Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

Event Details


Previous Page

 

Poster Session #206L
VRB Sunday Poster Session
Sunday, May 28, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
154. A Comparison Study of Total Communication Training and Vocal Alone Training to Teach Mands
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA SCHECHTMAN (Bancroft, Rider University), Sarah Brown (Bancroft; Rider University), Stephanie Flamini (Bancroft; Autism New Jersey ), Miranda Slotkin (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: MERAL KOLDAS (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract: Total communication training has been demonstrated as effective in teaching basic expressive language skills and in some cases may facilitate an increase in speech (Barrera & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1983). In this study, we compared total communication teaching procedures with vocal alone teaching to teach mand responses. A manual sign along with a vocal mand is emitted to receive reinforcement during total communication teaching procedures while the correct vocal response during the vocal alone teaching procedure is reinforced dependent on the corresponding time delay. Three children with autism were each taught 4 vocal verbal mand responses, two responses with total communication and 2 responses with vocal alone teaching procedures. Participant one acquired total communication in fewer trials than vocal alone across both targets while participant two and three’s acquisition did not show any consistency across the four targets.
 
155. Analysis of Conditional Relationships in Dyadic Verbal Behavior Interactions
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
EMANUEL MERAZ-MEZA MEZA (Universidad Veracruzana), Abdiel Florentino Campos Gil (Universidad Veracruzana), Enoc Obed Obed De la Sancha Villa Villa (Universidad de Guanajuato)
Discussant: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Verbal Behavior interactions are episodes of the daily life of humans. Despite its relevance, few studies (e.g., Conger & Killeen, 1974; McDowell & Caron, 2010; Simon & Baum, 2017) evaluate the individual's response as a stimulus in the modulation of another’s individual response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the establishment of contingent relationships in verbal behavior interactions. Fifteen adults participated, each one was assigned a descriptor or executor role. The first ones had to describe six printed models-figures, which only they could see. The seconds had to draw what described their partner. Four phases were programmed, in phases 1 and 3 the executors solved the task with Descriptor A, and in phases 2 and 4 with Descriptor B. The sessions ended when the six model-figures were completed. An index for data analysis was designed (effective responses divided by total responses). In all cases, performance improved in the last two phases compared to the first ones, this could be due to the establishment of contingency relationships in which the partner's response had stimulus functions. These results allow us to recognize that, with some methodological modifications, this task can be useful for the empirical analysis of verbal behavior in dyadic interactions.

 
156. Exploring the Interdependence of Verbal Operants Following Brain Injury
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MARLA BALTAZAR-MARS (Collage Rehabilitation Partners; University of North Texas), April M. Becker (University of North Texas), Valeria Laddaga Gavidia ( Action Behavior Centers), Skylar Stewart (University of North Texas)
Discussant: MERAL KOLDAS (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract: Following a brain injury, individuals may be diagnosed with aphasia, a communication disorder which involve the loss of some relation associated with verbal stimuli. This two-part study contributes to the limited research focusing on the verbal behavior of individuals with brain injury by extending Sundberg et al. (1990) and Magat, Heinicke and Buckley (2022). The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the emergence of disrupted verbal operants, mand and intraverbal, following the re-acquisition of another verbal operant, tact. Participants for Study 1 were two uninjured adults (pilot) and two adults with acquired brain injury (ABI). The dependent measure was accuracy of responding during tact training and mand and intraverbal probes. All pilot participants and one ABI participant showed mand transfer for all stimuli, while intraverbal transfer varied. One adult with brain injury served as a participant for Study 2. The dependent measures were rate and latency of responding during fluency training for tacts and mand and intraverbal probes. The participant met the designated aim (rate of responding) and showed a decrease in latencies for tacts and untrained intraverbals; mand latencies varied. Implications for practice and future research are presented.
 
157. Relational Density Theory: Exploration of Resistance Among Low-Volume, High-Density Relational Classes
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MIKAYLA CAMPBELL (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley Unviersity)
Discussant: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Relational Density Theory (RDT) is an extension of Relational Frame Theory that attempts to describe high-order interactions within relational behavior by utilizing Newtonian classical mechanics from physics as a quantitative metaphor. RDT states that relational networks demonstrate higher order properties of density, volume, and mass, which affect the relative likelihood of change along those relational networks. Recent research has shown the merging of classes after coherence training and their relative densities (Belisle & Clayton, 2021). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative degree of change of a pre-established low volume-high density relational class when exposed to a strategic disruptor. Twenty-nine participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group received coherence training and the other received a strategic disruptor. We found the strategic, randomized disruptor applied to the disruptor group was not enough to produce change in the low-volume, high-density pre-established relational network. Participants responded consistent with their pre-established relational classes rather than responding consistent with the random stimulus pairings established in the disruptor phase. These findings suggest low-volume, yet high density relational networks are resistant to Future research may explore the degree of strength required for a disruptor to produce changes in such responding.

 
158. Relational Density Theory: Evaluation of Change Across Relational Classes
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
YAMILETH BELTRAN MEDRANO (Utah Valley Unviersity), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Kelsi Walker (Utah Valley University), Lauren Mather (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: MERAL KOLDAS (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract:

Relational Density Theory (RDT; Belisle & Dixon, 2020) states that relational classes demonstrate properties of density, volume, and mass, which affect the relative likelihood of change along those relational classes. Recent research on RDT suggests that low-volume, high-density relational classes demonstrate resistance to change when exposed to a strategic, randomized disruptor. Previous research is limited in that it does not determine the relative counterforce necessary to produce change in low-volume, high-density relational classes. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a structured non-coherence training was sufficient to produce change along a pre-established low-volume, high-density relational class. Participants were assigned to either a coherence training or a non-coherence training group and a Multidimensional Scaling Procedure was administered prior to and following the respective training for each group to obtain a quantitative measure of distance between relational classes. A Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure was utilized to establish coherent relational classes for each group, then a coherence training was administered to one group and a non-coherence training was administered to the other. Overall, the results showed significant fractionation for the non-coherence group and not for the coherence group, which suggests low-volume, high-density relational classes can be altered with sufficient counterforce.

 
159. Testing the Generality of Hayes et al. (1986): When Do Rules Produce Insensitivity?
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
GRAYSON BUTCHER (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Previous research has indicated that “insensitivity” to changing reinforcement contingencies is a potential consequence of rule following. To further evaluate the variables of which insensitivity may be a function, participants were tasked with earning blocks in a PORTL-like experiment (cf. Hunter & Rosales-Ruiz, 2019). During the experiment, which was modeled after Hayes et al. (1986), participants could earn reinforcers by pressing a button during alternating FR7 and DRL 5-s schedules of reinforcement. In some conditions, the instructions of “Go fast” and “Go slow” were used to either aid or mislead participants. Results indicated that instructions influenced the range of response rates as well as stimulus control over those rates. However, by the end of the experiment, all participants demonstrated sensitivity to both reinforcement contingencies, even in the presence of conflicting instructions. Additionally, there was no evidence that instructions necessarily led to schedule insensitivity. These results suggest that some instances of insensitivity may result simply from how instructions restrict response alternatives—and stimulus control over those alternatives—instead of by specifying a second contingency of reinforcement.

 
160. Mand Generalization Following an Enhanced Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Training Procedure to Increase Vocal Verbal Behavior
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MAUREEN BOOTH (May Institute), Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute), Kristen Contois (May Institute)
Discussant: MERAL KOLDAS (Queen's University of Belfast)
Abstract: Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a procedure used to increase vocal verbal behavior in children with significant language delays where specific vocalizations are repeatedly paired with reinforcers to establish those vocalizations as conditioned reinforcers. Following this pairing, reinforcement is provided for any subsequent vocalizations that the individual engages in, thus providing more opportunities to shape those vocalizations into functional communication. In 2009, Esch, Carr, and Grow sought to evaluate the effectiveness of an enhanced SSP procedure on the vocalizations of three children with an autism spectrum diagnosis (ASD). Results suggested that these procedures led to a moderate increase in vocalizations from baseline levels and that the topographies were further strengthened when subsequent programmed reinforcement was used. The purpose of this study was to partially replicate and extend the procedures of Esch, Carr, and Grow (2009) by introducing the programmed reinforcement immediately following SSP sessions and to evaluate the generalization of manding outside of the context of training sessions. Initial results indicate that while an increase in the target vocalizations has not occurred within the SSP and programmed reinforcement sessions, an increase has occurred during mand generalization sessions. Clinical implications for the use of enhanced SSP and future research will be discussed.
 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
DONATE