Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

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Poster Session #431
CSS Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 31, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Online
Diversity submission 36. Pay Equity in Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
HANNA E. VANCE (Brock University), Valdeep Saini (Brock University)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: Pay equity is the practice of minimizing employee wage inequalities based on gender, race, and other criteria. The goal of this practice is to ensure equitable compensation for comparable work and experience. Historically, pay discrepancies have existed in a wide range of professional fields, however, the degree to which equal and fair pay occurs among practicing applied behavior analysts is currently unknown, and represents an important step for ensuring parity in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). We conducted an online survey to gather pay information from certified behavior analysts and analyzed pay equity across race and gender for each level of certification. Findings suggest that (a) males earn a greater annual income than females at the RBT, BCABA, and BCBA levels of certification, (b) non-minorities (e.g., White) earn more than minorities (e.g., Black) at BCBA-D level, (c) pay discrepancies are amplified when race and gender intersect, and (d) the large proportion of employers in ABA are non-minorities (e.g., White). We discuss the implications of these findings and provide suggestions for improving pay equity in ABA
 
37.

An Antecedent Assessment for Face Touching With Implications for Habit Reversal

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
EMMA AUTEN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Carole M. Van Camp (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Hands are a vector for the transmission of a variety of infections and it is commonly recognized that touching the eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands may transmit infections (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020). Face touching has not frequently been evaluated in the behavioral literature; however, face touching can be considered a socially significant behavior in need of assessment and intervention. The current study evaluated face touching across various antecedent conditions as a replication of previous research (Bosch, 2011; Woods & Miltenberger, 1996) over Zoom. Conditions were conducted with participants at a desk and included an alone condition where the participant was not allowed access to any materials, a demand condition where participants were asked to answer a sequence of demanding math problems, and a free condition where participants were allowed access to preferred items. Face touching among participants has been variable, with some participants showing differentiation between conditions. Implications for habit reversal interventions will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 38. Acceptance and Commitment Training and Cultural Humility: Conceptual and Applied Congruence
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
KIAN ASSEMI (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada School of Medicine), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno), Anayansi Lombardero (University of Nevada, Reno), Allison Cotton (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: The concept of cultural humility originated from the medical field and was first introduced by Tervalon and Murray-García (1998). Cultural humility is defined as understanding self and others; recognizing one’s prejudices and cultural misperceptions; engaging in continuous self-critique, challenging power differentials in working relationships and in organizations; developing an attitude of not knowing, and an openness to learn from the client (Danso, 2018). Given the severity of issues such as racial healthcare treatment discrepancies (Institute of Medicine, 2003), there is a need for cultural humility training in a broad range of areas including, but not limited to, the medical field. The behavior scientific contribution of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) to this area of skill development provides a wide range of research and applications including the reduction of provider stigma (Masuda et al., 2007), and microaggressions in racially charged patient-provider interactions (Kanter et al. 2020). Conceptually, the ACT model which employs scientific processes to increase behavioral flexibility complement the foundational account of cultural humility. The purpose of the current poster is to articulate the conceptual connections between cultural humility and ACT, and discuss ways future interventions utilizing ACT may increase cultural humility in medical education and beyond.
 
Sustainability submission 39.

An Initial Evaluation on the Validity of an Itemized Climate Change Assessment

Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
SYDNEY JENSEN (Utah Valley University), Meagan Grasley (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract:

In recent years, concerns relating to global warming and the need for reducing carbon emissions has increased. An effective approach for reducing overall carbon emissions is to increase sustainability related behaviors. While such an approach affords this utility, an underlying factor that potentially limits the extent to which individuals engage in sustainable behavior is limited knowledge or information as to what specific behaviors are considered to be sustainable. As such, there is a need for a methodology to identify deficits as they relate to sustainability behavior. The current study discusses the development of an assessment designed to provide a measure of an individual’s sustainability behavior. In addition, researchers sought to evaluate the validity of the assessment by determining the extent to which assessment scores were related to carbon output. Scores for the sustainability assessment as well as carbon footprint measures were collected, and a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was obtained between the two measures. The results showed a moderate, negative correlation between scores on the sustainability assessment and carbon footprint measures. These findings suggest the sustainability assessment is a valid tool which has good correspondence with other sustainability measures, and it can be used to identify sustainability related behavior deficits.

 
40.

Prerequisites for an Effective Feminist Countercontrol

Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
JORDANA FONTANA (Cesumar University ), Denisse Brust (State University of Londrina), Carolina Laurenti (State University of Londrina)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Feminist countercontrol (or feminist resistance to oppression) might have its emancipatory potential compromised if understood in an apolitical way that disregards the necessary collective articulations for its occurrence. Seeking to point to some directions that might help avoid those risks, the aim of this work is to outline some prerequisites for countercontrol not to be emptied of its transformative political potential when connected to feminism. These conditions are: 1) a feminist verbal community compounded by one (or several) organized groups of women; 2) the recognition of the different kinds of oppressive controls that stem from the masculine domination system; 3) women's intersectional self-knowledge in oppressive gendered controls to enable them to build self-definitions about their own reality; 4) micro and macropolitical confrontation of that oppression by articulating redistribution and recognition politics and 5) resistance to backlash based on self-control and sorority. A concept of countercontrol understood in those terms and intertwined with that conceptual web mitigates the risks of political emptying and neoliberal co-optations of the movement, increasing the chances of an effective social transformation that positively affects all women.

 
41. Behavioral Training of Local Enumerators for Observing Exposure of Young Children to Campylobacter in Ethiopia
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH SCHIEBER (University of Florida), Crystal M. Slanzi (University of Florida), Abdulmuen Mohammad (Haramaya University), Arie Havelaar (University of Florida), Song Liang (University of Florida), Sarah McKune (University of Florida)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: The “Exposure Assessment of Campylobacter Infections in Rural Ethiopia (EXCAM)” project is an ongoing study being conducted to determine how children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to Campylobacter, a genus of bacteria linked to negative health outcomes (e.g., significant diarrhea-associated mortality and morbidity, environmental enteric dysfunction, malnutrition, stunting). EXCAM involves microbiological sampling to determine where Campylobacter live in livestock and behavioral observations to detect how infants contact those reservoirs through food and environmental pathways. These data will be used to create models of exposure pathways. Accurate behavioral observations are necessary to identify how children are being exposed to these bacteria. Enumerators will take continuous data on infants’ behaviors using a tablet-based application, Countee™, for two, five-hour observations per participant. We developed and implemented training procedures to ensure the enumerators take accurate data. Enumerators were trained to collect behavioral data using behavior skills training with videos of local infants until they reached 80% inter-observer agreement with novel videos. Enumerators will also complete regular maintenance observations to monitor potential observer drift. Increased accuracy of behavioral observations may increase the validity of the exposure pathways, which will better inform future interventions to decrease Campylobacter exposure in children in LMICs.
 
Diversity submission 42. Impact of COVID-19 on Medical Students’ Perception of Acceptance and Commitment Training
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
BRYAN ATTRIDGE (University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Andrew Kim (University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Ngantu Le (University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Maebob Enokenwa (University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: There is a growing body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) with higher education populations (Chase, et al., 2013; Paliliunas, et al., 2015). However, research is limited on the efficacy and/or social validity of ACT among medical students, a population at increased risk for experiencing time restrictions; social and academic stressors; and conflicting demands leading to multi-tasking. If left untreated, medical students may develop maladaptive coping strategies that can hinder patient care (e.g., medical error or biased care). Given the complexity of the medical training systems and stressful nature of medical students’ experiences throughout medical education, students’ feedback pertaining to the dosage, duration, and timing of ACT exposure is critical to its impact. This study’s primary goal was to investigate the relationship between medical student perceptions of ACT prior to and following the initiating events of the COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary results suggested students had mostly neutral perceptions of ACT trainings prior to COVID-19. Results on student perceptions in the wake of COVID-19 are currently being collected. Further analyses and implications will be discussed.
 
Diversity submission 43. Exploring Gender Discrimination and Relational Density Theory
Area: CSS; Domain: Basic Research
ELANA KEISSA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University), Erin Travis (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to utilize concepts from Relational Density Theory (RDT) Belisle & Dixon (2020) to evaluate college student participants resistance to change (mass) in terms of gender stereotyping relations. To assess volume in networks, researchers provided a list of descriptor words that were socially considered feminine or masculine and instructed the participants to label how related or unrelated the gender descriptor words were to one another given no other context. Then participants were provided with a series of scenarios with arbitrary names and gender identifiers (male or female) and asked to associate the gender descriptive characteristics with the gendered scenarios. Either strengthening or weakening previously established relations of gender (density). Results showed that participants did have a change in responding given the gendered scenarios. The feminine descriptor words (fickle, emotional, affectionate, and prudish) were strengthened based on the given scenarios, whereas the masculine descriptor words (aggressive, coarse and forceful) remained neutral or with no significant changes in responding. Providing the gender descriptor even further strengthened coherent relations and weakened non-coherent relations, consistent with previous work on relational density theory (Belisle & Clayton, in press).
 
Diversity submission 44.

Exploring the Relationship Between Familial Responsibility and Risk-Aversion

Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA M VENEGONI (Missouri State University ), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Missouri State University), Brittany Sellers (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract:

Prior research over multiple generations has shown lower levels of risk-taking in females compared to males, and lower risk taking in mothers compared to non-mothers (Abbott-Chapman et al., 2007). Risk can be defined behaviorally within a choice-making framework where choices confer a probabilistic gain that co-occurs with a probabilistic loss. Low levels of risk-taking can be advantageous in some contexts but harmful in others. For example, Ekelund et al. (2005) showed that individuals who demonstrated high risk aversion were less likely to become independent entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship may be considered risky because, although the financial potential is high, so too are social, financial, and temporal loses. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between a shared experience of mothers – parenting – on probability discounting as a behavioral model of risk and risk aversion. Participants completed three probability discounting tasks. The first was the standard discounting task. In the second task, the participants imagined that they had a young child and were required to actively interact with this scenario before completing the discounting task. In the third task, the participants imagined the child had a chronic illness that necessitated lengthy hospitalization. Results showed that the least risky (i.e., lowest discounting rates) were observed in the condition with the sick child, and the most risky (i.e., highest discounting rates) were observed in the baseline condition. These results suggest that contextual factors associated with parenting may mediate risk-taking in mothers with implications for employment, advancement, and entrepreneurship.

 
45. Evaluating the Internal Consistency of a Behavioral Measure of Pro-Climate Behavior: Relationship to Emissions and Consumption
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
MEREDITH MATTHEWS (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
Abstract: The point of no return (PNR) is rapidly approaching and if we are to recover the earths climate before reaching that point, individual behavior changes must be made. In this study, we began with a list of 100 pro-environmental behavior changes along with an online test that explains how many Earths would be required to sustain it if everyone on Earth behaved like the individual taking the test. An initial analysis was run to determine if any of the items were directly correlated with the number of Earths consumed, and it revealed three mindfulness items were the only ones directly correlated with number of Earths. An exploratory factor analysis was used to eliminate the items that essentially had nothing to do with the rest of the assessment and identify which, if any, of the items were correlated with any of the other items. We used a principal component analysis to determine which of the 100 items were directly correlated with the number of Earths consumed. The scree plot revealed three separate clusters of which one cluster, comprised of 20 items, was statistically significant (p<.001). Of the 20 items that remained, the majority of the items focus on purchasing patterns and mindfulness, thus discarding the argument that individual behavior isn’t predictive of climate change.
 
 

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