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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #271
Sunday, May 27, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Carlos Cancado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil)
1. An Evaluation of Training and Testing Procedures Designed to Facilitate the Emergence of Early Probe Performances Following Simple Discrimination Training in Young Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CONNOR SHEEHAN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Anna Reeves Shepherd (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Richelle Elizabeth Hurtado (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Recent work in stimulus equivalence has demonstrated that three-term contingency training with class-specific reinforcement can generate emergent stimulus relations in children; however, procedures have not been universally effective for all participants, especially in the first probe phase. Experiment 1 investigated the usefulness of adding variations of identity match-to-sample training with the reinforcer stimuli prior to simple discrimination training with compound discriminative stimuli and compound class-specific reinforcers. Six children (ages 4-5) were allocated to one of three variations of identity training (i.e., training with both elements of the compound consequences, training with one element, or no identity training). The four participants who received identity training demonstrated emergent relations quickly. In the absence of identity training, one participant showed delayed emergence during the early probe blocks, and class-consistent responding throughout later probe blocks. The other did not demonstrate equivalence relations until identity training was added (See Figure 1). Experiment 2 investigates the order of probe-test presentation as an influence on the demonstration of equivalence following simple discrimination training, using a simple-to-complex protocol. Three children (ages 4 – 5) are participating. The results from these experiments will assess whether establishing certain prerequisite skills (e.g., identity matching, more basic emergent relations) will facilitate the equivalence demonstrations.
2. A Further Evaluation of Successive Matching-to-Sample in Establishing Equivalence Classes
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KARINA ZHELEZOGLO (California State University, Sacramento), Timothy G. Howland (California State University, Sacramento ), Areli Perez (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: Previous research has evaluated successive matching-to-sample as an alternative to traditional matching-to-sample procedures. The purpose of this study was to replicate and address limitations of Lantaya, Miguel, Howland, LaFrance, and Page (in press). Two experiments evaluated the effectiveness of successive matching to sample to establish emergent relations with undergraduate college students. Following training of baseline relations (AB/BC), participants were tested for emergence of untrained relations (i.e., BA/CB and AC/CA). In both Exp.1 and 2, participants read the instructions out loud, access to instructions was provided during the duration of the experiment, the comparison stimulus was presented for eight seconds in all conditions and training mastery criterion was two blocks at 100% correct. All eight participants demonstrated emergence of BA/CB relations. All four participants passed AC/CA test in Exp. 1 and three out of four passed AC/CA test in Exp. 2. Overall, seven out of eight participants demonstrated emergence of equivalence (AC/CA) responding, indicating that successive matching-to-sample might be a viable alternative to traditional matching-to-sample to establish emergent relations.
3. Insertion of Silhouettes, Icons, and Arbitrary Members Into Visual Stimulus Categories Learned by Capuchin Monkeys
Area: EAB/DEV; Domain: Basic Research
OLAVO DE FARIA GALVÃO (Federal University of Para State), Icaro Pereira (Federal University of Para State), Kaimon Borges (Federal University of Para State), Victoria Costa (Federal University of Para State), Ana Leda Brino (Federal University of Para State), Paulo R. K. Goulart (Federal University of Para State)
Abstract: Search for stimulus class formation in animals has been elusive. There is no replication of reported positive findings. An experimental model should allow replication intra and inter subjects, with reduced variability, in any laboratory minimally equipped. True matching to sample - MTS has been demonstrated for identity but not for arbitrary stimulus relations in Capuchin Monkeys. Monkeys with history of generalized identity MTS were trained with success in a repeated shift simple simultaneous discrimination procedure with 3 and 12 stimuli to choose the stimulus of a category. Twelve categories with 5 members each were positive in shifts. Later they showed consistent performance when a new stimulus was introduced in each category. Silhouettes were then introduced and consistent performance was obtained. Transfer of simple discrimination to new stimulus, including silhouettes, is still stimulus generalization. Icons will be inserted and training will be provided if necessary. Arbitrary stimuli will be inserted to form a functional class with 5 pictures, one silhouette, one icon and one arbitrary stimulus in each class. Transfer to category conditional discrimination in the MTS format with 3 and 12 simultaneous comparisons with the pictures will be tested and trained if necessary. Emergence of conditional relations of silhouettes, icons and arbitrary stimuli -trained in the simple discrimination format- to the pictures will be tested. Consistent association of arbitrary members to every baseline member with training of symmetric and transitive relations may facilitate the insertion of the new stimulus into the category set by functionality.
4. Emotions and False Memories
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NATALIA MARIA AGGIO (Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil), Julio C. De Rose (Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil)
Abstract: Behavior analysts have been investigating false memories using the stimulus equivalence paradigm. In this experiment, we aimed to investigate if transfer of different function after equivalence class formation would affect false memories. The Experimental Group (EG) learned matching-to-sample (MTS) relations to establish three four-member (Classes 1, 2 and 3) and three 12-member (Classes 4, 5 and 6) equivalence classes. Stimuli were familiar pictures (nodes) and nonsense words. In Classes 4, 5 and 6, the familiar stimuli were pictures of faces portraying emotions of happiness, neutrality, and anger, respectively. Participants who meet criteria in equivalence MTS tests and participants who did not perform any MTS tasks (control group CG) evaluated two nonsense words from Classes 4, 5 and 6 and the pictures portraying emotions, using the Sematic Differential (SD). A week later, participants from EG saw three lists with nine nonsense words from Classes 4, 5 and 6, in a total of 27 stimuli in the list. After a three minutes distracter task, participants saw three new lists composed by all stimuli from previously list (Targets), the remaining nonsense words form Classes 5, 4 and 6 (Critical Distractors) and the nonsense words from Classes 1, 2 and 3 (Non-related distracters). Participants should indicate witch stimuli were presented on the first lists. The seven participants from EG who finished the experiment evaluated the nonsense words of each equivalence class similar to the evaluation of the faces by the CG. They also recognized significantly more critical than non-related distracters only in the list composed by stimuli from neutral class.
5. Developing a Novel Preparation to Analyze the Onset of Derived Stimulus Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CASEY MCKOY IRWIN (College of Charleston), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston)
Abstract: In an arbitrary-matching-to-sample procedure, participants who are taught AB and AC conditional discriminations also derive untaught relations involving the same stimuli. For example, derived relations include BA and CA symmetrical relations and BC or CB equivalence relations. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact moments these derived relations are learned because the typical assessment involves presenting the testing trials (e.g., BC) only after the baseline relations (AB and AC) are well learned. The goal of the present research is to develop a novel preparation to analyze when these different derived relations are learned. Participants were presented with both training trials and testing trials in every session from the start of experimentation. As such, it potentially allows us to monitor the development of derived stimulus relations in real time as the participants learn the relevant baseline discriminations. Results show that each participant learned each of the six discriminations. More importantly, the symmetrical relations emerged in close temporal proximity with the baseline discriminations, whereas the equivalence relations emerged later in time. These results are consistent with several findings in the operant-stimulus-control literature and validate the utility of the present preparation in future experimental analyses of derived relational learning.
6. Do Names Given to Stimuli by Participants Become Part of Equivalence Classes?
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
ALEKSANDER VIE (Østfold University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The current study tested if names given by adult participants to the stimuli when asked to talk aloud became a part of the stimulus classes. Training the conditional discriminations and testing for emergent relations was conducted with a Many-to-One training structure in 6-s delayed Matching-to-Sample (DMTS) setup, with potentially three 3-member classes. After the test, the vocal names given by the participants were included as textual stimuli in sorting tests. In the sorting tests, the three first stimuli drawn from the stack of cards were names given by the participant, one name from each class. The next nine stimuli were the stimuli used in the DMTS procedure, with the three last stimuli in the stack being the stimuli corresponding with the names at the beginning of the stack. If the participants put a stimulus on top of one of the names, the card with the name automatically hid the stimulus. Initial results show that the names given by the participants become a part of the stimulus classes (see Table 1). Thus, the three-member classes seemingly also include the names participants give the stimuli.
7. The Effects of Mixing Baseline Among Emergent Test Trials on Equivalence Class Formation in Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
VANESSA AYRES PEREIRA (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: This experiment investigated whether mixing baseline among symmetry and equivalence test trials enhances the yields of equivalence class formation. Twenty adults were exposed to two test protocols, in counterbalanced order: Simultaneous with Baseline Intermixed and Simultaneous with Post-test of Baseline (Conditions A and B, respectively). The conditions varied in respect to the test procedure and stimuli set. Both started by training AB, AC, AD, and AE relations concurrently. Next, a test assessed the maintenance of baseline and the emergence of symmetry (BA, CA, DA, EA) and equivalence (BC, BD, BE, CB, CD, CE, DB, DC, DE, EB, EC, ED) relations. In Condition A, baseline, symmetry, and equivalence test trials were presented simultaneously. In Condition B, baseline test trials were presented after the test for symmetry and equivalence intermixed. All participants formed equivalence classes in both conditions. Condition A presented slightly lower yields of immediate emergence (16 participants) than Condition B (18). Three out of the four participants with delayed emergence in Condition A initially failed in symmetry trials; the other two in Condition B, failed exclusively in equivalence trials. Condition A produced significantly faster responses to the first five equivalence test trials.
8. Effects of Instructions on Stimulus Equivalence Responding
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANNIKA POULSEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The role of instructions in stimulus equivalence research has often been discussed without being considerably empirically investigated. Generally, as little information as possible are given to participants, to limit the potential effects of instructions on stimulus equivalence responding. In this present stimulus equivalence experiment, instructions are investigated by using a linear series training structure with three 3-member classes. Participants were assigned to either one of three conditions, consisting of: general instructions (e.g., "your task is to find out which stimuli that belongs together"), specific instructions (e.g., "this stimulus is a fish and belongs together with the car which is this stimulus") or a control group without instructions about the task. The depended measures are number of training trials and equivalence responding. As shown in Table 1, the results show that the condition with general instructions gave a higher result of equivalence responding (i.e., 60 %) compared to the other conditions (i.e., 10 % and 0 %, respectively).
9. Attending to Compound Stimuli and Stimulus Equivalence
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LIVE FAY BRAATEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Establishing stimulus control with a compound stimulus followed by testing of responding in the presence of one aspect of the compound is a way to study attending behavior. The present experiment investigates attending using compound stimuli in a zero second delayed matching-to-sample procedure by separating the elements of the compound stimuli (color and shape) when testing for relations defining stimulus equivalence. Twenty adult participants were randomly assigned to two groups (more participants will be included) and were trained to potentially form three 3-member equivalence classes. Group 1 was trained with a one-to-many (OTM) training structure and Group 2 with a many-to-one (MTO) training structure. In both groups, the compound stimuli served as nodes while the other stimuli were abstract stimuli. In the test for equivalence relations, elements of the compound stimuli were separated and presented individually. Preliminary results show that three out of nine participants trained with OTM fail to form equivalence classes, whereas five out of eleven fail when trained with MTO (see Table 1). Participants who fail in Group 2 exclusively show error when tested with the shape-element, whereas the errors are more random in Group 1.
10. Experimental Verification of Urcuioli's Theory of Pigeons' Equivalence-Class Formation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MASAKI ISHIZUKA (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: Symmetry is an emergent relation for stimulus equivalence. Although human participants are relatively easy to show evidence for symmetry, nonhuman animals typically do not. However, Urcuioli (2008) reported that pigeons demonstrated symmetry in his studies using successive (go / no-go) matching-to-sample procedure, and proposed a theory of pigeons' equivalence-class formation. In the present study, we checked Urcuioli's experiment. Four pigeons received hue-form arbitrary, hue-hue, and form-form identity matching training. In the training, fixed-interval (FI) 5-s schedule was arranged to positive trials and extinction (EXT) was arranged to negative trials. Each training session consisted of 48 positive and 48 negative trials that randomly appeared. Each pigeon was trained until it achieved a discrimination ratio of 0.80 or higher on each matching task for 5 of 6 consecutive training sessions. After the training, form-hue symmetrical relations was tested in non-reinforced trials. The test consisted of 104 trials that included 96 training trials and 8 symmetry probe trials. Figure 1 shows the results of four pigeons. Three of them (P1, P4, P5) responded more to the positive comparison stimuli than to the negative comparison stimuli and demonstrated symmetry. As we reproduced the results of Urcuioli's experiment, we conclude that Urcuioli's theory is correct.
11. Equivalence Class Formation as a Function Pre-Training of Verbal Operants
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MARILEIDE ANTUNES OLIVEIRA (Faculdades do Vale do Juruena - AJES), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Understanding how symbolic behavior may be enhanced can result in advances in the development of applied technologies. Participants in this study were eighteen university students ranging from 18-40 years (average = 29 years). Participants were asked to group 15 flashcards with black-and-white abstract shapes individually printed on them. Participants were then assigned to one of the two groups Tact or Mand. Participants in the Tact Group were taught to say Paf in the presence of shape 1; Vek for shape 2, and Zog for shape 3. Participants in the Mand Group were asked to choose three snack items of their choice and were taught to mand for exchanging shape 1 for snack 1, shape 2 for snack 2, and shape 3 for snack 3. After serial training of AB, BC, CD, and DE relations, all probes for stimulus equivalence were presented in one block. Participants were again asked to group flashcards. Results showed no differences between groups suggesting that pre-training stimuli to exert control over tact and mand responses do not produce equivalence class enhancement. We suggest other types of pre-training of verbal operants to clarify the role of stimuli with a trained history to control verbal behavior in equivalence class formation.
12. Equivalence Class Formation and the EEG-Based N400 Component
Area: EAB/BPN; Domain: Basic Research
GURO DUNVOLL (Oslo and Akershus University College; Akershus University Hospital; Oslo University Hospital), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Torbjørn Elvsåshagen (Oslo University Hospital), Eva Malt (Akershus University Hospital)
Abstract: Neuroscientific measures such as electroencephalography (EEG) can increase our understanding of complex human behavior. The N400 component is a negative peak elicited 400 ms after stimulus presentation and was originally observed when the end of a sentence was not related with the word presented before. The N400 is not observed if a relation has been established between the stimuli. The N400 effect also applies when the stimuli are not directly trained as in the test for equivalence class formation and can also be elicited by other meaningful stimuli, including pictures. This can be argued to be a measure of the relational strength between two stimuli as a result of the participant's learning history. The current poster presents an experiment with six healthy adult volunteers where we investigated the N400 during a priming procedure after forming three 3-member classes with C-stimuli as familiar pictures. The results showed a reduction of the N400 component over repeated presentations of the unrelated stimulus pairs when the unrelated stimulus pairs were analyzed separately in four consecutive blocks (see Figure 1). Hence, the findings indicate a possible habituation after repeated stimulus pair presentation.
13. On the Function of Including New Stimuli in a Sorting Test
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ANNE WESTGÅRD (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: In the present experiment, 12 conditional discriminations were trained as a baseline for three 5-member equivalence classes. All stimuli were abstract shapes. The research question was to study the effect of introducing new stimuli in a sorting test after MTS training or after MTS training and testing. In the experiment, 30 adults participated randomly assigned in two groups. Group 1 had the MTS training and test, followed by a sorting test, while Group 2 had the MTS training, sorting, MTS test and another sorting. Both groups were presented for five new stimuli in the sorting tests. The results show that 13 out of 15 participants in Group 2 sort the new stimuli in the experiment-defined classes (see Figure 1). In Group 1, four out of 15 participants sort new stimuli in the experiment-defined classes, while five participants sort the new stimuli together with three of the experiment-defined classes. In Group 1, three participants do not form equivalence classes. In Group 2, one participant does not respond in accordance with stimulus equivalence. There are higher total scores during MTS test in Group 2 than in Group 1, but the difference is not significant.
14. Effects of Differential Order of Exposure to Test Phases on Emergence of Equivalence Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LUIS CARLOS FONSECA LEON (Center for Behavior Studies and Research, University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: The present integrated series of experiments was designed to identify whether the differential order of exposure to test phases (Standard, Inverse, Mixed) respect of a training structure Many to One (MTO), One to Many (OTM) or Lineal Series (SL) has an effect on the emergence on the emergence of equivalence relations. Sixty psychology undergraduates from several universities of Guadalajara participated in the experiments. A Matching To Sample task software was programmed to training the conditionals discriminations (three conditions) and to testing three 3-member equivalence sets of stimuli, symmetry, transitivity and equivalence in four conditions. Overall, for these preparations we observe an effect, it seems has identified an explicit interaction between certain training structure and certain order of exposure to test phases. Hence, the results suggest that the performance in testing for emergence relations depends of order of exposure to test phases respect of the training structure used. Furthermore the accuracy was better with the SL training structure.
15. What is the Nature of the Consequence That Controls Our Eye Movements?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SOHIR RAHMOUNI (Université de Lille), Anna Montagnini (Aix Marseille Université), Laurent Madelain (Université de Lille; Aix Marseille Université)
Abstract: Saccade adaptation is a form of motor learning that maintains saccade accuracy in response to new sensorimotor contingencies. We know that reinforcement learning can induce saccade adaptation. Previously, an arbitrary reinforcer was used such as an auditory tone or viewing the target on the fovea to control saccades amplitude. This experiment asks whether changes in saccade amplitude may be induced by the ability to perform a visual discrimination task as a consequence. In a 4AFC task, five subjects were instructed to report which symbol was briefly (60ms) displayed across the whole screen immediately after a saccade. The possibility to perform the discriminative task was contingent on meeting a specific saccade amplitude criterion: when saccades did not meet the criterion, one of four irrelevant symbols was displayed such that the participant could not perform the discriminative task. We observed consistent changes in saccadic amplitude across sessions that followed the criterion manipulations. We conclude that saccades are operant behavior reinforced by the ability to perform visual tasks.
16. Pigeons' Refraining From Eating Varies With Degree of Stimulus Control
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BRENDA ESTELA ORTEGA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Raul Avila (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Leonard Green (Washington University)
Abstract: A procedure to study self-controlled behavior is the refraining-from-eating situation in which a food dispenser is presented once (SR1) within a repetitive time cycle, and it can be presented again (SR2) after the cycle has elapsed according to the following contingency: If the pigeon tries to consume SR1, the food is immediately withdrawn and the SR2 presentation is cancelled; if, however, the pigeon refrains from attempting to consume SR1, then it can consume SR2. In the present study, the contribution of stimulus control to refraining from taking SR1 was assessed. The effects of (a) signaling both SR1 and SR2 with the same color, (b) signaling both the SR1 and SR2 with different colors, (c) adding a houselight during SR1, and (d) adding a response key (which did not have to be pecked) during SR1 were evaluated. Fewer SR1 interruptions occurred when different stimuli signaled each food-dispenser presentation than when the same stimulus signaled both food presentations. When an illuminated response key was presented concurrently with SR1, interruptions were markedly reduced, to near-zero levels in those pigeons that pecked the key. These data are evidence that resistance to temptation, an example of self-controlled behavior, is affected by stimulus control.
17. The Effect of a Proprioceptive Musical Interface and Methods of Musical Instruction on the Acquisition of Unprompted Pitch Discrimination: A Proposal for Further Research
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN REYNOLDS (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: One area in which behavior analysis as a discipline has much room to grow is the domain of audiology and pitch discrimination. This presentation reviews early work on the psychometrics of auditory perception, the theremin as an experimental apparatus, and certain behavioral studies of auditory discrimination. The literature review sets the context for a discussion of how behavior science can contribute to auditory research and the potential advantages of using the theremin as an experimental apparatus for comparing methods of instruction.
18. Discriminative Control by Elements of Visual Compound Stimuli in Bees (Melipona quadrifasciata)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEISY DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Natália Rodrigues Biscassi (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Antonio Mauricio Moreno (Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Brazil)
Abstract: When reinforcement is contingent on a response in the presence of a compound stimulus, the contingency will be satisfied even if the response occurs under the control of only one of the elements. In this study, 12 bees received simple discrimination training followed by probes of stimulus control for isolated elements of the compound. The learning criterion was at least 90% of correct responses in two consecutive blocks of 20 trials. For half of the bees, the positive stimulus (S +) was a circle with blue border and white center and the S- was a circle with black border and yellow center; for the other half, the function of the stimuli was reversed. In the Probes phase, each compound was decomposed into two elements (a circular border and the inner circle) and all combinations of two elements were probed, in 16 trials. Stimulus control by both positive elements was strong for 8 of 12 bees (but somehow higher for the inner element of the circle), while four bees showed evidence of responding almost exclusively to only one of the positive elements. Probing stimulus control after discrimination training with compounds should be a standard protocol to identifying restricted stimulus control. Key word: discrimination learning, stimulus control, compound stimuli, bees
19. Determinants of Remembering in an Incrementing Non-Matching-to-Sample Task in Rats
Area: EAB/BPN; Domain: Basic Research
KATHERINE ELY BRUCE (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Shandy Nelson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Thomas Wagner (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Nicole Westrick (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Bobbie Wolff (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Available procedures to study working memory capacity in rodents generally use manual arena or maze tasks. For example, the odor span task uses an incrementing non-matching- to-sample procedure in which digging in cups scented with novel olfactory stimuli results in reinforcement on each trial, while responses to previously presented stimuli are not reinforced. The present study modified this procedure for use in an automated operant chamber using a 15-channel olfactometer. Rats were trained on a go, no-go procedure to make nose-poke responses in a port through which odorants were delivered. Responses to each odorant were reinforced on an FI 5-s schedule the first time it was presented, but once an odor had been presented, responses to that odor were no longer reinforced. Rats rapidly learned to differentiate between session-novel and session-familiar odors and responded at high rates to new stimuli and much lower rates to repeated stimuli. Determinants of remembering were assessed by manipulating a number of variables including frequency and recency of repeated odors, a mid-session delay, and a distractor task. Accuracy was affected by all these variables, but the greatest disruption was observed after a mid-session delay, with or without a distractor task.
20. Discrimination of Illuminance by Sprague Dawley Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CORY WHIRTLEY (West Virginia University), Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: When a light source is aimed at a surface, its luminous flux is dispersed across the surface. The intensity of the surface illumination defines "illuminance." Rats, as nocturnal animals, are sensitive to illuminance. Our interest is in their ability to discriminate small changes in relatively low levels of illuminance. Two rats' lever presses were maintained on a multiple schedule in which a variable-interval schedule of food reinforcement alternated with extinction. The components were signaled by different degrees of illuminance as measured in lux near the floor of the chamber. Across five conditions, we studied illuminance levels ranging from 0 lux (complete darkness) to 64 lux. The pairs of stimuli were arranged to produce absolute differences from 6 lux to 28 lux. The proportion of responding in the presence of S+ (the discrimination ratio) was used to assess the rats' ability to discriminate between the pairs of stimuli. Each rat's discrimination ratio was highest in the condition in which one of the stimuli was 0 lux (S- for one rat, S+ for the other). There was no systematic difference across the other conditions, with ratios consistently above 0.80. These results indicate that rats can discriminate relatively small differences in illuminance.
21. On the Robustness of Additive Summation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ERIC JAMES FRENCH (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Additive summation describes the outcome of greater responding in the presence of compounded discriminative stimuli relative to when the stimuli are presented in isolation. Multiple schedules are employed during the training phases; and summation is generally evaluated following extensive training and also towards the end of lengthy daily training sessions. The goal of the current study was to extend the generality of additive summation by conducting stimulus compounding tests early in training, at the beginning of a session, and following repeated compounding tests. Four rats were trained on a three-ply multiple schedule where a variable interval 60-s schedule (VI 60 s) was signaled in two components using a light or a tone; the light and tone were absent during the extinction component. The VI 60-s components alternated with the extinction component every 4 min during training and every 30 s in the stimulus compounding tests. All tests were conducted in extinction. Additive summation was consistently observed across testing conditions; extending our understanding of the conditions sufficient for summation. Moreover, summation was shown to be often due to increased resistance to extinction; providing a novel understanding of the phenomenon.
22. Exploring Stimulus Control of Relatives Name, Picture, and Family Relation in a Patient With Vascular Dementia
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HANNA STEINUNN STEINGRIMSDOTTIR (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Anette Brogård Antonsen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Silje Boye-Hansen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Forgetting the names of significant others can be demanding for people diagnosed with neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and their significant others. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of using the simultaneous protocol (SP) and the Simple-to-Complex (STC) protocol while exploring stimulus control of relatives' names, faces, and family relations in a patient diagnosed with Vascular Dementia. We also studied different lengths of the inter-trial-interval (ITI) (i.e., 2000 ms vs. 5000 ms).The experimental conditions were presented using a single-subject experimental design, ABA1B1A1B1 with the SP in the A and A1 conditions, and the STC in the B and B1 conditions. The A1 and B1 conditions had 5000 ms ITI. The results showed that the participant made a number of incorrect responses during intial tests for responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence. However, with the use of the STC and increased ITI, the participant responded correctly on the different conditional discriminations and responded in accordance with stimulus equivalence in the last experimental condition.
23. Generalization of a Stimulus Delta Across a Temporal Continuum
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHARLENE AGNEW (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Julia Iannaccone (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Rika Ortega (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Anna Budd (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Verena Bethke (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Julia Brodsky (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Robert N. Lanson (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The intruded stimulus (IS) paradigm explores the extent to which temporal control and stimulus control affect responding (Farmer & Schoenfeld, 1966). In this paradigm, a keylight color change is imposed on a fixed interval (FI) schedule. Deviations in responding from the expected FI scallop reflect control of the IS. In the current study, the IS paradigm was utilized with four Silver King pigeons. After establishing baseline responding on a FI 60 s schedule reinforcement, researchers administered two trial types in a series of sessions. Each session included 30 baseline trials and 30 IS trials randomly interspersed. Baseline trials consisted of an IS1 presentation for 10 s at the trial onset (immediately following reinforcement from the previous trial). IS trials included IS1 at the trial onset with the additional presentation of IS2 for either 5 or 10 s at different temporal locations. Results suggest the IS1 functioned as a stimulus delta (S?). Furthermore, the extent of stimulus control by IS2 was a function of distance from the reinforcer. Disruption of responding by IS2 was observed for both IS2 duration values (5 and 10 s).
24. Observing Matching-to-Sample Performance and Subsequent Stimulus Sorting
Area: EAB/EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Justice Mensah (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Research has shown a positive concordance between equivalence class formation and performance in sorting tests. This experiment examined the relationship between sorting performance and emergent relations performances in participants who have observed a 12-minute video clip of MTS training and testing. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: a video clip with 80% correct responding and 20% incorrect responding in MTS training (80% Correct Group), and a video clip with 20% correct responding and 80% incorrect responding in MTS training (20% Correct Group). For both groups, the performance of MTS test was 100% correct. In the subsequent sorting test after watching the video clip, the findings showed that for the 80% Correct Group, 11 of 15 participants sorted the stimuli according to experimenter-defined classes in Sorting Tests 1 and 2, as well as responded in accordance to equivalence in the MTS test for emergent relations (See Figure 1). For the 20% Correct Group, two of 15 participants sorted the stimuli according to experimenter-defined classes in Sorting Tests 1 and 2, one participant who failed to sort the stimuli in Sorting Test 1, sorted the stimuli according to experimenter-defined classes in Sorting Test 2. Two of the participants who sorted the stimuli according to experimenter-defined classes in Sorting Tests 1 and 2 responded in accordance to equivalence in the MTS test.
25. Transfer of Faces Expressing Emotions in Simultaneous and Delayed Matching-to-Sample
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JON MAGNUS EILERTSEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Transfer of stimulus function within equivalence classes has been shown to vary as a function of both varying delays in delayed matching-to-sample and number of nodes. Fourteen adult participants were allocated to two experimental groups (simultaneous and 0-sec delayed MTS) and trained with twelve conditional discriminations (AB/BC/CD/EF) in a linear series (LS) training structure. The training was followed by testing the formation of three 6-member equivalence classes. The A-stimuli consisted of three different facial expressions where each expression was shown by four different individuals. The A1 stimuli were four angry faces, the A2 stimuli were four neutral faces, and the A3 stimuli were four happy faces. For each group, five participants rated the D stimuli and two participants rated the F stimuli by a Semantic Differential rating scale. The main findings show a correspondence between the facial expressions and the Semantic Differential Scale ratings for both groups. Participants in the DMTS group required a higher number of training trials to criterion than the SMTS group.
26. Associative Learning in Babies: Higher-Order Conditioning Without Verbal Skills
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
CHARLOTTE RENAUX (Université de Lille), Vinca Riviere (Université de Lille), Paul Craddock (Université de Lille), Ralph R. Miller (State University of New York, Birmingham)
Abstract: Verbal processing has been proposed to be necessary for associative learning in humans; however, numerous reports of first-order learning in preverbal infants refute this view for first-order learning. But there are no published reports of higher-order conditioning that test this hypothesis with nonverbal humans. Here we assessed the necessity of verbal skills for higher-order associative learning in preverbal babies. We employed a sensory preconditioning procedure that was quick and used no instructions. CS2-CS1 and CS3-CS4 trials were presented during phase 1, and CS1-US+ and CS3-US- trials were presented during phase 2. The CSs were colored geometric shapes, the US+s were entertaining video clips, and the US- an unpleasant sound. The conditioned response was looking at the location where the US+s had appeared. At test, babies exhibited conditioned responding to CS2, despite their being nonverbal. Thus, verbal processing is unnecessary for higher-order learning as well as first-order learning. In addition, our eye-tracking preparation for babies could provide a useful tool for examining cognitive functioning very early in human development without any instructions.
27. The Effect of Individual Punishment on Cultural Selection
Area: EAB/PRA; Domain: Basic Research
DYEGO DE CARVALHO COSTA (Universidade de Brasilia; Universidade Estadual do Piauí), Bruna Maria Barbosa da Silva França (Universidade de Brasilia), Roberta Lemos (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: This work aimed to identify the effect of ontogenetic response cost on cultural selection in an experimental microculture. Three groups of three participants played a pizza game. The participants had to choose 6 ingredients of 20 possibilities. The IBC was the sequence of six ingredients, chosen by the participants. The AP was the pizza resulted of choses. The cultural consequence was 60 points if the pizza was the one expected for the current condition. The experiment was divided in two Phases. In Phase 1, the response cost consisted in solving individual tangran puzzles, every time they chose correct ingredients of pizza that received 60 points. In second Phase the correctament ingredientes choses demands the solution of n tangrans for the group and the participants decided how many puzzles each one would solve. In both phases, the conditions were: A baseline; BCD with 1/2/3 individual tangrans by correct ingredient for Phase 1 and 2/4/6 tangrans for the group at Phase 2. The results showed that individual response cost produced avoidance and low production of cultural consequences. In Phase 2, the response cost wasnt enough to produce avoidance, and the cultural consequences were systematically produced and greater than the other possibilities of IBC.
28. A Review of Applications of Progressive-Ratio Schedules
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LINDSAY LLOVERAS (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Shawn J. Janetzke (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A progressive-ratio (PR) schedule is a schedule in which the response requirement increases following completion of the previous schedule requirement. PR schedules are used as a measure of reinforcer efficacy. Break points tell us how strong a reinforcer is: high breakpoints indicate that a reinforcer is more potent, and low breakpoints indicate that a reinforcer is less potent. However, there are no standardized methods for determining PR array values or breakpoint criteria. This study examined basic and applied PR schedules in the literature via a PsychInfo search, using key words progressive ratio and schedule, and reviewed studies from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Data were categorized by schedule type, stability criterion, termination criterion, breakpoint, response topography, and basic/applied. No published studies included schedule correlated stimuli. Future research should systematically evaluate the effectiveness of these procedural differences and identify variables that will increase stability in PR schedules. Interobserver agreement was 100% for 38.5% of data sets.
29. Shifting Preference With Within-Trial Contrast: Implications for Motivating Operations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BAILEY KING (King Therapies, LLC), James Nicholson Meindl (The University of Memphis), Elizabeth Walsh (The University of Memphis), Neal Miller (The University of Memphis)
Abstract: In general, stimuli that are presented before aversive events become less preferred relative to stimuli that are presented before non-aversive events. A lesser known phenomenon is within-trial contrast where stimuli that follow aversive events can become more preferred than stimuli that follow non-aversive events. This study used a reversal design to investigate the preference shifting effects of within-trial contrast for one adolescent male. The participant was repeatedly exposed to training sessions which paired differentially preferred math tasks with reinforcers that different in color only less preferred math tasks were paired with less preferred reinforcers. Initial preference assessments were conducted for both math tasks as well as reinforcers. During subsequent paired-stimulus preference assessments the participant preferred the reinforcer that followed the less preferred math work. This finding has implications for the conceptualization of motivating operations by suggesting that the value-altering effect of a motivating operation has both a momentary effect as well as a more abiding conditioning effect.
30. Collateral Behavior During DRL Schedules: A PORTL Replication of Bruner & Revusky (1961)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JESSICA AUZENNE (University of North Texas), Leah Herzog (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL schedules) have been used in the experimental analysis of behavior as baselines to study other variables. They have also been used in applied settings to reduce rates of responding. Bruner and Revusky (1961) studied response patterns in humans during a DRL schedule using an apparatus with four keys. Although only one key was part of the DRL contingency, the experimenters observed identifiable patterns of responding on the other three keys. They suggested that these alternative, collateral responses helped the participants meet the DRL requirement. The first purpose of the current study was to replicate Bruner and Revusky's results using the Portable Operant Research and Teaching Lab (PORTL). A second purpose was to examine how response patterns would change as the number of alternative responses decreased. Preliminary results showed that patterns of behavior similar to those observed by Bruner and Revusky can be obtained using PORTL and that some participants were still able to meet the DRL requirements even with fewer experimenter-provided alternatives.
31. Free-Operant Avoidance: A PORTL Replication of Sidman (1953)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
WILLIAMS ADOLFO ESPERICUETA (University of North Texas), Tomas Urbina (University of North Texas), Mary Elizabeth Hunter (The Art and Science of Animal Training), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Although free-operant avoidance has been studied extensively in the laboratory, the majority of these studies have been conducted with non-human animals. The purpose of this study was to replicate Sidman's (1953) free-operant avoidance paradigm using college student participants and a tabletop gamed called PORTL (portable operant research and teaching laboratory). Initially, participants were taught to interact with several different objects using positive reinforcement procedures. Next, a test condition was implemented. Two objects were placed on the table. Every 5 seconds, the experimenter delivered a mild shock to the participant's wrist. However, the participant could postpone the shock for 2 seconds by interacting with Object 1. There was no contingency associated with Object 2. A mastery criterion was defined as the participant avoiding shock for 1 minute. Preliminary results showed that six out of seven participants were able to meet the mastery criterion. Interestingly, even though the behavior of most participants met the contingency, participants were generally not able to describe what contingency was in place. Also, some participants engaged in superstitious behaviors, interacting repeatedly with Object 2, even though it was not part of the contingency.
32. Evaluating the Use of a Humanoid Robot to Study Human Operant Behavior
Area: EAB/PCH; Domain: Basic Research
MICHELLE ISABEL PADILLA (California State University, Northridge), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Victor Ramirez (California State University, Northridge), Anne C. Macaskill (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: Humanoid robots (aka humanoids) may offer several advantages for experimental analysis of human behavior. Much like operant chambers, humanoids can be programmed to record data and deliver consequences for specific responses. However, the concept thaFt participants' behaviors can come under the control of a robot's behaviors has not been tested. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate whether Meebie, a humanoid robot, simulating a child engaging in compliance and noncompliance, could be used to gain systematic control over participants' behaviors. In Phase 1, participants'target responses (e.g., touching Meebie's head) resulted in Meebie complying with participants' instructions. During Phase 2, Meebie engaged in noncompliance regardless of the participants' behavior. We programmed Meebie to collect data on participants' responses, and generated cumulative records, to determine whether their behavior was being shaped. In Phase 1, 2 of 3 participants' cumulative touches to the target sensor were higher than touches to other sensors. During Phase 2, cumulative touches to all sensors decreased. Our preliminary findings support the use of a humanoid robot as an operandum to study human behavior; however, variables such as rule-governance and schedules of reinforcement should be taken into consideration with regard to analysis of human behavior.
33. Within-Subject Validation of Academic Constraints on Alcohol Purchasing
Area: EAB/BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MATTHEW E. ANDRZEJEWSKI (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Ryan Powers (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Nate David Popodi (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Logan Wild (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Jolee Marie Zizzo (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Abigail Schmidt (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Kane Poad (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater), Mackenzie Kropidlowski (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater)
Abstract: Economic demand for alcoholic beverages can be assessed using the Alcohol Purchase Task (APT) where participants hypothetically buy drinks at escalating prices. The APT allows for detailed behavioral economic analyses including elasticity and breakpoint. Previous research has demonstrated that hypothetical academic constraints decrease certain measures of demand. In this experiment, participants completed two abbreviated versions of the APT with distinct prices over a similar range. In the experimental (EXP) version, participants were told that they had an exam the next morning, while the control (CTRL) version explicitly told them that they did not have an exam or class the next day. A full 2X2 factorial experiment was conducted where participants received 1) CTRL then EXP versions of APT, 2) EXP then CTRL versions of the APT, 3) CTRL then CTRL, or 4) EXP then EXP. Results from sixty participants (n=65) directly replicated within-subject the effects of academic constraints on alcohol purchasing demonstrated between groups. Demand curves obtained from the CTRL version first saw a reduction in that curve under the EXP version. Conversely, participants that saw the EXP version first showed an increase in demand in the subsequent CTRL version. There were no changes in the CTRL-CTRL or EXP-EXP conditions.
34. Fine-Grained Reaction Time and Accuracy Comparison of Positive and Negative Reinforcement Contingencies
Area: EAB/BPN; Domain: Basic Research
OWEN JAMES ADAMS (University of North Texas), Daniele Ortu (University of North Texas), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Positive and negative reinforcement contingencies have been compared in terms of preference, but what remain unclear are their differential effects on reaction time and accuracy while controlling other variables. Participants took part in a sound discrimination task involving random mixed-trial presentation of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies. Participants' goal was to identify whether the tone was shorter or longer than 600 milliseconds. On positive reinforcement trials, participants only received feedback and money tallies if they identified the sound length correctly, with each correct response in the positive reinforcement trials earning the participant 10 cents. On negative reinforcement trials, the participants only received feedback and money tallies if they identified the sound length incorrectly, with incorrect trials subtracting 10 cents from the participants' total money (which began at $4.00 to equalize the weights of the positive and negative reinforcement contingencies). Results indicated negative correlations between comparison stimulus duration and reaction time with different slopes between positive and negative reinforcement trials. These findings may have implications for improving training techniques and are evaluated within the context of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) such as the P300 speller device.
35. Modeling the Effects of Distance Requirements on Responding During a Human Operant Task
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
WILL FLEMING (University of Nevada, Reno), Shea M. Lemley (The University of Kansas), Michael Sofis (The University of Kansas), David P. Jarmolowicz (The University of Kansas), Matt Locey (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Overt behavior always requires moving objects—including the organism itself—certain distances to function. Those distances can be characterized by both the absolute minimum distance an object must be moved to function and the aggregate minimum distances an object could be moved to function. While the effects of distance have not been extensively studied by behavior analysts, they have been researched by computer scientists, particularly those interested with Fitts' Law. In regards to computer cursors, two-dimensional models based on Fitts' Law typically state that the average time to move a cursor to a target area on the screen is a function of the distance between the cursor and the target area and the height and width of the target area. The current project compared the predictability of models based on Fitts' Law to broader, more behavioral-economic models using data from a human operant task similar to tasks used in Fitts' Law research. Molecular interactions between interresponse time, pausing, and response distance were also assessed.
36. An Effect Size Measure for Single Case Experimental Designs: Ratio of Distances
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MACK S. COSTELLO (Rider University), Michael T. Carlin (Rider University)
Abstract: This poster describes the development of an effect size measure called Ratio of Distances (RD), developed by Carlin and Costello (in preparation). Communication between the psychological disciplines may improve if both group and single case experimental research used comparable measures of effect size. In group research, effect size measures that reflect distance between means (e.g., Cohen's d) are commonly used. The goal of the present work was to develop a measure that can be easily compared to effect size measures (e.g., d), used in group research. Modeled from other effect size measures, we developed a measure of level change for single case experimental research that met several practical requirements: the measure is adaptable to designs with varying numbers of observations per, and across, phases. The measure is adaptable to situations in which slope does and does not exist. The measure has no ceiling, as is the limitation with commonly used overlap-based measures of effect size. The measure is computationally transparent and easily performed using widely available analysis tools.
37. Effect of Credit Card Logos on the Consumer Item Price Estimated by Mexican College Students
Area: EAB/CSS; Domain: Applied Research
FELIPE ERNESTO PARRADO (University of Guadalajara), Susana Barba (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Nakajima & Izumida (2015) demonstrated that students' price estimation of consumer items are increased by credit card logos presented with the items. This study aimed to replicate that effect with a Mexican student sample. An experiment was conducted with 10 pictures of consumer items to estimate its price. All pictures for the first group (n=25) were presented without the credit card logos, for the second group all pictures were presented with credit card logos (n=23), and in the third group (n=22) the logos were shown in 50% of trials. As shown in the original study, the pairing of credit card logos increased the average price of consumer items. Results show that students that owned a credit card (n=27) were more likely to increase the price of consumer items compared to those that didn't own any credit card, suggesting that participants' history with credit card use affect their price estimation. Although gender was not controlled, higher price estimation was observed particularly in women. Implications for product advertising and consumer experience with credit cards in low income countries is discussed.
38. Aggressive and Prosocial Conduct Between Couples Through the Handling of Models of Conduct
Area: EAB/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ALEJANDRA MONTSERRAT RIVERA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: In Mexico, 6.1% of the population has presented child behavior problems at some time in their lives. In these behavioral problems, as well as in their progression, various factors intervene, such as the perceived family environment, the substance abuse in the parents, among others. The research points out that there is a continuity between childhood behavior disorders and those of adolescence and adulthood (Frick, 2016), some inappropriate behaviors including aggression predict delinquent, aggressive and risky behaviors in adolescence and adulthood (Rodríguez, López- Cepero, Rodríguez, & Estrada, 2012, Frick, 2009; Campbell, 2005). The objective of the study was to increase prosocial behavior and decrease aggressive behaviors in children, through the management of behavior and reinforcement models, we worked with 3 groups of 1st grade of primary school with an average of 20 children in each group and a average age of 6 years. A multiple baseline design between groups and between behaviors was used. The behaviors were evaluated through a system of direct observation of prosocial and antisocial behavior, a Placheck record was carried out with a duration of 10 minutes at recess time in the school playground. The results showed that the percentage of prosocial behavior increased and the aggressive behavior decreased in most of the observed behaviors, likewise a size of the treatment effect was observed through the NAP index. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intervention strategy was effective in generating changes in the target behaviors.



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