Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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49th Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2023

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Poster Session #47G
DDA Saturday Poster Session
Saturday, May 27, 2023
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, Exhibit Hall F
Chair: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
81. Caregiver-Implemented Interventions for Daily Living Skills for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
RENMING LIU (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Catharine Lory (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Kristina McGinnis (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Daily living skills reflect individuals’ self-sufficiency and autonomy. However, many individuals with developmental disabilities have deficits in performing daily living skills which limit their ability to live independently and lead an autonomous life. There are many benefits of teaching daily living skills in the environment in which the individual will use those skills, including but not limited to eliminating the need to facilitate generalization from the training setting to the home setting. As a result, parents and caregivers have the potential to be excellent implementers of daily living skills instruction. A systematic review of literatures identified 33 articles in which a caregiver implemented an intervention for daily living skills. Of those, 16 articles were evaluated as high-quality studies. We synthesized caregiver-implemented interventions, caregiver training strategies, intervention effects, generalization, and maintenance. Behavior skill training and instruction are most common strategies that have been used to train caregivers to implement interventions. Additionally, caregivers are most likely to implement task analysis, visual support, and error correction to teach their children daily living skills. Of the 16 high-quality studies, 11 demonstrated that caregiver-implemented interventions have strong positive effects on teaching daily living skills. Most studies indicated that daily living skills were generalized or maintained after removing interventions. Results will be further analyzed and discussed.

 
82. A Systematic Review of Social Validity Practices in Caregiver-Implemented Interventions Delivered via Telehealth
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA MCGINNIS (Baylor University), Stephanie Gerow (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Emily Paige Exline (Baylor University)
Abstract:

The use of caregiver-implemented interventions delivered via telehealth has grown exponentially in our field. However, the extent to which society deems these interventions important and practical needs further investigation. The purpose of this literature review was to synthesize the existing social validity assessment practices used in caregiver-implemented interventions via telehealth and evaluate the extent to which existing research meets social validity quality indicators. To evaluate the existing literature, we developed social validity quality indicators based on the work of Carter and Wheeler (2019), Gerow et al. (2018), Horner et al. (2015), Reichow et al. (2011), and Spear et al. (2013). We identified 58 studies with social validity data, although only 20 evaluated the social validity of goals, procedures, outcomes, and telehealth. These 20 included articles met an average of about half of the quality indicator components included in our social validity quality appraisal. We will discuss implications for practice and directions for future research.

 
83. Using Remote Coaching to Promote Caregiver-Friendly Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI) Strategies
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATELIN HOBSON (University of Washington Doctoral Student ), Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) is a term used to describe interventions grounded in behavioral learning and developmental sciences. These interventions are commonly implemented in natural settings with children with autism and intellectual developmental disabilities. NDBI is a relatively new term in the behavior analytic literature. However, several models already exist that fall under this term, for instance, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT), Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), and Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT). These different models share common elements such as shared control, implementation in a natural setting, natural contingencies, and behavioral strategies. One of the many benefits of NDBIs is caregivers as the key implementers of the intervention. Remote implementation of a coaching model focused on caregiver-friendly NDBI strategies has yet to be implemented with caregivers of children with disabilities.

 
84. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Develop Dribbling Technique in Athletes with Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HARRY BOBAK (Mississippi State University), Laura Quintero (Mississippi State University), Mallie Donald (Mississippi State University ), Hailey Ripple (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kayla BATES-BRANTLEY (Mississippi State University)
Abstract:

Athletes with disabilities are less likely to be included in sport activities due to their delays with performing relevant and fundamental skills required to play the game. To increase participation for this population, this study looked to understand if a behavior-based intervention such as behavior skills training is an effective and accepted form of teaching athletes with disabilities proper dribbling technique. Behavior skills training has been shown to be effective at skill acquisition, but this study looked to understand if behavior skills training can also refine specific techniques. This study included nine adults with a range of intellectual and developmental disabilities at a university in the southeastern United States. Our results demonstrated behavior skills training to be effective at improving dribbling technique through the use of a six-step task analysis. Analysis of results was conducted using visual analysis and the effect size of non-overlap of all pairs. Limitations including the use of having a controlled research area will be discussed in addition to future directions for teaching skills and techniques to athletes with disabilities.

 
85. Development of an Online Training to Assess and Improve Knowledge of Medical Decision-Making Capacity
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA JO ZOHR (Eastern Michigan University), Kailey Macdonald (Eastern Michigan University), Claudia Drossel (Eastern Michigan University)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Clinicians must obtain consent from parents for behavioral assessment and interventions with legal minors. The civil capacity for such informed decision-making is often in question in adulthood when neurodevelopmental or acquired neurocognitive difficulties are present. Domain-specific, supported decision-making is recommended, but it is not clear whether lay people strive to balance safety with maximizing the autonomy of a person with disabilities. To address this question, a Solomon four-group design evaluated a brief online educational intervention, with video vignettes, intermittent knowledge or engagement checks, and a pre and post quiz. The first phase of the study (n = 160, 40/group with pseudorandom assignment) examined properties of the pre and post quiz. Significant ceiling effects necessitated the revision of test items. The second phase of the study (n = 160, 40/group with pseudorandom assignment) is currently in progress. Initial results suggest that online educational interventions may be an effective means of disseminating knowledge about decision-making capacity to the public, to improve advocacy for individuals with disabilities (F(1, 156) = 6.71, p < .05, partial η2 = .04). Best practices for quiz construction in education will also be discussed.

 
86. Self-Injurious Behaviors and Preschool Children With Disabilities: A Review of the Literature and How Educators Can Address These Behaviors
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA RIGGLEMAN (Saint Joseph's University)
Abstract:

Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are non-suicidal behaviors that preschool-aged children with disabilities may perform that lead to physical harm of their own bodies. These actions can be shocking and traumatizing to the educators who work with these individuals, particularly when these professionals may not have had the necessary training to address these behaviors. The purpose of this presentation is to present the findings of a systematic review that summarizes the effectiveness of interventions that have been used to address SIBs performed by preschool-aged children with disabilities in single case design studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2005 through 2016. A total of 176 articles were returned through searches of ERIC and PsycINFO. Eleven met this study’s analysis inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that a functional behavioral analysis (FBA) should be conducted. Once the function of the behavior is determined, individualized intervention procedures (e.g., functional communication training) can then be implemented to address the SIB.

 
87. Delineating Skills Necessary for Adulthood
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
HANNAH DUFFIELD (Western New England University and The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Educational services for individuals with autism commonly end by age 22. With limited supports available in adulthood, it is critical that we identify essential skills needed in adulthood and teach them early. Teaching skills early provides individuals with a greater chance to acquire those skills and increases the likelihood that they will transition successfully into an adult placement facility; it is estimated that 80,000 autistic adults are on the waiting list for residential placement, so the more options an individual has, the greater likelihood they can get placed. This study examined skills identified as essential by adult placement facilities. A QR code on the poster points viewers to a list of studies on how to teach those skills. This study also examines the difference between what residential facilities say Is essential for transition to what clinicians say is essential for transition.
 
88. Including Student Voice in the Development and Implementation of Function-Based Interventions in School Settings
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
MONIQUE PINCZYNSKI (University of North Carolina Charlotte), Megan E. Carpenter (Furman University), Melinda Snodgrass (Illinois State University), Virginia Lee Walker (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Function-based interventions (FBIs) are an effective strategy to improve student’s contextually appropriate behaviors in school settings (Ingram et al., 2005; Walker et al., 2018) and are required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). However, self-advocates have recently criticized the use of interventions based on the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA), such as FBIs, stating they did not have a say in their FBI plans and the FBIs were damaging to their self-esteem (Autistic Self-Advocacy Network, 2017). We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that designed or implemented FBI for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities in school settings. Studies included had to (a) plan or implement an FBI based on data from an FBA for at least one student in a Pk-12 school with IDD, and (b) utilize a single-case research design. Of the 176 studies identified that planned or implemented FBI plans in school settings for students with IDD, only five included social validity data from students. Studies included social validity from students to assess the social validity of the goals, procedures, and/or outcomes of the intervention at various stages (prior to intervention, during intervention, and post intervention) using a variety of techniques.

 
89. Behavior Reduction of Self-Injurious Behavior With a Child Diagnosed With Jordan’s Syndrome
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE R INOUYE (Autism and Behavioral Intervention)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

The purpose of this single subject case presentation is to inform professionals within the behavior analytic field on a viable intervention of Functional Communication Training to decrease challenging behavior (Self-Injurious, Flopping, Tantrums) in an individual diagnosed with Jordan’s Syndrome. Jordan’s Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that has only been published in medical literature 20 times. Common symptoms of Jordan’s Syndrome include, Global Development Delays, gastrointestinal difficulties, sleep delays, seizures, autism, and intellectual disabilities. The intervention began by identifying hypothesized functions of behavior via Anecdotal, Behavior, Consequence data collection. The Board-Certified Behavior Analyst then began identifying precursor behaviors that would lead to Self-Injurious Behavior’s. Once precursor behaviors had been identified the Board-Certified Behavior Analyst began Functional Communication Training via Augmented Communication Device. (Note: Towards the middle of this study the Augmented Communication Device was faded, due to an increase in vocal communication and a stimulus control transfer procedure was implemented echoic-to-mand). The aim was to catch the precursor behavior and reinforce communication in the precursor stage before leading to SIB behavior. The results of this study indicate that with proper implementation of Functional Communication Training self-injurious behaviors in individuals diagnosed with Jordan’s Syndrome can be reduced.

 
90. Evaluation of Extended Step it UP! Game in Adults with Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN N. REDNER (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Rebecca Seward (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Justin McDaniel (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Wasantha Jayawardene (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Abstract:

Physical activity is lower among individuals among people with disabilities (vs. no disabilities). The Step it UP! Game, an interdependent group contingency intervention, has demonstrated increased step counts in people with disabilities. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of an extended version Step it UP! Game that includes additional and longer sessions among adults with disabilities. Participants from a vocational and residential program (N = 9) were divided into two competing teams, and the team with the highest step count at the end of each session participated in a prize drawing. The Step it UP! Game was compared to baseline conditions using a multi-element design. Participants took an average of 19.6 steps per min during baseline and 54.7 steps per min during the intervention. All participants took more steps during the intervention. Participants choose to participate in 92% of game sessions. The effectiveness of the intervention did not decrease with repeated administration, nor did longer session duration negatively impact steps per min. To achieve long-lasting health impacts physical activity interventions need to be implemented indefinitely.

 
91. Risk Assessment of Procedural Errors for Articles Published in Behavior Analysis in Practice 2020-2022
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JOCELYN MARIBEL HERNANDEZ (California State University - Sacramento), Lea Jones (California State University, Sacramento), Denys Brand (California State University, Sacramento), Josephine Izana Franz (California State University, Sacramento), Tracy Dillon (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The evaluation of behavior analytic research requires evidence that the observed changes in the dependent variables (i.e., behavior) were due to the systemic manipulations of the independent variables (i.e., environment). To support such conclusions, researchers collect procedural fidelity (PF) data (i.e., the extent to which procedural protocols are implemented as prescribed). A previous review of studies published in Behavior Analysis in between 2008 and 2019 found that 46.83% of studies reported such data and nearly half (47.80%) were considered to be at high risk for procedural inaccuracies (Falakfarsa et al., 2022). Therefore, the purpose of this updated review was to provide data for articles published in Behavior Analysis in Practice between 2020 and 2022 to assess the number of studies at risk for procedural inaccuracies. Of the included studies, 57.14% reported PF data and 3.36% stated that PF was monitored, but numbers were absent. Out of all inclusions, 24.37% are considered high risk, 15.13% are considered low risk, and 60.50% are at no risk for procedural inaccuracies. The results show that there is a large decrease in the percentage of high-risk studies, while the low-risk category slightly increased.
 
92. Using Frames and Response Prompting to Teach Students With Intellectual Disability to Write About Text
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of North Carolina-Charlotte), Monique Pinczynski (University of North Carolina Charlotte), Melissa Stanley (Kannapolis City Schools), Alicia F. Saunders (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Writing is difficult for many students across a range of support needs, as it requires that a writer execute several complex skills simultaneously in response to ever changing demands and audiences. Students with intellectual disability (ID) may face even greater barriers to writing. These students may have difficulties in several areas of reading which may impact their ability to spell words, read and comprehend their own writing, and generate writing in response to texts. Further, these students may have difficulty recalling words, organizing their thoughts, and producing legible handwriting. Finally, as a result of these challenges some students may find writing to be unpleasant and may engage in off-task behaviors to avoid writing tasks. In this session, the presenters will describe an evaluation of a writing package comprised of response prompting, sentence frames, and selection-based technology for teaching students with intellectual disability to write about texts they read. The presenters implemented a single case multiple probe design across three elementary school students with ID. Data indicated that all three participants improved their writing performance and that two maintained improved performance after the termination of intervention. The presenters will discuss implications of their findings for both practitioners and researchers.

 
165. Toward a Conceptualization of Treatment-Refractory Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
LYNDE KAYSER (Judge Rotenberg Education Center), Jessica Lindsay (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), John O'Neill (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

In applied behavior analysis, great strides have been made in the treatment of problem behavior. However, behavior analytic interventions are not universally effective or efficient and in many cases are not curative. The term treatment-refractory is generally used across disciplines to describe conditions that do not respond to treatment or do not respond to a prescribed hierarchy of established treatments. We explore (1) established rationales for use of the term, definitions, and criteria adopted by other disciplines; (2) the rationale and conceptualization of treatment-refractory problem behavior in applied behavior analysis; (3) a working definition with inclusion/exclusion criteria; (4) idiosyncratic variables such as historical contingencies, physical attributes, medical conditions, and biological factors that impact the effectiveness of behavioral interventions; (5) regulatory restrictions that contribute to and in some cases exacerbate treatment-refractory problem behavior; and (6) limitations associated with the standard of care in applied behavior analysis. We assert that if applied behavior analysis is to continue to mature as a practice, it must acknowledge and examine the conditions under which treatment is not effective.

 
 

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