Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

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Poster Session #254
Sunday, May 30, 2021
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Online
Diversity submission 24.

Higher Education Dual Enrollment for Students With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY BLANCA RODRIGUES (Bridgewater State University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Of all students with disabilities, individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities (ID) have the fewest post-school educational prospects. High school students with autism and ID often have the difficult experience of watching their general education peers and siblings go on to further their education while they are left behind. Typical opportunities for these individuals, particularly those past the age of 18, have been restricted to isolated public-school classrooms (until they reach 22) or community-based day habilitation centers. Lately in the area of special education there is an appeal for the advancement and growth of higher education opportunities for students with autism and ID. In response, school systems and institutions of higher education have started partnering to offer transition services through dual enrollment to individuals ages 18 through 21 with autism and ID. This poster offers a synopsis of effective models of higher education dual enrollment for students with autism and intellectual disabilities applied at one public university. These include a college inclusion model using mentoring during the day and in the residence halls in the evenings where students with autism and ID are fully assimilated into all aspects of the college experience. Relevant supporting research will be discussed and an exploration of the implications and approaches for creation and implementation of partnership programs will be put forward.

 
25. Video Self-Modeling as a Classroom Based Intervention to Reduce Off-Task Behavior in Mainstream Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STEVEN G. LITTLE (Walden University), Angeleque Akin-Little (Walden University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: Video Self-Modeling involves individuals observing images of him/herself engaging in a desired behavior with the intent to increase the probability of the behavior occurring again. Video Self-Modeling has been used to improve academic success and/or promote positive change in a range of behaviors, most frequently with those diagnosed with disorders such as Selective Mutism or Autism Spectrum Disorder. There are a limited number of studies on the effects of Video Self-Modeling for non-exceptional students in a mainstream school. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of Video Self-Modeling on intermediate school students in New Zealand who were identified by their teacher as engaging in off-task behavior. Participants were videoed completing independent tasks in literacy, the recording was edited to remove instances of off-task behavior, and then viewed by each participant before school for 3 weeks. The mean number of words participants wrote, and the frequency of off-task behavior were recorded. Results indicated that all four students made gains in the amount of work completed. Two of four participants demonstrated a reduction in all three recorded off-task behaviors and two participants in two out of the three off-task behaviors. Practical implications are discussed.
 
Diversity submission 26.

Online Parent Training on Behavioral Principles for Korean Parents of Children With Disabilities

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JAMES LEE (Department of Special Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Consistent challenging behaviors of young children are known to have significant impact on the child’s optimal development, such as social-emotional development or communication skills (Dunlap et al., 2006). Parents of children who exhibit challenging behaviors report that these behaviors have negative effects on family’s stress, social isolation, and well-being (Meadan et al., 2010). Furthermore, many parents who live in low-resource settings outside the United States report exacerbated hardships due to limited access to resources, such as Korea. To strengthen capacity of parents in Korea, who have limited access to resources, we developed and examined the effectiveness of a series of online parent training modules on behavioral principles using a randomized controlled trial with waitlist control group (N = 88). We found significant interaction effects of Group X Time for (a) parental knowledge of behavioral principles, (b) positive parenting practices, and (c) parental stress, with no preexisting differences between the two groups. Qualitative social validity data indicated that parents were highly satisfied with the goals, procedures, and outcomes, and that the modules affected their parenting styles, increased knowledge leading to better child outcomes, and recommendations for future research.

 
27.

Functional Communication Training Using Concurrent and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement in Public Elementary School Classrooms

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA TORELLI (Western Kentucky University), Blair Lloyd (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities frequently engage in escape-maintained problem behavior, which can limit their access to academic instruction and lead to placement in more restrictive educational settings. While there are function-based interventions to treat escape-maintained problem behavior, these interventions have primarily been evaluated in clinic settings using procedures, such as extinction, that are not feasible for teachers to implement in classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a multi-component intervention without extinction to treat escape-maintained problem behavior for two children with developmental delays (one child also had autism). Functional analyses indicated each participant’s problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement, including escape. Functional communication training + concurrent schedules reduced problem behavior for one of two participants and increased functional communicative responses for both participants. Chained schedules were implemented with one participant; results showed work completion and some types of functional communicative responses came under stimulus control, but rates of problem behavior showed an increasing trend. Results suggest continued evaluation of chained and concurrent schedules following functional communication training is warranted. Implications for future research are discussed.

 
28. Intervention Results of Using Extra Credit to Increase Quiz Scores for College Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PIK WAH LAM (University of South Dakota )
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: This poster presents the results of an intervention using extra credit as a positive reinforcer in a token economy system to increase students’ weekly quiz scores. The intervention was conducted in a Special Education course offered in a midwestern 4-year university. A total of 46 undergraduate students were enrolled in the course. Tokens were given to students who scored from 8 to 10 points out of 10 points in each weekly quiz. Students could use the tokens they earned to exchange for extra credits at the end of the semester. An AB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The first three weekly quizzes served as a baseline. The intervention was conducted throughout the rest of the semester. Results suggested that there is a very slight increase in the overall class average in the weekly quizzes. The mean score of the weekly quiz was increased by 1.02 points from 7.39 to 8.41 from baseline to intervention respectively. Extra credit showed small positive effects on students' scores in the weekly quizzes and was demonstrated to be an effective positive reinforcer. Stronger reinforcers should be identified and other extra credit delivery methods should also be examined in the future.
 
29. Effects of Intensive Coaching on Educator Implementation of a Comprehensive Function-based Intervention Package
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARNEY SQUIRES POLLACK (Vanderbilt University), Johanna Staubitz (Vanderbilt University), Blair Lloyd (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Kayla Crook (University of Mississippi)
Abstract: The effectiveness of behavioral interventions in schools depends heavily on the ability of educators to implement procedures with fidelity. However, much of the training literature focuses on teaching educators to implement interventions with relatively few components (Kirkpatrick et al., 2019). We used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the effects of an intensive coaching package on educator fidelity of a comprehensive, function-based intervention package (skill-based treatment; Hanley et al., 2014) for three public school educators without previous training in applied behavior analysis. The coaching package included (a) teaching one intervention component to mastery at a time, (b) practicing trials with pre-trial and in-vivo feedback, and (c) individualizing coaching procedures based on intervention fidelity data and participant feedback. Relative to a workshop-style behavioral skills training session, intensive coaching increased educators’ fidelity to criterion levels. Criterion fidelity in one or both intervention intervals generalized from implementation with an actor to the target student, and subsequently to the student’s regularly assigned classroom. Educators reported the training package to be feasible and the intervention to be effective for improving their student’s behavior. Results of this study highlight the need to individualize coaching supports for educators learning to implement comprehensive, function-based interventions.
 
30. Teaching Graduate Students to Identify and Adhere to Practicum Requirements
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN ATKINSON (Regis College), Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College), Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: A critical component of becoming eligible for Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB®) certification is the completion of fieldwork experience hours according to the BACB Experience Standards (2018). The accrual of experience hours must meet stringent criteria and are strongly recommended to be documented using the BACB Fieldwork Tracker. Thirteen graduate students of behavior analysis were taught to enter data into the BACB Fieldwork Tracker using mock fieldwork scenarios. Training was conducted using group behavioral skills training (BST). The training occurred remotely using both synchronous and asynchronous components. Of the 13 participants, 11 showed improvement from baseline and 10 met and maintained performance at mastery levels at the end of the study. Results suggest training on the Fieldwork Tracker is necessary and BST is effective. Social validity scores indicated most participants felt the training was helpful and reported lower levels of fieldwork accrual-related stress following training (81.8% and 72.7%, respectively). Limitations and areas for future research are discussed.
 
31. The Frequency of Behavior Analysis in School Psychology Literature: A Review of 20 Years
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN GALANAUGH (Queens College, City University of New York), Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University), Paulina Luczaj (Seton Hall University), Ashley Younger (Seton Hall University), Fabiana R Cacciaguerra (Seton Hall University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Although assessment for special education services continues to be a primary role of school psychologists, an increased role in behavioral assessment and treatment has been noted over time (Bahr et al., 2017). School psychologists are frequently required to conduct functional behavior assessments for student problem behavior as well as follow Response to Intervention treatment models. Both activities can be considered rooted within the theories and procedures of behavior analysis (Johnson et al., 2018; Ardoin et al., 2016). This indicates a need for behavior analytic research within the school psychology literature. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of articles consistent with the theories and practices of applied behavior analysis (operant and respondent conditioning models of assessment and intervention) published in four school psychology journals between 2000 and 2020. A total of 2765 original research articles were reviewed by looking for the presence of ABA focused content within the title or abstract. Results indicate that only 5.5% of articles (n=153) had a primary focus reflective of ABA theory or practice. These data were lower than would have been expected given the current job roles reported by practicing school psychologists. The authors will discuss the implications of this finding to the practice of psychology in the schools.
 
32.

A 30-Year Systematic Review of the Use of Self-Monitoring for Improving Teacher Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
TERESA CROWSON (Old Dominion University), Selena J Layden (Old Dominion University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Self-monitoring, by encompassing the methodical observation of one’s own behavior, is a process which can be used by teachers to improve their performance in the classroom. In this systematic review, we identified 22 articles of published research that included teachers as participants implementing self-monitoring procedures in a school setting from 1990 through 2020. These studies were analyzed with a focus on participants, dependent and independent variables, type of self-monitoring used, and outcomes. In addition, the studies were analyzed using the Council for Exceptional Children’s Quality Indicators for study quality. Results yielded 21 of 22 studies having indicated positive results, though some included self-monitoring as part of an intervention package. However, only eight of the 22 studies met all of the quality indicators.

 
33.

An Analysis of Stimulus Presentation on Fluent Performance

Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
COURTNEY SMITH (University of Nevada, Reno), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno), Helen Tecle Kidane (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

The demand for effective and efficient instruction in education is clear; research at the experimental level is needed in order to extend a behavior analytic understanding of the process of learning. The purpose of the current study was to extend the understanding of learning by manipulating the presentation of stimuli presented in an array. Two presentation types were examined: An Additive Presentation (starting with one stimulus and progressively adding stimuli) and a Complete Presentation (presenting all stimuli). The targeted response was assessed using measures of fluency including performance standards, application, and endurance. Data show that an Additive Presentation of stimuli is correlated with more time to meet criteria (defined by fluency aims) than is a Complete Presentation of stimuli when the stimulus set is comprised of five stimuli. When the stimulus set size is comprised of seven stimuli, data show that the order of presentation is the more relevant factor.

 
34.

Response Accuracy Does Not Align With Generalization During Discrete-Trial Instruction

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MADELINE JOYCE MURPHY (West Virginia University), Catherine Williams (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Discrete-trial instruction (DTI) involves training response(s) under the discriminative control of multiple stimuli. A desired outcome of DTI is often that responses generalize to novel examples and not to novel nonexamples (i.e., concept formation). Multiple factors influence acquisition and generalization, though factors that influence acquisition may not have the same effect on generalization and vice-versa. Previous experiments demonstrated that the number of distinct stimuli included in training (i.e., set size) is one factor that affects acquisition during DTI, but did not evaluate whether the response taught generalized to novel stimuli. The present experiment measure acquisition and generalization with college students across two conditions: 1) gradually increasing the number of stimuli and 2) including all stimuli from the start of training. The findings suggest that the number of distinct stimuli required for acquisition and generalization varied across participants. Generally, response accuracy during training was not an indicator of response accuracy in the generalization probes nor did response accuracy during generalization probes indicate training mastery. However, response accuracy was more highly correlated with generalization when all stimuli were included from the start of training. The relation between generalization and accuracy-based mastery and considerations regarding mastery criteria for DTI when generalization is a desired outcome are discussed.

 
35. Noncontingent Reinforcement in the Classroom: Effects on Levels of On-Task Behavior and Inappropriate Vocalizations in a Virtual Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY WILTSCH (University of Missouri-St Louis), Keely Stephens (Special School District), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Schools and clinics have had to adjust their practices to provide services in a virtual setting on a greater scale than in previous years. In order to ensure students and clients receive the most effective treatment possible, there needs to be an increased focus on determining appropriate interventions to apply in the virtual setting. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) has been shown to be effective with students with a wide variety of disabilities (Austin & Soeda, 2008; Noel & Getch, 2016; Rasmussen & O'Neill, 2006). It has also been shown to be effective when implemented during typical classroom and group activities with selected students (Austin & Soeda, 2008; Noel & Getch, 2016). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of NCR on the levels of on-task behavior and inappropriate vocalizations for three students with developmental disabilities in a middle-school, self-contained classroom in the virtual setting. Results indicated that NCR can be used virtually within a group setting to increase on-task behavior and decrease inappropriate vocalizations when implement as a package along with other intervention components.
 
36.

Reset Contingencies are Not Necessary to Maintain Quiz Submission in College Students

Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HELOISA CURSI CAMPOS (University of Central Oklahoma)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Escalating reinforcement schedules with reset contingencies maintain drug abstinence. Escalating reinforcement schedules can also sustain quiz submission in college students. This study investigated if the reset contingency is necessary for the submission of optional weekly quizzes. Undergraduate students were divided into three groups—fixed reinforcement schedule (Fixed Group), escalating reinforcement schedule without a reset contingency (No-Reset Group), and escalating reinforcement schedule with a reset contingency (Reset Group). The baseline measured how many participants submitted quizzes 1 and 2. Next, participants could earn 50 bonus points for submitting quizzes 3 through 12. Participants in the Fixed Group earned 5 bonus points for each quiz submission. Participants in the No-Reset and Reset Groups earned 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, and 7 bonus points for submitting respectively quizzes 3 through 12. If participants in the Reset Group missed one quiz, the bonus points reset at 3. Results showed fewer participants in the Fixed Group who submitted quizzes 3-12 while participants in the No-Reset Group submitted more quizzes throughout the study. Participants in the No-Reset Group also sustained more consecutive quiz submissions. These results suggest that the reset contingency is not necessary to maintain quiz submission in college students.

 
37.

On DeMAND: Mand Training in the Classroom

Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ADRIENNE JADE BOHLEN (Western Michigan University), Alyssa R McElroy (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Van Stratton (Western Michigan University), Mindy Newhouse-Oisten (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Mand training is an evidence-based strategy that involves altering the motivating operations (MOs) in a student’s environment and is commonly used to increase requests made among students with and without developmental disabilities (Jennett et al., 2008). There is evidence that behavior analysts serving as consultants can use Behavioral Skills Training (BST) to effectively train teachers and other classroom professionals to implement interventions with high fidelity, including mand training (Hsieh et al., 2011; Homlitas et al., 2014; Nigro-Bruzzi & Sturmey, 2010; Suberman & Cividini-Motta, 2020). The current project adds to previous literature on the utility of BST to train teachers and classroom staff to implement mand training in an early childhood special education (ECSE) setting. Using instructions, modeling, feedback, and in-vivo practice, staff were trained to contrive and capitalize on naturally occurring opportunities to teach requesting to ECSE students with varying verbal repertoires. Once classroom staff met mastery criterion for each skill with a confederate, they were observed with students in the classroom, and generalization of skills were measured. Results of the project will be shared and discussed in relation to past findings in the literature and future applications for the field.

 
 

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