However, the application of a release contingency may further extend the duration of time-out. We employed a reversal design to examine two adults with an established contingent delay exclusion time-out procedure, both with the same contingencies (i.e., FT 5 and DRO 10) and compared it to a fixed-time procedure with different schedules (i.e., FT 5' and FT 15). The experimenters examined the target behaviors that occurred in time-out (i.e., property disruption and verbal aggression), time-out producing behaviors (i.e., physical aggression, property disruption, and verbal aggression), and the duration of each time-out trial. Results showed the use of a non-contingent release from the time-out room did not increase the frequency of time-out producing behaviors and target behaviors occurring in time-out. Furthermore, the use of a non-contingent procedure allowed for ease of implementation by direct level staff, decreased the length of time-out duration (increased time in positive environment), and equated to a less restrictive procedure.
 
141. Measuring and Enhancing the Quality of Life of Individuals with Disabilities through Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Shannon Barry (May Institute), Erin McDermott (May Institute), ROBERT F. PUTNAM (May Institute)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS; functionally equivalent to PBIS - Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports) are designed to create systems that provide a continuum of interventions to increase functional skills, reduce problem behavior, and enhance quality of life across all individuals. This poster will review the practices and tools designed to measure and monitor the quality of life of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities served within a large applied behavior analytic organization implementing MTSS/PBIS. The hallmark of any effective multi-tiered system of support using behavior analytical/evidenced based practices is timely data based decision making by representative data teams at each tier. At the universal tier, teams make decisions on all individuals outcomes related to problem behavior, skill acquisition, and quality of life domains, namely wellness, communication, engagement in meaningful activities, and happiness. This poster will introduce the tools and analytic process teams and behavior analysts can implement to measure these domains to inform design universal, targeted, and individualized interventions within and across groups of individuals. Data will be presented on the analysis of data, reductions in problem behavior, and changes in quality of life domains during implementation of multi-tiered systems of support.
 
142. A Comparison of Sample-First and Comparison-First Procedures During Receptive Label Training
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TIFFANY BARRY (Evergreen Center), Joseph M. Vedora (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Training auditory-visual discriminations, often referred to as receptive labeling, is commonly targeted as part of behavioral interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there are conflicting recommendations about the order of the presentation of stimuli during training. Green (2001) recommends presenting the sample before the comparison stimuli while others suggest presenting the comparison stimuli in front of the student prior to or simultaneously with the sample stimulus (Leaf & McEachin, 1999; Lovaas). Petursdottir and Aguilar (2016) compared the order of stimulus presentations during receptive label training for three typically developing kindergartners. All participants learned more quickly in the sample-first condition. The purpose of the current study was to compare sample-first to comparison-first procedures during receptive label training for two individuals with autism. A delayed prompt was used to determine what effects the order of presentation might have when evaluated with commonly used prompting procedures. The results for one participant indicated that the learned the discriminations in four fewer sessions in the comparison-first condition. The implications of the order of stimulus presentations in clinical settings will be discussed.
 
143. A Parametric Analysis of Attention Quality Based Upon Functional Analysis Results
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH JACQUELINE FRANTZ (University of Iowa), Jiaju Wu (University of Iowa), Kristy DePalma (University of Iowa), Lexy Rozmus (University of Iowa), Jessica Emily Graber (The University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Studies using functional analysis and concurrent operant assessment procedures have shown that exposure to attention prior to conducting a functional analysis of problem behavior is likely to result in a decrease in motivation to use problem behavior to gain attention from others (i.e., an abolishing operation). And conversely, when an individual has been without attention prior to conducting a functional analysis that person may be more likely to use problem behavior to gain attention (i.e., an establishing operation; McGinness et al., 2010). Despite previous research findings that suggest pre-session exposure to attention may change the results of functional analyses and choice assessments, little research has been conducted on the effects of parametric quality of pre-session attention. The current study attempts to expand our understanding of the effects of pre-session attention on contingent attention and escape conditions for two children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. A functional analysis was conducted for each child and followed by manipulation of quality of attention during conditions involving the identified function for problem behavior, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to current research and implications for treatment are offered.
 
144. PBIS Tier 3 Development and Implementation in Adult Services
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
JUSTIN KELLY (The May Institute), Undrea Cato-Steele (May Institute), Melissa Russell Strout (May Institute ), Michelle Graham (The May Institute)
Discussant: Hugo Curiel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The implementation of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports systems within a center of adult services required a multi-tiered team approach. A core group was developed, for Tier 3 systems, to meet on a monthly basis to discuss high risk cases, review behavioral data, qualitative reports and formulate appropriate interventions , as presented by the clinical team. This process was developed in December of 2015 and implemented in January of 2016. Ten individuals with high intensity, at-risk behaviors were chosen for formal review at these meetings. During the sessions the team analyzed 60 days’ worth of each individual’s behavioral data. These group reviews have generated thoughtful discussion encouraging the team to be decisive with interventions and teaching procedures, as well as improved service delivery and effective communication. Progress is graphed and monitored with two data tracking systems and fidelity of implementation graded with a quarterly review. Overall, notable improvements have been achieved in those responding to the Tier 3 interventions.
 

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