Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


46th Annual Convention; Online; 2020

Event Details

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Poster Session #69
EDC Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 23, 2020
1:00 PM–3:00 PM

Emergence of Personalized Inclusive Practices in a Mainstream Classroom: A Single-Subject Design

Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
EUNICE PUI YU YIM (The Open University of Hong Kong)

The guiding principle of inclusive education is all children, regardless of perceived differences, have equal opportunities to quality education. Closing the gap between the guiding principle and practices at school has been widely researched and still no optimal inclusive approach has been found to address diversities. While studies on inclusive education indicating that successful inclusive practice must consider personal traits of both students and teachers, there is a dire need to equip mainstream classroom teachers with the knowledge and skills in developing personalized inclusive education practice that cater the needs of both teacher and students in their classrooms. This study presented a A-B single subject design study to investigate 1) how would applied behavior analysis (ABA) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) contributes to professional development in mainstream teacher in developing effective inclusive practices, and 2) the conducive factors in facilitating the emergence of personalized inclusive practices in a mainstream classroom. The findings revealed that ABA and DRO training in teachers that enable them to identify and manipulate IV are needed in developing effective inclusive practices. Support by professionals leads to empowerment in teachers in integrating the newly constructed knowledge and skills into existing repertoire into a cohesive whole.


A Behavior Analytic Prospective on Increasing the Enrollment, Retention, and Graduation of Minority Students at a Regional University Campus

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALI A MAHAMAT (Indiana University South Bend )

Previous Studies examined factors that lead to division among minority college students that resulted in bias and discrimination in the acceptance and retention of students of color. Hagedorn (1996) looked at achievement outcome among diverse demographics of students at a four year university. Furthermore, dropout behavior in minority students was largely attributed to lack of social interactions and mentoring opportunities. In the current study we examine the enrollment of students at Indiana University-South Bend is 72.8% White, 9.73% Hispanic or Latino, 6.68% Black or African American, 3.02% two or more races. There is a decreasing trend over the last 5 years in the enrollment and graduation of African American students. The total degrees awarded recently White Female 470 degrees awarded, White Male, 243 degrees awarded, Black or African American Female 41 degrees awarded and 31 degrees African American males. There is a need to increase the enrollment of minority students across regional colleges as they struggle with outreach to underrepresented students, retention and graduation efforts. Cipani (2017) offers behavior analytic methods to examine problems and present them in a scientific way that can then be utilized to offer real life applications.


A Systematic Review of Mand Training Parameters for Students With Developmental Disabilities in School Settings

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Melissa Tapp (University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Amy Clausen (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Megan Carpenter (University of North Carolina Charlotte)

Many individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) fail to acquire manding repertoires sufficient for success in a range of environments. Further, those without this essential repertoire may exhibit increased levels of problem behaviors to access reinforcers or escape aversive stimuli. Since school plays a critical role in the lives of most children with DD, educators are responsible for ensuring all students receive adequate instruction in the effective use of mands. Unfortunately, many educators may be unfamiliar with procedures for implementing mand training and may not see themselves as responsible for communication instruction. To more strongly advocate for the inclusion of mand training procedures in schools and in teacher preparation programs it is important to better understand the literature related to mand training in schools. In the current poster, the presenters will provide data related to mand training for students with DD in school settings across a range of variables including school demographics, change agent characteristics, staff training procedures, intervention procedures, technology, dosage, and range of instructional targets. The presenters will discuss implications for research and practice.

52. Behavioral Staff Training and Program Evaluation for Teachers and other Professionals in Alabama
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DORIS ADAMS HILL (Auburn University College of Education), Heather Jones (The Learning Tree Inc.), Jessica Merkle (Auburn University)
Abstract: Training education professionals to implement interventions for students with autism and developmental disabilities is a common practice designed to develop capacity in schools. Understanding evidence-based strategies and methodologies to conduct these trainings can make them more effective and can result in developing professionals who can train others within their classrooms and schools. The authors examined five years of training evaluation data to determine trends in training and to examine the social validity of the trainings conducted. Results indicated that the trainings were well received (relevant to the teachers who attended) resulting in an increase in requests and an increase in the quality of trainings conducted based on feedback utilized by the organization conducting the training.

Using Examples of Behavioral Phenomena with Which Elementary School Students and Teachers are Already Familiar to Teach Them About Behavioral Promciples and Terminology

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Richard Cook (Applied Behavior Medicine Associates of Hershey Ruth Pauline Cook Foundation East Shore Psychiatric Associates, Harrisburg, PA), EMILY COOK (Londonderry School Harrisburg, PA )

The typical elementary schooldays are filled with examples of behavioral concepts, terminology, and phenomena. Students, teachers, and parents (indeed, all of us) are constantly living a breath and depth of behavior more robust than any textbook can capture, but rarely are those experiences captured, labeled, defined, or described in behavioral terms. This presentation highlights various domains in which one could classify these behavioral phenomena and terms. These categories overlap and include but are not limited to those involving interactions between students and staff, students and other students, and students and other aspects of their antecedent state milieu. Among them are behavioral momentum, successive approximations, shaping, chains of behaviors, reinforcement, things that decrease likelihood of future behavior emission (punishment), token economies, latency, and over correction, among many others. Elementary school students and staff engage in behaviors throughout the day but are unlikely to capture them, label them, or understand them in behavioral terms. Yet any time behavior changes, by definition, those involved have followed the principles of behavior even without realizing it. Particularly with terms and concepts deemed to be societally sensitive, such as punishment, the greater exposure, done well, might lead to less misunderstanding, and greater acceptance of behaviorally based approaches. Highlighting the most clear cut examples of such could be used to help understand and modify behavior, and done well, could serve to increase awareness of Applied Behavior Analytic practices, and perhaps contribute to a greater acceptance of, and less resistance to, the discipline and its approaches.

54. Teaching Pre-Service Teachers to Conduct and Write Functional Behavior Assessment Reports
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA MRACHKO (Bowling Green State University), Brooks Vostal (Bowling Green State University)
Abstract: One of the High Leverage Practices for special education teachers identified by the Council for Exceptional Children (2017) is to conduct functional behavior assessments (FBA) and develop individual student behavior intervention plans (BIP). Yet, educators are not adequately trained to effectively conduct an FBA and write a function-based behavior plan (Youngblom, 2013). This study examines pre-service teachers' ability to conduct an FBA, and use appropriate terminology when writing and implementing the FBA/BIP report. Sixty-seven pre-service inclusive early childhood student teachers were taught to implement an FBA and write, implement, and evaluate a function-based BIP as part of a course on positive behavior intervention and support. Using Behavior Skills Training (BST), the researcher presented information via PowerPoint and lecture, showed video models, provided practice on data collection, evaluation, and writing, and provided ongoing feedback. The final report included the write-up of the FBA, BIP, a graph, and evaluation of effectiveness. Data collected includes appropriate use of terminology in the report, scored by two readers. Ongoing data analysis that will be included is pre-service teacher-reported intervention effectiveness and social validity of BST.
55. The Effects of Pyramidal Training Model on Teacher and Student Engagement
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DAPHNE SNYDER (Western Michigan University), Nicole Hollins (Western Michigan University), Jaysen King (Western Michigan University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The pyramid training model (PTM) is an efficient training system where multiple tiers of training are utilized to effectively disseminate instruction from one tier to the next. The PTM is particularly beneficial in a school setting due to its sustainability following consultative services and its cost effectiveness (i.e., time and financial) (Jones, Fremouw, & Carples, 1977). One early childhood special education teacher was trained in the use of baseline classroom management procedures (Kestner, Peterson, Eldridge, & Peterson, 2018). Following mastery, the teacher (tier 1) trained three more of their staff (tier 2) to increase both student and staff engagement in the classroom. The results of this study indicate that PTM was effective for staff (tier 2) in the implementation of proactive classroom management procedures. Additionally, students demonstrated an increase in appropriate transition behavior, on-task behavior, and a decrease in the duration of time spent in transitions. Concluding consultative services, the teacher and their staff reported the procedures being appropriate for the classroom and they were willing to carry out the procedures long-term.
56. Evaluating the Effects of Parent Training in Musical Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
JASMINE C. LAU (University of Southern California ), Michael J. James Cameron (University of Southern California )
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Engaging in the arts is a socially relevant behavior that can have positive social, career, and quality of life benefits. Previous research has shown that practicing is the key to successful classical music performance but practicing can be effortful and young musicians may resist practice and parents can have difficulty with inducing their children to practice. Little to no previous research has addressed parent training for young musicians. The purpose of this project was to expand the scope of behavioral skills training for parents to help engage their children through musical instruction and practice. Results are discussed in terms of future research in behavior analysis in classical music and an extension of behavior analysis outside of developmental disabilities and into the arts, in particular. This research is still underway but the initial results demonstrate a potentially promising extension of behavior analytic principles and procedures.
58. Behavior Analysts in Educational Settings: Provision of School-Based Services
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTEN LENAE PADILLA-MAINOR (Baylor University), Bailey Mungiguerra (Baylor University TX, US Citizen of US)
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts are qualified to provide a variety of evidence-based interventions in educational settings; however there is minimal research regarding the provision of services. Over 90,000 registrants of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board were contacted to participate in a survey evaluating the common services provided by behavior analysts in educational settings; 431 responded. The survey entailed items regarding credentials, demographics, geographic location, direct and indirect services provided, student population served, and types of educational settings. Respondents included those with the following credentials: BCBA (46%), BCBA-D (7%), BCaBA (3%), RBT (13%), licensed behavior analyst (16%), not yet credentialed (10%), and other (15%). Thirty-four percent of respondents worked in suburban schools while 10% worked in rural and 20% in urban schools. The majority of respondents worked with elementary students (53%) followed by pre-school (40%), middle school (36%), high school (28%), and early childhood (13%). Respondents provided direct therapy, behavior consultation and support, staff development, and crisis management. They served individuals with various disabilities in several types of educational environments within the school setting. Associations between the distributions of responses were also examined in order to identify patterns and relationships between variables.
59. Collaboration Between School Personnel and Behavior Analysts
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CLINTON SMITH (University of Tennessee at Martin), Annette Little (Lipscomb University), Beth Urbanczyk (Metro Nashville Public Schools), Laura Plunk (University of Tennessee at Martin)
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract: In school settings, behavior analysts are increasingly participating as interdisciplinary team members in developing instructional plans through individual education plans (IEPs). It is essential that behavior analysts take the time to build a collaborative and supportive relationship among members of the team, especially with personnel in school settings. This study surveyed 133 school personnel (special education teachers, school psychologists, general education teachers, special education administrators, and related service providers) regarding their interactions and collaboration with behavior analysts. Results showed that school personnel agreed that behavior analysts can play an important role with the interdisciplinary team, but there are areas to improve such as communication, training of school personnel with interventions, and implementation of interventions and treatment integrity issues. Issues such as behavior analysts using too much technical lingo, lack of a willingness by the behavior analyst to accept input or provide feedback on current interventions used in the classroom were main concerns raised by school personnel as being a reason that they did not satisfied with the quality of the recommendations from a behavior analyst. The survey results also showed that school personnel benefit from face to face interactions with behavior analysts, but time restraints on the schedules of both school personnel and behavior analysts or a lack of available behavior analysts in the area may prohibit effective communication and treatment options for students.

Evaluation of Training Methods to Increase the Curricular Treatment Integrity for Reading Comprehension Teachers During Small Group Instruction With Students With Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Jessica Boyle (The Ivymount School), LAUREN J LESTREMAU (Ivymount School)
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)

Applied behavior analytic methods have been used to effectively train individuals to utilize a variety of individualized instructional approaches (e.g., Discrete Trial Training) with learners with developmental disabilities. However, limited research exists that has evaluated the effectiveness of training methods for use with special educators to utilize complex instructional practices aligned to grade level content for learners pursuing a diploma in a small group instructional setting. The current study included an evaluation of various training components (e.g., bug in the ear, guided lesson planning, behavioral skills training) to increase the curricular treatment integrity across two curricula as delivered by career English/Language Arts teachers. Curricular treatment integrity included a complex instructional repertoire that included components such as teacher think alouds, use of explicit instruction model, use of scaffolds during independent practice opportunities. Results will be evaluated at the conclusion of the studies. Early findings highlight the need for additional research for this population of students pursuing a diploma in a group instructional environment.


Evaluation of Training Package to Increase Complexity of Teacher-Delivered Instructional Demands During Small Group Science Instruction With Students With Developmental Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BROOKE HESS (Ivymount School), Lauren J Lestremau (Ivymount School)
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)

Despite the need for effective approaches to training new teachers given the current teacher shortages, few researchers have evaluated training approaches for instructional practices to be used in a small group instructional setting for learners pursuing a diploma. The current study included an evaluation of a training package to increase the complexity of instructional demands delivered by early career teachers during small group science instruction. Instructional demands were evaluated across the following domains: demand complexity (e.g., know vs. application), type of response (e.g., recall, fill in the blank, open ended), and active student method (e.g., choral, Turn and Talk). Training included pre-requisite instruction on the domains described above, supported lesson planning, development of scripts to be used during instruction, and en vivo coaching. Results will be evaluated via single subject design at the conclusion of the study. Expected findings highlight the need for ongoing research in this area to inform efficient training practices for early career teachers who will be delivering group instruction to learners with developmental disabilities.


Training Teachers to Use Data: Effects of the Academic Team-Initiated Problem Solving Professional Development

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PAUL MICHAEL MENG (University of Hawai'i at Mānoa), Rebecca Crowe (University of Oregon), Sean Austin (University of Oregon), Robert H. Horner (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)

Effectively using data to guide decision making has been identified as the most powerful educational strategy at educators' disposal (Hattie, 2008). Recent data from large scale studies and program evaluations reveals three key findings about the state of data within K-12 education: 1) educators have access to more data now than ever before, 2) effective decision-making models exist to guide educators' use of these data, and 3) data are not typically being used effectively in schools. This study experimentally tests the effects of a newly developed professional development package targeting Academic Team-initiated Problem Solving (AcTIPS), on the decision making process used by the reading supports team (consisting of 5 members) in one elementary school. The primary dependent variables were the team’s use of effective problem solving procedures as indicated by the percent of points earned on subscales of the Decision, Observation, Recording and Analysis (DORA-II) tool. Data from a concurrent multiple baseline across skills design indicate that the professional development package was successful in changing the decision making behavior of data team members across the three fundamental domains of team-initiated problem solving performance: Meeting Foundations, Problem Solving, and Implementation & Adaptation. At each stage of the multiple baseline design the team documented immediate and sustained improvement in functioning following delivery of the AcTIPS package. Data were analyzed using visual analysis and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP). Both analyses indicated clear and compelling effects of the training package on team members' decision-making behavior.




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