Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

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Poster Session #429
EDC Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 31, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Online
23.

Using Standardized Assessment to Identify and Teach Prerequisite Numeracy Skills to Learners With Disabilities Using Video Modeling

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT DUEKER (Ball State University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Learners with disabilities enter school without the prerequisite numeracy and mathematics skills to perform at or near the level of their typically developing peers (Newman et al., 2009). Even simple addition problems require prerequisite skills that are often not taught directly in schools (Browder & Spooner, 2006, 2011). Identifying and teaching those missing skills would reduce the learning gap and increase the lifelong independence of those learners. This study used a non-concurrent single-subject multiple baseline design across five learners with a pre-test/post-test analysis to examine the use of a norm-referenced, standardized assessment to identify gaps in student learning, create teaching protocols using video modeling, and assess overall growth after intervention. Individualized interventions were delivered using video models on iPads. Results indicated all learners were able to use the video models to acquire the missing skills and improve overall mathematics understanding, as measured by scores on a post-test. This has classroom implications due to the relative ease of administration of the assessment and teaching protocol as well as potential for improved outcomes for the learners.

 
24. Early Childhood Research: An Examination of Instructional Components
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
MOLLY E MILAM (York College of Pennsylvania), Jessica Hardy (University of Illinois)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to present the method and results of a literature review examining interventions in early childhood educational settings. Implications for research and practice also will be discussed. The review included 106 single-case, peer-reviewed studies with 389 participants (M age = 52.4 mos.) in inclusive and non-inclusive early childhood settings. Participants included 317 children with disabilities and 43 children considered to be at-risk. There were 174 opportunities to demonstrate a functional relation across the included studies. Instructional components and intervention effects of trial-based compared to non-trial-based interventions was examined. Studies’ evidence of complete learning trials, immediacy of reinforcement, reinforcement type, and trial format (massed vs. distributed) were reviewed and the relation of these instructional components on intervention effects is discussed. In addition, study rigor was examined using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines for high-quality research. Discussion of implications for research and practice will focus on the relationships between instructional components, intervention effects, and methodological rigor.
 
25.

Comparison of Video Modeling and Directed Instruction on Creating a Reversal Graph Using Microsoft Excel

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NIRUBA RASURATNAM (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University), Alison Cox (Brock University), Madeline Marie Asaro (Brock University), Laura Tardi (Children’s Autism Services of Edmonton), Arezu Alami (Brock University), Catherine McHugh (Brock University), Nancy Leathen (Brock University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Visual representation of results through graphing is an important method of determining the effectiveness of behavior analytic interventions. While several studies have been published on the effectiveness of task analyses to guide the construction of a variety of graphs, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a video model on graphing performance. We used a repeated measures between-groups design to compare the effects of a video model, an instructor-led tutorial, and no instruction on the graphing performance of an ABAB design graph with masters-level graduate students using Excel. We also compared the extent to which graphing performance improvements made with these modes of instruction generalized to the construction of a multielement design graph. Descriptive statistics showed that students in all groups improved their graphing performance; however, the video modeling condition showed greater improvements relative to the other two groups. Results will be discussed within the context of practical implications for teaching graphing skills, limitations, and suggestions for future research.

 
26. Intervention Results of Offering Extra Credit Activities on an Intermittent Schedule to Maintain Attendance
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PIK WAH LAM (University of South Dakota )
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This poster presents the results of an intervention offering extra credit activities on an intermittent schedule to maintain the attendance rate of undergraduate college students. It is very common to see a decrease in attendance rate in undergraduate courses as the semester goes by. An intervention was implemented in 3 undergraduate courses offered in a midwestern university aiming to maintain a high attendance rate throughout the semester. A total of 80 undergraduate students were enrolled in these three courses. During the intervention, activities for students to earn extra credit were offered on an intermittent schedule. While the decreasing trends of the attendance rate were stopped in all three courses, the results were not encouraging. The level of attendance overall in all three courses were slightly lower in the intervention phrase compared to the baseline phase. Offering extra credits in class activities on an intermittent schedule did not help maintaining attendance in this intervention. Other methods to help maintain the attendance of undergraduate college students should be explored in future interventions.
 
27. Digital Dominos Adapted Game for the Teaching of Multiplication
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SILVIA REGINA DE SOUZA ARRABAL GIL (Londrina State University), Gabriele Gris (Federal University of São Carlos), Jonas Fernandes Gamba (Londrina State University), Maria Rocha (Londrina State University), João S. Carmo (Federal University of São Carlos)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Developing competent Mathematical skills is fundamental for people’s lives and for society’s development. Thus, the search for new technologies to teach Math is a necessity. This study evaluated the effects of an adapted digital dominos game, based on the equivalence relations model, on multiplication learning. Five children aged between 7 and 9 participated in the study. Initially, oral naming of numeral sets and multiplication operations skills were evaluated (pre-test) through adapted board games. Next, they were taught the relations AB/BA, AC/CA and DC/CD and tested on of the relations BC/CB, AD/DA and DB/BD. A represents the class of Numerals, B the set of dots, C Numeral Multiplication Operations and D Multiplication with scales. Probes were applied to monitor changes in participants’ performances. Usability and engagement in the game were evaluated. All participants learned the relationships taught and showed the emergence of the relationships tested. After the intervention, all of them showed an increase in the percentage of correct operations with unknowns in the three different positions, both in the format of operations and scales. The potential of the procedure employed for teaching multiplication operations is discussed.
 
28.

Comparison Between Direct Instruction and Cooperative Learning Through French Language Teaching to Middle School Students

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CHIARA VECCHIOTTI (Istituto Comprensivo di Fara Filiorum Petri), Alessandro Dibari (Alba Onlus Association)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Direct Instruction (a behavioral strategy) and Cooperative Learning (a teaching methodology), on participatory responses and on off-task behaviors during the teaching of the French language in a group of students of middle school. In particular, the participants are 13 typically developing students in a regular class to which have been proposed some lessons with the two types of teaching, during normal educational activities. The following target behaviors has been taken into account: the participatory responses at each lesson; the correct answers to a questionnaire regarding the contents explained during the lessons; the correct answers to a follow-up check at each respective lesson; and the frequency of off-task behaviors. The results were evaluated with an alternating treatment design and they indicated that the use of the Direct Instruction strategy has determined a substantial increase in the correct answers to questionnaires, checks and in the student’s participation and a decrease in off-task behaviors with respect to Cooperative Learning. These results were discussed by taking also in view of the possible future implications on daily teaching.

 
29. Supporting Dialogic Reading Intervention Fidelity
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CARA DILLON (University of Cincinnati), Kavya Kandarpa (University of Cincinnati), Kandace Webb Mossing (University of Cincinnati), Megan Katherine Leamon (University of Cincinnati), Daniel Newman (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Dialogic reading is a research-based intervention that has been found to increase preliteracy skill; however, intervention fidelity is not always prioritized in research with dialogic reading which can lead to poorer intervention results. The purpose of the study of focus in this poster was to examine the effects of intervention supports on intervention fidelity of dialogic reading. The researchers hypothesized that intervention supports like scripted prompts or a checklist to boost or sustain high intervention fidelity, with scripted questions leading to the highest level of fidelity. In this alternating treatment design study, the researchers collected dialogic reading intervention fidelity with four teachers in preschool classrooms at a University based learning center. Three teachers demonstrated training effects from the baseline to video training phase with higher levels of intervention fidelity. While intervention fidelity was high in the alternating phase, the two supports did not differentiate in level or trend during the alternating treatment phase for any teacher. Thus, the researchers have concluded that 1) neither intervention fidelity support was superior to the other and 2) support in either form increases intervention fidelity for dialogic reading. Considerations for future research on dialogic reading and implications for practice will also be presented.
 
30. Training Teachers to Conduct Paired-Stimulus Preference Assessment Using Video Modeling
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELA MENDONÇA MENDONÇA RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia sobre Comportamento, Cognição e Ensino), Fernanda Mota (Universidade Federal de Alagoas)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract: A key component of successful intervention with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the identification of stimuli that may function as reinforcers. There is evidence in the literature that the paired-stimulus preference assessment is the most commonly used method for identifying preference. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of video modeling to train teachers of children with ASD to implement a paired-stimulus preference assessment. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across four teachers was used to assess the effects of video modeling on the implementation of the assessment. During pretests and posttests, participants were instructed to conduct a paired-stimulus preference assessment with a simulated consumer (an adult behaving as a child). During video modeling, they viewed a video that exhibited 15 steps to a correct implementation of a paired‐stimulus preference assessment. All participants conducted at least 90% of the steps correctly during posttests. One contribution of this study is that the content validity of the video was evaluated by a panel of experts before it was presented to participants. The study also demonstrates the effectiveness of video modeling alone as independent variable to train teachers to implement behavior analytic procedures.
 
31. Using Visual Supports to Teach Vocational Skills to Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARY BARCZAK (University of Oklahoma)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract: Students with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) need support to acquire vocational skills that can help them to find employment after high school. Current literature supports the use of video and picture prompts to teach job skills to students with IDD. Questions remain, however, about whether video or picture prompting interventions are more effective or efficient for teaching vocational skills to students with severe IDD. In this presentation, we share findings from a study comparing the use of video and picture prompts to teach vocational skills to four students with severe IDD. Findings show that students with severe IDD can be successful with new vocational skills when provided with evidence-based vocational instruction.
 
32.

Comparison of Three Variations of SAFMEDS Procedures

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AERIS DAWN FAST (Oregon Institute of Technology), Maria Lynn Kessler (Oregon Institute of Technology), Rachell Barrett (Oregon Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract:

Say-All-Fast-Minute-Every-Day-Shuffled (SAFMEDS) is a Precision Teaching and fluency method developed as an improvement on standard flashcards. While research suggests that SAFMEDS is effective in developing fluency, procedural variations in the use of SAFMEDS limit the generality of these findings. More research is needed to identify the most effective SAFMEDS procedure and address replication and generality issues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three variations of the SAFMEDS procedure a) three one-minute timings, b) five-minute practice prior to one-minute timing, and c) unlimited practice one-minute timing. Students enrolled in an undergraduate Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) course with three lab sections (Groups A, B, and C) participated. Students were instructed to use the assigned variation for the first exam. Group A and B alternated SAFMEDS procedures for exam 2 and group C used the same procedure for the whole term. Performance on exams was evaluated between groups and against two previous cohorts test scores. Results suggest the use of SAFMEDS was effective regardless of variation used. This study extends the current literature and supports findings that SAFMEDS may help to increase fluency among learners.

 
33.

Using Behavior Skills Training and a Group Contingency to Promote Mask-wearing in an Early Education Classroom

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN SMITH (University of Texas at San Antonio), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract:

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and the resulting pandemic has had widespread implications on the safety of the work that teachers do with students each day. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends people age 2 years and older should wear masks in public settings; however, for children with disabilities, wearing a mask may be difficult and as such, is not required (CDC, 2020). Special education teachers and students in particular are at high risk for exposure and contracting COVID-19. Therefore, behavior-analytic strategies that can teach and reinforce appropriate mask-wearing should be evaluated. In this study, students ages 3 to 5-years-old with developmental delays were taught how to properly wear a mask using behavior skills training (BST; Miltenberger, 2008) until all students were able to put on a mask independently. Then, a group contingency was utilized to reinforce the wearing of masks throughout the day in the classroom. Using a changing criterion design, BST and a group contingency was effective in increasing mask wearing for students in the classroom. A task analysis and instructions for implementation are provided and results discussed.

 
34. The Nurturing Brightness Network: Content and Platform Development for Disseminating Nurturing Strategies in Learning Contexts
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
FLORA MOURA LORENZO (University of Brasília), Aline Godoy Vieira (University of São Paulo), Darlene Cardoso Ferreira (Federal University of Pará)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract: Basic Education indicators in Brazil have improved in the last decades, mainly in terms of increased access. However, high dropout and school failure rates remain significant, preventing around 40% of students from finishing their studies before the age of 19. This social issue set the basis for the development of the Nurturing Brightness Network, an online community platform targeting Education sector professionals interested in learning enhancement through nurturing environments. The project aims to spread core elements from the Good Behavior Game linked with its positive effects on pupils' self-regulation and self-control, which increase their engagement in pedagogical tasks and peer collaboration. Five blocks of content were developed in video lessons about behavior analytic tools for classroom management, shared on the project website. Content covered basic features of nurturing environments, tips for promoting prosocial interaction, and the role of environmental events imbalance in disruptive behavior maintenance. One Brazilian teacher experienced in the Good Behavior Game was interviewed, and a forum was developed to promote support among practitioners. Three modules, interviews with experts, prompts for forum engagement, and nudging of key stakeholders are scheduled before the project's first-year completion, followed by an assessment of the platform effects on social contagion of nurturing.
 
Diversity submission 35. Effects of Virtual Behavior Skills Training on Instruction and Behavior Management to Support an Inclusive Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ALYSON PADGETT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles), Eric L. Carlson (TCSPP; ABA program)
Discussant: Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Abstract: In the current inclusive educational climate, general education teachers are expected to provide effective instruction to special education students within their classrooms. Unfortunately, teachers are typically insufficiently prepared to provide these services/supports by either formal training or from workshop training. Moreover, a substantial body of research suggests that without local follow up coaching, workshop training is generally ineffective. On a positive note, behavior skills training (BST) is an empirically supported training procedure that has been successfully applied to a variety of settings and types of professionals. The current research demonstrated the effectiveness of BST, on four elementary school teachers’ acquisition of multiple instructional and classroom management skills, in an effort to facilitate the inclusion of special education students. The study utilized a multiple-baseline across participants design to determine the effects of BST on skill acquisition. The results obtained from this study extend the effectiveness of BST to the general education population while targeting multiple pinpoints at once. Additionally, the results provide evidence for the effectiveness of BST in fully virtual training and coaching model. Overall, the results have identified a set of procedures that provide general education teachers more effective instructional approaches to better meet inclusion needs in their classrooms.
 
 

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