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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #484
Monday, May 28, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Pacific Ballroom
Chair: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
 
37. Evaluating the Use of a Stimulus Fading Procedure to Increase Compliance With Personal Grooming Routines in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAYCEE EARL (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Megan Ashley Levesque (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Claire Turbes (University of Nebraska Omaha; University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit noncompliance in the form of negative vocalizations, avoidant responses (e.g., pulling away), elopement, and aggression to avoid hygiene and grooming routines (e.g., tooth brushing, hair cutting, nail cutting). Prior research has shown that stimulus fading across a stimulus hierarchy has effectively decreased avoidant responses and increased compliance during oral hygiene routines, such as tooth brushing (Bishop et al., 2013). We attempted to replicate the effects of stimulus fading in the current study. That is, we used a modified stimulus fading hierarchy to increase compliance with hair and nail cutting routines for three children with ASD. Following an escape baseline, we implemented reinforcement for compliance on an FR 1 schedule, which failed to increase compliance for any of the participants. We then added stimulus fading, which effectively increased compliance and decreased avoidant responses for one participant. For the other three participants, we added escape extinction to the stimulus fading hierarchy, which increased compliance and decreased avoidant responses to clinically acceptable levels for these children. In addition, once compliance increased, we observed generalization to novel clinicians and caregivers.
 
38. A Comparison of Findings for Functional Analyses Versus Brief Assessments of Motivation Conducted via Telehealth
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN WITHHART (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Todd G. Kopelman (The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston-Clear Lake ), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Functional Analysis (FA) has long been the established best practice for identifying the function maintaining problem behavior and informing treatment decisions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Iwata et al., 1982). Although conducting a rigorous FA may result in reliable findings (Iwata et al., 1994), FA also requires highly controlled contingencies, takes longer to complete, may result in increased risk to the client (Carr & Durrand, 1985), and can be challenging when assessing multiple topographies or functions of problem behavior (Hanley et al., 2003). This study compares two approaches to caregiver-conducted assessment with therapist coaching via telehealth: the FA and the Brief Assessment of Motivation (BAM). The BAM is an open-ended caregiver interview with single exposure to contingencies of a toy play (control), social attention, escape from demands, and tangible conditions in which a caregiver is instructed to respond to problem behavior as they typically would. The BAM is completed within three 1-hour sessions. In contrast, the FA is conducted with client-specific contingencies and control conditions, continuing until differentiation and function are determined. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to receive either the BAM only or both BAM and FA. Preliminary data show the average number of sessions to identify function is 30.8 in the FA in comparison to 7.5 sessions for the BAM with significant agreement in identified function across assessments. For participants who received the FA, treatment outcomes (90% reduction in problem behavior) were met in an average of 33.6 sessions. Participants who received the BAM met treatment outcomes in an average of 31.7 sessions. The discussion presents questions as to the efficiency and necessity of the FA.
 
39. Using Conditional Compound Schedules for Teaching Discriminated Manding to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATASHA CHAMBERLAIN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Adam M. Briggs (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Billie Retzlaff (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Akers, Retzlaff, Fisher, Greer, Kaminiski, and DeSouza (under review) demonstrated that a conditional multiple schedule could be used to teach discriminated manding of correct functional communication responses (FCRs) across several reinforcement (i.e., SD) and extinction (i.e., S?) conditions. Specifically, three reinforcement conditions (i.e., attention, tangible, and both) were signaled and alternated with an extinction condition. Discriminated manding was observed for two out of the three participants. The current study extended the procedures described by Keevy et al. by requiring compliance with a fixed number of instructions during the S? (i.e., chained schedule) before a reinforcement condition (i.e., SD's) was made available for one participant diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We used a multiple-baseline-across-conditions design to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching procedures. In addition, results of pre- and post-training probes of the conditional compound schedule indicated that the participant demonstrated discriminative responding when all were combined in a conditional compound schedule once discriminations were acquired under separate teaching conditions. This study demonstrated the utility of a conditional compound schedule to teach one participant to discriminate the availability and unavailability of reinforcement for multiple FCRs. Clinical implications regarding the efficiency of the procedures and generality of the findings are discussed.
 
41. Assessment and Treatment of Idiosyncratic and Automatically Maintained Bruxism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY BAGWELL (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Andrea Ramirez-Cristoforo (The University of Texas at Austin ), Fabiola Vargas Londoño (The University of Texas at Austin), Cayenne Shpall (The University of Texas at Austin), Raechal Ferguson (The University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Bruxism, typified by excessive teeth grinding, is a form of self-injurious behavior that has garnered relatively little attention in the behavioral literature. Automatically maintained behavior can be difficult to treat because it often precludes the manipulation of socially mediated maintaining stimuli. The inability to block bruxism exacerbates this challenge and poses unique barriers to treatment. The present study examined bruxism exhibited by a 13-year-old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results of a functional analysis indicated that the behavior occurred independent of programmed establishing operations and occurred almost exclusively while the participant was engaged with preferred leisure items. The first intervention examined was a 5-s response cost procedure. This proved ineffective when implemented in isolation. However, when paired with a competing edible item, identified via a competing items assessment, the response cost proved effective at reducing the rate of bruxism. The social validity of existing bruxism interventions and the present intervention are discussed. Directions for future research in both bruxism and other idiosyncratic challenging behaviors are explored.
 
42. Teaching Children With Autism to Abstract Opposing Tactile Properties
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AYLA SCHMICK (Southern Illinois University), Quincy Huff (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to teach three children with developmental disabilities the opposing properties of rough/smooth and hard/soft using tactile and nonvisual stimuli. Participants were presented a sample object with a tactile quality then taught to select the opposite tactile object from an array without looking. All of the comparison tactile objects were placed within a stimulus box so that the participants were unable to see the stimuli for that trial. Participants were told to, "feel this," then reach into the stimulus box and told to, "find the opposite," correct answers were trained through discrete trial training. Novel stimuli were utilized as test probes in order to assess the generalization of the skills. All three participants acquired the skill through discrimination training and were able to demonstrate generalization to the novel stimuli sets. Two-week maintenance probes were conducted for all participants. Following maintenance, all three participants were able to continue to discriminate the tactile objects and demonstrate generalization of the skill. The results of the study support the use of discrete trial training for teaching abstraction of opposing tactile properties.
 
43. An Evaluation of Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Teaching Procedures and the Emergence of Tacts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TIEARRA JOHNSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Billie Retzlaff (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Ami J. Kaminski (Butterfly Effects), Andresa De Souza (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Abstract Auditory-visual conditional discriminations are often difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder or another developmental disability to develop naturally (see Grow & LeBlanc, 2013 for a review). This type of listener behavior requires an individual to select a correct comparison picture following the presentation of an auditory discriminative stimulus. Certain teaching approaches has proven effective in the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discrimination for learners who do not acquire the skill from the natural environment. For example, the conditional-only method aided by the addition of an (a) an observing response, or a differential observing response and (b) prompting procedures that promote attending to relevant stimulus features (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). The purpose of the current study was to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of using an echoic response as the differential observing response during the auditory-visual conditional discrimination trials that included an identity match prompt within the least-to-most prompting hierarchy and (b) assess for the emergence of a tact repertoire, following training on auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Results for one child suggested that the inclusion of an echoic differential observing response (DOR) may have facilitated the emergence of untrained tacts acquisition.
 
44. A Comparison of Video Modeling and Least-to-Most Prompting for Establishing Play Sequences
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARA LACROIX (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC), Monica Fuller (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC), Rachelle de Saint Phalle (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Imaginary play is a critical social and leisure skill that children develop wherein they act out the world around them using a combination of play actions and vocalizations (MacDonald, Clark, Garrigan, & Vangala, 2005). Within the behavior analytic literature, video modeling (VM) has been proven an effective procedure for teaching play skills. Previously, Murzynski and Bourret (2007) evaluated the effects of VM and least-to-most (L-M) prompting on acquisition of activities of daily living (ADL). Results indicated chains taught via VM and L-M physical prompting required fewer trials to criterion and fewer physical prompts than chains taught via L-M prompting alone. This study replicates procedures of Murzynski and Bourret (2007) with imaginary play sequences. Further, collateral effects of the procedures on vocalizations were simultaneously measured. Participants were two children diagnosed with Autism between the ages of 2 and 3. A parallel treatments design with a multiple baseline across participants and play schemes was employed. Preliminary results indicate that VM and L-M prompting produced more rapid acquisition of play actions in four of four play schemes and VM has produced more frequent vocalizations in three of four play schemes. This replication provides further evidence for the efficacy of V-M procedures.
 
45. Evaluating the Applicability of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth to Children and Adolescents With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), Ayla Schmick (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) is a 17-item self-report measure that can be implemented with children and adolescents to provide a measure of inflexible and avoidance driven responding. Previous research has examined the applicability and validity of the AFQ-Y with typically developed individuals, however, limited research exists in terms of its applicability to individuals with autism. The purpose of the present study was to extend previous literature by determining the applicability of the AFQ-Y to children and adolescents with autism, as a function of their abilities to derive mutually entailed relations. The AFQ-Y was conducted across 54 participants, followed by the PEAK-E pre-assessment, an assessment designed to provide a measure of an individual's ability to form equivalence relations. Several analyses were conducted with the data to determine the extent to which mutual entailment relates to psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AFQ-Y may have greater utility for individuals that demonstrate mutually entailed responses, than those who do not demonstrate mutually entailed responses. The findings yield significant implications in terms of the applicability of the AFQ-Y and contextual behavior analytic treatment approaches to individuals with autism.
 
46. An Analysis of Toilet-Training Procedures Recommended for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRANDON C. PEREZ (University of Florida), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (Florida Autism Center), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other intellectual disabilities are commonly asked for assistance with toilet training. To date, we have recommended evidence-based toilet training procedures. However, we do not know whether the procedures are best for children with ASD. Greer et al. (2016) evaluated the effectiveness of three typical components presented within a toilet training package: sit schedule, underwear vs. diapers (or pull ups), and differential reinforcement. These components were evaluated with 19 typically-developing children and one child diagnosed with ASD. The aim of the current study is to 1) evaluate the generality of the procedures implemented by Greer et al. with children with ASD. 2) to empirically evaluate elimination patterns to allow researchers to identify modifications necessary for individualized toilet training. It is hypothesized that the treatment package proposed by Greer et al. (2016) will be effective for only some subjects. For those that the treatment package is ineffective, elimination patterns will assist in determining potential modifications (i.e., increasing fluid intake, increasing scheduled sits, increasing sit duration, etc.). The proposed study will create a tool for caregivers and professionals to effectively toilet train children with ASD and related disabilities.
 
47. An Extension of Multiple Schedules to Proloquo2Go™ on the iPad®
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Brandon C. Perez (University of Florida), JANELLE KIRSTIE BACOTTI (Florida Autism Center), Eliana Maria Pizarro (University of Florida), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Decades of research in behavior analysis have demonstrated that discrimination between schedules of reinforcement occurs more quickly and efficiently when multiple schedules are used compared to mixed schedules. The use of multiple schedules has been shown to be effective at reducing high rates of manding for individuals who use picture exchange cards. However, with the rise in technology, many children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities are learning communication skills (i.e., manding) using new augmentative and alternative communication devices such as the Proloquo2go™ application on the iPad®. To date, no studies have extended multiple schedules in order to signal periods of reinforcement availability and extinction using these forms of technology. The current study will extend the literature of multiple schedules as a proof of concept to current technology.
 
49. Assessing Food Selectivity and Mealtime Problem Behavior in Children With Autism Using Caregiver Input
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIANA MARCUS (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Holly Gover (Western New England University), Kelsey Ruppel (Western New England University), Kyle Sears (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Christine Ann Warner (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Interventions for food selectivity in children with autism often lack direct assessment of feeding or inappropriate mealtime behavior prior to treatment implementation (Silbaugh et al., 2016). When a pre-treatment assessment is completed, a technological description of inclusion criteria and assessment methods are not always included, and caregiver input is not necessarily utilized. The present study describes an assessment process modeled after the interview informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA; Hanley et al., 2014). Caregivers of children who are described as picky or selective were asked to complete the Selective Eating Screening Tool, a food preference survey, and a brief interview. These tools provided information about the child's mealtime behavior and food preferences, foods that the caregiver would like the child to eat, and reinforcement contingencies that may influence mealtime behavior. This information was used to populate a single stimulus preference analysis and, for some participants, a functional analysis. Interobserver agreement averaged 98% (range, 80% to 100%) for all variables measured. The outcomes of this assessment process were used to inform a function- and skill-based treatment of food selectivity.
 
50. The Effect of Picture Cues on Transitioning Compliance From High-P to Low-P With a 10-Year-Old Vocal-Verbal Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Difficulty in transitioning from high to low preferred activity is a challenge with some children with developmental disabilities (Sainato, Strain, Lefebvre, & Rapp, 1987). Compliance training for parents included using behavior momentum (Mace et al., 1988); errorless compliance (Ducharme & Popynick, 1993); and prompting with a 10-sec delay and physical guidance (Miles & Wilder, 2009). In the current study, a 10-year old boy complied with 13% parent delivered verbal instructions, to transition from high-p to low-p instructions in baseline conditions. Parents were trained to use picture cues without verbal instructions for transitioning from trampoline (high-p) to swings, see-saw, table-top, and computer (low-p). Minimal physical prompts such as nudges, gestural prompts and body blocks for attempts to run to a non-targeted activity were used. A brief reversal to verbal instructions on day 9, 15 and 16 indicated a gradual improvement in compliance to 55%, 71% and 92% respectively for transitioning on parent verbal instructions. This suggested picture cues can play an effective role in the transfer of stimulus control to verbal instructions during compliance training. Yes/No data was taken and IOA was 100%. Parents reported high degree of social validity in implementing the process.
 
51. The Effects of Presenting Video-Based Instructional Antecedents on the Acquisition and Generalization of Discrimination Skills by a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CARLY EBY (The New England Center for Children), Elizabeth Demarchi (Vinfen)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Many children with autism have difficulty learning skills such as visual-visual matching, motor imitation, and social responses such as greetings. For some children with autism, this problem in learning may be related to the degree to which the child attends to antecedent stimuli (e.g., instructions from a teacher, a model from a teacher or peer, or the presentation of academic materials such as pictures and objects). On the other hand, many children with autism appear to have strong preferences for technology such as computers and tablets and can be observed to visually attend at high rates when engaging with technology. The current study evaluated and compared the effects of presenting instructional antecedents using traditional presentation methods (i.e., teacher-presented) with technology-based methods (i.e., video presented on an iPad) for one child with autism. Experimental control was demonstrated in a multiple-baseline across behaviors design. The results showed that the video-based antecedent presentation resulted in acquisition of visual-visual non-conditional matching, generalized imitation, and social greetings, while there was no effect for identifying body parts. Following the video intervention, generalization of acquired responses was observed in the traditional presentation condition (i.e., teacher-presented antecedents). Interobserver agreement was collected in 36% of sessions and there was a mean agreement of 98%.
 
52. Increasing Young Children's Compliance With Essential-Routine Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REGHANN MUNNO (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University), Adam Carter (Brock University), Jacqueline Pachis (Brock University), Talia Maria Ennett (Brock University), Nancy Leathen (Brock University), Catherine McHugh (Brock University)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Child noncompliance during dental exams and haircuts can prevent the successful completion of these procedures (e.g., Allen, Stanley, & McPherson, 1990; Cuvo, Godard, Huckfeldt, & DeMattei; Shumacher & Rapp, 2011). This problem is exacerbated when the procedure involves the use of sharp objects (e.g., dental scrapper, scissors) that can cause physical injury to children who exhibit noncompliance, problem behavior, or other avoidant behaviors during the procedure. We examined the effectiveness of a treatment package consisting of demand fading, synchronous reinforcement, and escape on the acquisition and generalization of compliance of 2 young children with autism spectrum disorder during a dental exam (participant 1) and a haircut (participant 2). Results showed that the treatment package was effective for increasing compliance in an analogue setting for both children and generalization to the natural setting was achieved for one child. Results are discussed in terms of treatment implications and the importance of programming for generalization.
 
54. Teaching Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder Concept of Cause and Effect
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN NOHELTY (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Jennifer Lewis (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Cause and effect is a concept that involves an understanding of why events occur, specifically, the relationship between an action and the outcome. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often deficient in this skill, which is necessary for a greater understanding of their surrounding world, including the actions of others. This poster details a case study examining the use of direct instruction to teach a child with ASD the concept of cause and effect by systematically teaching the child appropriate responses to cause and effect questions that gradually increased in complexity. By breaking down the concept of cause and effect into four types of questions (e.g. "What happened when (explanation of cause)," "What will you do/what will happen if (explanation of cause)," "Why shouldn't you/wouldn't you (action)," "Why (explanation of effect)"), the concept was presented to the child in a manner that systematically increased in difficulty. The child demonstrated mastery of all four types of questions, providing preliminary evidence that children with ASD can be taught the complex skill of cause and effect.
 
55. A Comparison of Treatment Duration Following Brief Versus Extended Functional Assessment in a Randomized Clinical Trial
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH JACQUELINE FRANTZ (The University of Iowa; Stead Family Children's Hospital), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa; Stead Family Children's Hospital ), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Todd G. Kopelman (The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics; Stead Family Children's Hospital), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine ), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Lauren Withhart (Marcus Autism Center), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: According to Roscoe and colleagues (2015), about one-third of behavioral analysts employ functional analysis procedures to determine a behavioral treatment plan and greater than half of all behavior analysts believe descriptive assessments are sufficient for determining function of problem behavior. Although there is great importance in efficiently determining behavioral function (i.e., less likelihood of behavioral strengthening, more rapid initiation of treatment), the ability to implement an efficient treatment (i.e., rapid reductions in problem behavior) based on the outcome of such an assessment is also of great importance. To determine the value of a standard functional analysis, a randomized clinical trial of functional analysis procedures using telehealth is currently underway across three research sites. In this study, young children with autism were randomly assigned to either a brief structural assessment group or an extended functional analysis group and treatment matching the assessment outcome continued until problem behavior was reduced by 80% over baseline and manding was independent. This poster will provide preliminary data on the length of treatment required to reach criteria for both groups and the implications of any differences.
 
56. Training Parents to Effectively Implement the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System: Parent Fidelity and Child Progress
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN LEEANN MASTON (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Language and cognitive intervention using ABA therapy can be sometimes difficult to come by in certain regions of the country or for parents that may not have insurance. By teaching parents how to utilize intervention techniques, more children may receive adequate treatment. Two parents and their children with autism were participants in the current study using the PEAK Relational Training System- Direct Training module (PEAK-DT). The procedure first required the parents to read information on how to implement the programs found in the introduction of the PEAK-DT module. Following this step, the parents observed their child's therapy sessions conducted at an ABA clinic by student therapists. Next, parents were instructed to implement three programs and received feedback from the child's therapist.. Implementation fidelity was collected based on the parent performance and child progress was recorded based on percent correct responding within the actual program. Each parent was able to successfully implement programs within the PEAK-DT module within their child's therapy sessions and the children were accurately responding and mastering skills taught to them by their parents. This study implies that parents may be able to utilize the PEAK Relational Training System with their children when provided training by ABA therapists. Additionally, future research should assess these procedures with the other three PEAK modules.
 
57. How are Robots Used in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VICTOR RAMIREZ (California State University, Northridge), Christina Melanie Saez (California State University, Northridge), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Abstract: The prospect of using robots to mediate therapy is exciting because specific skills can be taught in the absence of a therapist, thus extending teaching time for clients. However, systematic literature reviews have reported a lack of concurrence in the effectiveness of robot-mediated therapy. Despite current empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of behavioral interventions for remediation of symptoms associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the research in robot-mediated interventions for this population is published outside of behavior analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this poster is to provide behavior analysts with information regarding the current literature base and how robots are being used. We reviewed 15 studies examined by Begum, Serna, and Yanco (2016) and extended their analyses to include information about the dependent measures as well as the specifications of the robots. We found that the most common dependent variables were imitation (40%), attending (20%), prompt level required to evoke target behaviors (20%), and social skills (20%; e.g., greetings). The robot was most often human operated (60%) and served as a therapist (67%; i.e., delivered instructions, models, and/or praise). We will discuss the implications of our findings with respect to how behavior analysts can contribute to this line of research.
 
58. Teaching Complex Skills of Opposition Using Arbitrary Stimuli and Emojis to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BECKY BARRON (Southern Illinois University), Victoria Booth (Southern Illinois University), Kaitlyn LeeAnn Maston (Southern Illinois University), Dana Paliliunas (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Relational Training promotes the development of derived language and cognitive skills for children with autism or related disabilities, which is theoretically based out of Relational Frame Theory (RFT). RFT is an account of human language and cognition that focuses on derivations of language through relational frame families such as sameness, difference, and opposition. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a training procedure teaching the relational frame of opposition as well as promoting derivations of untrained relations for children with autism using arbitrary symbols. A multiple baseline design was utilized across three participants to teach oppositional properties of culturally relevant stimuli for Emojis. Additionally, arbitrary symbols were taught to represent the emotions corresponding with the Emojis. Furthermore, probes were conducted across baseline and treatment conditions to test for the transformation of stimulus function for each participant. The results of the initial analysis indicated that the participants acquired the skill and support the efficacy and usefulness of relational training for teaching arbitrary and culturally relevant frames of opposition. Finally, these results have implications surrounding the advancement of technologies for teaching complex language and cognitive skills to children with autism.
 
59. The Emergence of Secondary Targets and Equivalence Classes During Group Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER A. TULLIS (Georgia State University), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. ), Kayla Greene (Marcus Autism Center; Georgia State University), Caitlin H. Delfs (Village Autism Center)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that greatly impacts social, communication, and educational outcomes (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). One-to-one instruction (e.g., Discrete-Trial-Instruction) is one of the most widespread and heavily researched interventions for learners with ASD (Smith, 2001; Stahmer et al., 2005). Although effective, intensive one-to-one teaching methodologies may be costly and difficult to implement in many non-clinical educational settings (Collins, 2012; Smith, 2001). Alternatively, group instruction may be a more efficient method of delivering programming. Instructive feedback (IF), and stimulus equivalence are two methods that have been implemented in group instructional formats (e.g., Ledford & Wolery, 2013; Rehfeldt et al., 2003). Individually, each has been effective in increasing the emergence of skills that were not directly taught, but there has not been an investigation of the effects of combining these two strategies. In the current study investigated combing IF and stimulus equivalence procedures with six participants with ASD to determine if equivalence classes emerged both through direct teaching, and through observational learning.
 
60. Teaching Conditional Discrimination Using Novel Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHUSHMA VASHIST (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Learners with developmental disabilities need specially engineered environments to acquire listener responding skills (Drash & Tudor, 1993; Lovaas, 1977). Ash an 11-year old boy with autism had profound difficulties in audio-visual-conditional discrimination of stimuli from same class. He also failed to acquire discrimination training involving matching to sample (Saunders & Spradlin, 1989), or differential observing response using sign, and avoiding targets with a history of errors (Grow & LeBlanc, 1998). This experiment used novel stimuli with and without signs with 4 fruit stimuli and 4 animal stimuli. Results showed rapid acquisition of conditional discrimination within 4-16 days on a 5-Y mastery criteria. A detailed counterbalanced assessment showed 95% correct identification in 3 fruits and 78% correct responding with 3 animals. These are significantly higher than chance levels confirming the acquisition of discrimination. The results suggest that using novel stimuli, using block of trials and teaching targets with no prior history of failures and was effective in learning discrimination within class however acquisition for targets taught rates with and without signs remained unaltered.
 
61. Measurement of Responsive and Initiated Joint Attention for Two Children With Autism via Telehealth
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACLYN GUNDERSON (University of Minnesota), Jessica J. Simacek (University of Minnesota), Adele F. Dimian (University of Minnesota), Joe Reichle (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Joint attention (JA) is a cluster of prelinguistic behaviors (i.e., eye gaze alternation between partner and referent and gestures) to communicate nonverbally and is an important component of early social-communicative skills (Bruinsma, Koegel, & Koegel, 2004). Responsive JA occurs when the adult gazes and or points to a referent and the child shifts gaze to the referent and back to the parent. Initiated JA occurs when the child establishes a gaze shift between a partner and the referent to direct the partners attention. The purpose of this study was to measure child initiated and responsive JA (Whalen & Schreibman, 2003) and the proportion of child responses to parent initiated opportunities during parent-implemented free play sessions in the family homes and delivered via telehealth for two young girls with autism. Visual analysis results indicated that parents provided a moderately high and stable range of JA opportunities for children to respond to JA, with child JA responses covaried with parent initiated opportunities. Overall, children engaged in more JA responses than JA initiations. Future implications from this study include viable codes to measure JA either because of JA intervention or as a potential collateral gain during early communication intervention.
 
62. Prompt Dependency in Group Learning: Transferring Stimulus Control From Therapist to Teacher
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLY BOYLAN (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center), Leah Renee Lefever (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center), Kiel Rotarius (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center), Amber I. Crane (Private Practice), Emilie Jane Erickson (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Prompt dependency is the overreliance of a cue meant to induce a person to perform a desired behavior. This can be a significant problem in children receiving services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can prevent generalization and further skill acquisition. Group learning is the ability to acquire new skills in an environment with one instructor and more than one learner. The present study investigated one treatment method to overcome prompt dependency for 3 children with ASD who had already mastered a skill in an individual instruction setting, but inconsistently demonstrated the skill in a group setting without a prompt from support staff. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that stimulus control could be transferred from the controlling prompt to the instructor by systematically increasing the number of peers present when instruction is delivered and decreasing the reinforcement ratio. Our results showed that this procedure was effective in maintaining responding, and all students were able to achieve a markedly improved level of responding in a group. Limitations and implications for practice are discussed.
 
63. A Pilot Model for Increasing Access to Services: Embedding Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis and Applied Behavior Analysis Within the Medical Home
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN A. WEAVER (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), Jeffrey Hine (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), A. Pablo Juàrez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD), Ashley Vogel (Vanderbilt University Medical Center TRIAD)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Despite the wide-scale availability of effective screening tools for young children, waits for diagnostic assessment are still quite lengthy and impede access to early intervention services. Early accurate diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and access to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services currently represents a challenging public health and clinical practice issue. Lack of access to autism screening and/or ABA services contributes to substantial family stress. We tested the impact of embedding a behavioral health provider within the primary care setting with an explicit focus on rapid ASD identification and access to ABA services. Patients were seen in pediatric primary care clinics, which increased coordination and continuity in the medical home. Based on this model, several significant advantages were noted related to the latency to evaluation and diagnosis as well as the median age at diagnosis. Three pilot models with varying levels of ABA consultation were provided to children with an ASD diagnosis to address needs such as challenging behavior, communication, self-help, and social skills. This model potentially represents a more realistic and efficient model for advancing ASD identification and initiation of services.
 
64. Simultaneous Presentation to Decrease Packing
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER WHIPPLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Southern Mississippi), Ryan Scherr (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Children with feeding disorders may exhibit packing, which is defined as holding food in the mouth for a prolonged period of time. There are various treatment approaches to address packing, including redistribution, offering a chaser, texture manipulations, and reinforcement contingencies; however, these treatments are not always effective. Buckley and Newchok (2005) found that simultaneous presentation, a treatment previously identified to increase acceptance, reduced packing in one child; however, they did not fade out simultaneous presentation. The current study aimed to expand Buckley and Newchok's study by using simultaneous presentation to decrease packing, and then systematically fading out simultaneous presentation while maintaining high levels of mouth cleans (swallowing within 30 seconds). The study included one 4-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and severe food selectivity who packed 100% of nonpreferred bites. A reversal design was conducted to demonstrate experimental control of simultaneous presentation, and the ratio of preferred to nonpreferred bites was systematically faded during treatment until generalization occurred during a final reversal to baseline. Packing decreased to 0%, and mouth cleans increased to 100%, when preferred foods were presented simultaneously. Packing remained at 0%, and mouth cleans at 100%, in the absence of preferred foods following systematic fading.
 
65. An Evaluation of a Token Economy to Increase the Duration of Prosthetic Compliance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA GILL (Melmark, PA), Jennifer Quigley (Melmark, PA)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: A token is an object that is provided contingent on appropriate behavior and is later exchanged for back up reinforcers (Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007). Token economies have become one of the most successful, behaviorally-based applications within the field of applied behavior analysis (Hackenberg, 2009). There have been minimal published studies which evaluated ways to increase the duration for wearing prescription prosthetics and no known studies which employed the use of a token economy to increase wearing. Previous research evaluated increasing prosthetic compliance and duration of wearing a prescribed prosthetic has employed the use of non-contingent reinforcement (Richling et al., 2011), response cost, and response blocking (DeLeon et al., 2008;). This study expanded current research to increase prosthetic wearing using tokens. Prior to treatment, a functional analysis was conducted to evaluate the participant's hearing aid refusal behavior and a subsequent treatment package was assessed. The skill did not generalize to the natural environment and due to medical necessity a new treatment was examined. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a token economy to increase the duration an individual wore their hearing aids. A token was delivered contingent upon hearing aid wearing for a prescribed interval. Once the terminal number of tokens were earned, the individual was provided with enthusiastic attention and an extended enriched break. Our findings suggest that the use of a token economy may have been successful at increasing the duration that an individual wears their hearing aids. However, it should be noted that a limitation of this study is that the removal of the intervention did not lead to a subsequent decrease in duration of hearing aid wearing. This limitation could be attributed to session therapist's attention having control over the behavior. This will be addressed in an upcoming component analysis.
 
67. Examining Social Communication of Children With Autism Across Race and Ethnicity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE MARTINEZ (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Mary Fleck (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), McKenzie Leigh Woods (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), A. Pablo Juàrez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: One of the key findings from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated lower prevalence rates of an Autism Spectrum Disorder in non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic groups compared with non-Hispanic White children (Community Report on Autism, 2016). Suggesting, mild-moderate cases of Autism might be under-diagnosed in these groups as well as cultural differences in seeking psychological and medical diagnoses. In order to provide high quality interventions to all toddlers with or at risk for ASD, there is a need to conduct further research, which includes diversity across race, ethnicity and cultures to assess the impact of services across these groups. In this pilot study, we compare the outcomes/impact of a brief caregiver training series on development of social communication skills across three ethnic groups (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic) in two regions of the state of Tennessee. Preliminary data suggests comparable increases in social communication skills. Caregiver's of non-Hispanic White children reported a decreased ability to help their children and take them on routine errands following six intervention sessions. Data collection will continue through January 2018, for service delivery. We predict all three ethnic groups will report similar outcomes with higher outcomes reported in one of the two state regions.
 
68. Establishing Foundational Non-Arbitrary Frames of Distinction in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN MICHELE LANG (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Tanya Stoeklen (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Nola Schultz (ABA of Illinois), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Karen R. Harper (ABA of Illinois), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Imran Kahn (ABA of Illinois)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Drake University)
Abstract: Three children with autism who could not demonstrate correct responding in terms of the contextual cue "different" were taught through multiple exemplar discrete trial training to responding distinctively to a subset of stimuli. Baseline results show that the participants could not demonstrate correct responding above baseline levels for non-arbitrary stimuli that were either the same or different. Following direct reinforcement and prompting for a subset of stimuli, the participants could not only demonstrate correct responding in terms of the first set of relational stimuli, but could also demonstrate correct responding in terms of a second, untrained set of stimuli. This result further suggests that relational responding in terms of frames of distinction may be a higher-order operant that can be established in children with autism. Training and testing procedures were taken from the PEAK-Transformation curriculum to aid in clinical replication and in research.
 
69. Between Group Evaluation of Comprehensive Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training of Children With Autism: Comparison to Low-Dosage Verbal Behavior Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TANYA STOEKLEN (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Lauren Michele Lang (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Nola Schultz (ABA of Illinois), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Karen R. Harper (ABA of Illinois), Imran Kahn (ABA of Illinois), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Twenty children with autism or a related disability participated in the present study, evaluating the efficacy of medium-dosage, comprehensive PEAK relational training on target skill acquisition of relational (i.e., equivalence and RFT-based) and non-relational (e.g., tacts and mands) skills. A subset of the participants served as a quasi-experimental control group and received low-dosage (1-3 hours per week) verbal behavior training guided exclusively by the PEAK-Direct Training module, approximately replicating conditions from results reported by McKeel et al. (2014). Skill acquisition was then compared to participants who received medium-dosage (4 to 12 hours per week) comprehensive relational language training guided by each of the four PEAK modules (Direct Training, Generalization, Equivalence, Transformation). The results showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of skill acquisition, and differences in terms of the different training modules were compared. A third group of subjects were instructed in both groups in a pre-post format, and results showed that skill acquisition improved once the low-dosage comprehensive training was introduced. Implications for systems level analysis is compared.
 
70. Legal Institutions, the Law, and Applied Behavior Analysis: The Lessons of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DANIEL UNUMB (National Autism Law Center; Autism Legal Resource Center LLC)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Although the science of behavior analysis is well-established, the broad integration of ABA into the fields of healthcare, education, housing and employment is still very much a work on progress. Among the forces mediating this process, laws and legal institutions may either be strong allies or powerful hindrances. The poster will address some of the key laws and concepts of which behavior analysts performing research or working in the field should be aware.
 
71. A Peer-Mediated Social Network to Increase Social Interactions for a Student With Autism Using Augmentative Communication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA LETTERMAN (Missouri State University ), McKenzie Bacon (Missouri State University), Michael Jarvis (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University), Megan A. Boyle (Missouri State University), David Goodwin (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Social competency is a primary deficit for individuals with autism. Developing peer networks to support individuals with autism has been proven as an effective social skills strategy (Bregman & Higdon, 2012; Kamps et al., 2002). This study focused on developing a peer network within a public school setting to promote increased social communication between a seven-year old student with autism and his typically developing peers. A single-subject multiple baseline design was utilized to analyze the effects of the peer network intervention across three settings. Dependent variables included frequency of social initiations and social responses of the target and network peers. All sessions were video-recorded and data were collected for all participants. In addition to the quantitative data, the teacher-researcher maintained a research journal and transcribed the video clips, (one session per intervention phase) to provide additional measurable and observable evidence to support the correlated qualitative data. Upon implementation of the peer network, preliminary analysis suggests the target student increased his social initiations from a total of 12 during baseline to 36 and an increase in responses from 29 to 547, respectively. The peer network participants initiated 1340 times and responded 392 times during intervention.
 
72. Assessing Barriers for Families of Children With Autism Receiving ABA Treatment Using the Behavior Analysis Training System Checklist
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN LEEANN MASTON (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Lauren Michele Lang (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Karen R. Harper (ABA of Illinois), Imran Kahn (ABA of Illinois), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: We developed a checklist modelled from existing OBM procedural barriers measures to determine knowledge (rule-governance), access (antecedent), and consequence (reinforcement) variables that may preclude families from accessing ABA services. The checklist was then used to evaluate barriers to treatment for 30 families in the Southern Illinois region to determine if the items could isolate specific barriers to each family in order to tailor services to ensure that families can access ABA. Results from our sample elucidated both knowledge and access variables, where families identified that, although they are aware that ABA is an option, they largely failed to provide a correct description of ABA. In addition, although all families indicated that they would like to receive ABA services for their child with autism, these services were largely unavailable, or they did not know where to locate treatment options. All parents indicated that ABA treatment would be beneficial for their child. Results have implications for assessing for access barriers using ABA techniques, as well as in evaluating common barriers local to an area, such as Southern Illinois in the current study.
 
73. Promoting School Readiness Skills Through Video Modeling Intervention Using iPad in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (University of Tsukuba), Natsumi Ishikawa (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether children with autism acquired school readiness skills such as social skills and school rules through video modeling intervention using iPad. Two children with autism participated in this study. We used multiple baseline design across stimulus sets to evaluate the treatment effect. Children received a 30-minute intervention at laboratory once in a week, and 10-minute intervention using iPad at home from the parent every day for 4 weeks at home. In the intervention phase at laboratory, children watched the 9 videos on iPad. The content of the video was to speak to, praise, and comfort a friend. Participants were required to say the correct phrase and do a role play about the video. They also watched the video on the iPad with parents every day at home. In the baseline, probe, and follow up phase, experimenter showed video to children halfway and asked what we should say at such times. The results showed that the proportion of correct phrase increased in a short period of time. In the follow-up, it was possible to answer by thinking about the phrase themselves, not the predetermined serifs.
 
74. Derived Relational Responding Throughout the Course of Early Intensive Behavior Intervention Treatment: A Preliminary Investigation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY DANIELLE SPURLOCK (University of Nevada, Reno), Staheli Meyer (University of Nevada, Reno), Vanessa Willmoth (University of Nevada, Reno), Stephanie Harootunian (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Derived relational responding has been of increasing interest is the field at large, and in the applied domain. Specifically, derived relational responding is seeing increased attention in its relevance to autism treatment. Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is the behavioral treatment of choice for autism. While it is acknowledged that behavioral interventions are effective, a critique of this approach is that empirically, little attention is given to training, evaluating, and promoting generalized responding. Such generalized responding is critical to the emergence of novel behavior. Children with autism are often substantially delayed when compared to age matched peers. Teaching technologies that rely solely on teaching isolated and discrete responses divorced from functionally related relations will be insufficient in efficiently ameliorating language deficits in children with autism. Some have suggested that and understanding of derived relational responding is what has been absent from a behavioral account, and teaching technology of language. Therefore, ongoing assessments and teaching technologies informed by the derived relational responding literature could be useful to this end. The present study is a preliminary investigation of derived relational responding throughout the courses of EIBI treatment.
 
75. Teaching Discriminated-Use of a Tablet Device for Leisure and Educational Activities With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Audrey N. Hoffmann (Johnson State College), Tyra P. Sellers (Utah State University), Jason Lee (Utah State University), Stephanie Mattson (Utah State University), SETH WALKER (Utah State University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism are increasingly using tablet devices for a range of activities including accessing highly preferred content. Many individuals with autism may also use tablets for less preferred yet important uses such as educational or communicative purposes. When tablets are used for multiple purposes varying in preference, it may be difficult for some individuals to transition between highly preferred activities and less preferred uses of the device. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching discriminated use of a tablet device used for multiple purposes. Participants included three children with autism, ages 5-9. We measured percentage of compliance and latency to compliance with instructions to access a high- and low-preferred app within a reversal design. All participants engaged in low levels of compliance with high latency to compliance during baseline sessions. Once the discrimination training procedure was implemented latency to compliance decreased and percentage compliance increased. The procedures were effective in increasing appropriate use of the tablet device for multiple uses in all participants. This study has implications for individuals working with children with autism who engage in problematic behavior when using tablet computers for multiple uses.
 
76. The Effects of Adult Contingent Vocal Imitation on the Vocal and Imitative Behavior of a Young Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Staheli Meyer (University of Nevada, Reno), TAYLOR SEIDLER (University of Nevada, Reno), Vanessa Willmoth (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Adult contingent vocal imitation (ACVI) is a practice whereby an adult imitates the vocal behavior of a child. This procedure has been associated with increases in vocal responding, and imitative vocal responding of the child. This procedure was implemented with a young boy with autism who, at the start of the study, made very few vocal and very fewer imitative responses. After the implementation of the ACVI procedure an increase in vocal and imitative vocal respo nding was observed. Additionally, typical echoic training was successfully implemented after the ACVI procedure. Increasing vocal and imitative vocal responding is paramount to the development of verbal behavior. While additional research is needed, ACVI may be an effective strategy increasing vocal and imitative vocal responding for those who make few vocal and fewer imitative vocal responses.
 
77. A Parametric Analysis of the Percentile Schedule: Increasing Frequencies of Pre-Academic Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEX NIETO (University of Nevada, Reno), Vanessa Willmoth (University of Nevada, Reno), Staheli Meyer (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: The percentile schedule is a mathematical equation, which offers a systematic and objective procedure for shaping. The equation for percentile reinforcement is k=(m+1)(1-w) where m is the distribution of observations, w is the probability of reinforcement, and k is the rank the current response must exceed to contact reinforcement. The present study is a parametric analysis of the w variable as used in frequency building of letter sound identification by a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A multi-element design across responses is utilized, and a multi-element design across participants is utilized. This analysis evaluates the differential effects of a range of w values on rates of responding to academic stimuli. Performance data are displayed on a Standard Celeration Chart. The Standard Celeration Chart is a graphical display tool, which affords the quantification of behavior change. Changes in rates of responding over time are quantified as celeration values, and variability in responding is quantified as bounce. By comparing celeration and bounce of correct responses during training, as well as celeration and bounce of incorrect responses during training response differentiation observed in the various w value conditions is evaluated. By comparing bounce on retention, endurance, and stability probes the differential effects of the w value observed on functional assessments of mastery are evaluated.
 
78. Identifying Factors Contributing to Poor Accuracy and Reliability in Data Collection of Verbal Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUELINE LOGAN (Rowan University), Victor Chin (Rowan University), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University)
Discussant: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Among the interventions developed for children with autism spectrum disorder, many focus on increasing rates and diversity of verbal behavior. Verbal behavior presents a unique challenge for data collection because differences between categories can be nuanced and challenging to identify while observing in real time. Video recording sessions has become a common and affordable solution to studying complex behavior. Observers can rewatch video to verify data or ensure that instances of behavior were not missed during previous passes. Though this solves many logistical issues in data collection of complex behavior, challenges remain. University settings often utilize inexperienced undergraduate data collectors who may produce inaccurate or unreliable data. The present study seeks to shed light on what components of data collection are the most responsible for poor accuracy and reliability. During baseline, participants were instructed to identify occurrences of verbal behavior and identify categorical features of each utterance (e.g., modality, function, content) with no aid. During the test condition, participants were given a list of timestamps when the verbal utterances occured in a given video, and were only responsible for identifying the categorical features of the behavior. Results suggest that poor data collection of complex verbal behavior may be due to inability to identify when a verbal utterance has occurred. Implications toward training and data collection systems will be discussed.
 
80. Improving the Fluency of Parents of Children With Autism While Conducting Discrete Trials
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ADRIANO A. BARBOZA (Federal University of Pará; National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching), Danielle Gemaque (Amazon University), Jade Rodrigues (Federal University of Pará), Romariz Barros (Federal University of Pará; National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Training parents have been used as a cost-effective alternative to disseminate the intervention based on applied behavior analysis in Brazil, while also promoting more generalization of the acquired skills. It has been already demonstrated that parents are able to implement teaching procedures with high integrity. However, high fluency while implementing these procedures—which is also a characteristic discussed as important by the current literature—hasn't been widely approached with this public. Therefore, this research aims to implement a procedure to increase fluency with parents of children with autism. The study has been already conducted with 2 participants, and a third one is in progress. All of the participants should have presented at least 80% of accuracy while implementing discrete trials in order to participate in this study. A changing criterion design was used to assess the effects of verbal instructions and feedback (independent variable) on the participants' fluency (trials per minute—dependent variable) while implementing discrete trials with their children. Beth's fluency had an increase of 3 trials per minute (2.4 on the last baseline session vs. 5.4 on the last post treatment session). Vanessa's fluency had an increase of 4.3 trials per minute (1.3 on the last baseline session vs. 5.6 on the last post treatment session). Until this point, this research presents data that qualifies the procedures used here as promising to better increase the efficiency of parents when implementing teaching programs. Future researchers could replicate this procedure with more participants and assess the effects of increasing fluency on the children's behavior.
 
82. Club '57: Applied Behavior Analysis and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA M. HINMAN (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Sebastian Garcia Zambrano (Southern Illinois University), William Root (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Natalia Baires (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Daniel Ray Grisham (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Victoria Diane Hutchinson (Southern Illinois University), Molly Ann Lamb (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Many adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in rigid behavioral routines, including rigid self-rules. These routines may make it difficult for them to effectively adapt and respond to unforeseen changes in life, which may result in ill-adaptive avoidance behaviors in the future, all characteristics of psychological inflexibility (Pahnke, Lundgren, Hursti & Hirvikoski, 2013). The purpose of Club 57 is to provide an environment where adolescents and young adults with ASD are able to socialize, develop friendships with peers, and acquire new social skills, all while receiving Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) services that promote engagement in behavioral repertoires consistent with valued living. Between February and December 2017, Club 57 has served more than 30 individuals ranging in age from 13 to 28 years old. Pre- and post-test assessments were administered to 14 participants Assessments indirectly measured levels of psychological inflexibility, experiential avoidance, social anxiety, and cognitive fusion. Overall, analyses of the assessment results found a statistically significant difference responses for three of the four assessments, suggesting an overall improvement in psychological flexibility. Given the number of adolescents and young adults with ASD that experience anxiety, depression, and social isolation, programming that directly addresses these experiences will be discussed along with the clinical significance of the results.
 
83. Teaching Chaining Procedures Effectively: A Literature Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VAHE ESMAEILI (California State University, Northridge), Lance Dayandayan (California State University, Northridge), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Ernesto Beltran (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Chaining procedures have been used successfully to teach complex skills (e.g., tying shoes) and there is research evidence that chaining procedures implemented with high procedural fidelity result in quicker skill acquisition for the learner. Although researchers and clinicians have reported successes in teaching novice individuals to implement chaining with high fidelity, it is unclear which training methods are most efficient and effective. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify the training methods that researchers used to train individuals to implement chaining procedures and identify characteristics of trainings that were effective in bringing trainees to high fidelity. Articles included in this review were those in which researchers trained other individuals to implement chaining procedures (N = 15). We categorized information regarding the type of chaining procedures taught, training components, and total training time. We found that Behavior Skills Training (BST), which involves instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, was the most commonly used method (60%) to train individuals. Researchers reported an average of 2 hours to train individuals to implement forward, backward, and total task chaining procedures with high fidelity. We provide recommendations in light of our results to aid individuals interested in developing trainings.
 
84. An Analysis and Treatment of Pica in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Brandon C. Perez (University of Florida), ARLEEN M. RUIZCALDERON (Florida Autism Center), Sarah Slocum Freeman (Rollins College), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Pica, or the ingestion of inedible items, is a relatively uncommon problematic behavior, however, among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the prevalence is higher. Pica poses significant threat to health and can even result in death. Applied research has examined many different treatments to reduce instances of pica, including but not limited to: differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), functional communication training (FCT), increasing response effort, blocking, and overcorrection. The current study will evaluate multiple treatments for pica as well examine DRA as a treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder as well as assess generalization across multiple items and settings.
 
85. An Evaluation of Variables Affecting Group Responding in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology), SANDHYA RAJAGOPAL (Florida Institute of Technology), Kristin M. Albert (Florida Institute of Technology), Ashley Felde (Florida Institute of Technology), Michael Passage (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Often, practitioners face the issue that stimulus control does not transfer from a 1:1 therapist-to-child instructional arrangement to a group setting, i.e., children may not respond correctly to instructions presented in a group format that they would otherwise respond correctly to. One purpose of this study was to compare individuals' compliance with instructions during group instruction versus 1:1 instruction. Another purpose was to identify variables that influenced whether children responded correctly and independently to group instructions (e.g., "Everybody, clap your hands") versus individual instructions (e.g., "Bobby, stand up") during group activities. This evaluation was conducted with four participants with autism using a reversal design. In every session, the same 5 mastered gross motor imitation and 5 listener response tasks were presented. The dependent variables measured were percentage of independent, correct individual responses, percentage of independent, correct group responses, and the percentage of each session engaged in hypothesized "competing behaviors" (e.g., turning the body away from the instructor, engaging with peers, etc., operationally defined for each individual). Initially, an ABAB reversal was conducted to evaluate individual differences in responding between 1:1 instruction (Phase A) and 4:1 group instruction (Phase B). During Phase A, all 10 instructions were presented in random order with praise delivered following correct responses. During Phase B, group and individual instructions were randomly presented to each child, and praise was delivered following correct responses. During this initial evaluation, all children responded correctly during nearly 100% of opportunities during 1:1 instructional sessions (A). However, during the group instruction baseline (B), percentage of overall correct responding decreased across participants. Further, all children consistently erred or failed to respond more frequently when presented with group instructions (e.g., "Everybody, do this") than individual instructions (e.g., "Bobby, touch your head"). Following the second group baseline phase (B), interventions (e.g., individualized applications of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), a fixed-ratio 1 (FR 1) schedule of reinforcement for correct, independent responses, etc.) were tested and altered as appropriate for each participant within the reversal framework. Results of this study emphasized the importance of evaluating responding under various circumstances, specifically, during group instruction.
 
86. Issues on Online Research of the App-Based Intervention Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SIYUNG CHIN (Yonsei University), Eun Sun Chung (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Currently, interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD), which usually focus on improving social skills and cognitive function, are costly both in terms of time and monetary funds. In order to create a more cost-effective method, the authors developed two mobile application based training programs, ?Yface, a social skills training program, and ?Ycog?, a cognitive function training program for children with ASD. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the training programs, social skills and cognitive function was assessed for each participant before the start and after the completion of the training program Based on the results, the two training programs were effective in improving each targeted area?social skills or cognitive function. In order to generalize the effectiveness of the programs, the ?Yface? and ?Ycog? training program was distributed on the mobile application market. The training program is currently downloadable for anyone who is interested in the program under the condition that the participant consents to the study and completes a pre-assessment prior to training. 2 months after the distribution of the training program, 106 participants for ?Yface? and 102 participants for ?Ycog? were recruited, and from these participants, 37 participants for ?Yface? and 40 participants for ?Ycog? dropped out of the program due to the age criteria of the program. Thus, 69 participants for ?Yface? and 62 participants for ?Ycog? started training through the program. In order to investigate the consistent usage of the program, the authors calculated the percentage of the people who trained through program more than 3 times a week. Currently, 56% of the participants for ?Yface? and 54% participants for ?Ycog? are training through the program at least 3 times a week, which shows a very low participation rate in the program. This can be explained through several possible reasons Firstly, possible participants may feel uncomfortable consenting and completing a pre-assessment prior to the training program. Secondly, the program does not remind participants of the training which may cause problems in promoting continuous participation for ASD children, which results in parents having to prompt their child to keep using the training program. Lastly, difficulty with technical problems are hard to improve due to outsourcing of the actual development of the program. Thus, to further investigate and develop more cost-effective programs, further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of consistent training.
 
87. Decreasing Aberrant Behavior and Increasing Functional Skills in a Young Girl Impacted by Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PAIGE BOYDSTON (Integrated Behavioral Technologies, Inc. ), Linda S. Heitzman-Powell (Integrated Behavioral Technologies, Inc.; The University of Kansas Medical Center)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Research has well established the benefits of early, intensive behavioral interventions in regards to positive behavioral, social, and cognitive changes (e.g., Virues-Ortega, 2010; Warren et al., 2011; Remington et al., 2007; etc.). This single case presentation displays the benefits of early and ongoing intervention services in a home and community based setting to significantly impact children and families affected by autism. Structured and systematic behavioral interventions were used to decrease the level of aberrant behavior displayed by a young, non-vocal girl with autism after initiating early, intensive, in-home intervention services. In addition, teaching procedures were implemented to increase a variety of early learner, communication, social, and functional skills to compete with and replace aberrant behaviors. Aberrant behaviors included aggression, severe self-injury (in the form of hand biting and hair pulling), dropping, and a variety of noncompliant behaviors (e.g., growling, swiping, etc.). Continued intervention allowed for long-term maintenance and follow up data, indicating overall low and stable levels of observed aberrant behaviors in the home environment. Data acquired from other environments (e.g., school) also suggest the occurrence of behavioral contrast. Data in this single case presentation span a period of four years, with consistent and comparable data collection over time.
 
88. Evaluation of an Intervention to Teach Children With Autism to Answer Yes-No Preferential Questions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SERINA ANDO (Building Blocks Behavior Consulting/University of British Columbia), Yearin Kim (Simon Fraser University), Parbinder Bains (Building Blocks Behavior Consulting)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Being able to answer yes-no preferential questions (that is, "Do you want...?) is a critical skill for young children with autism. Failure to correctly answer such questions can bring outcomes different from their true intentions, sometimes causing the children to engage in problem behaviors. To date, only a few studies have been published to examine procedures designed to teach children with autism to answer yes-no preferential questions. The purpose of this study is to address limitations in the literature and examine effectiveness of a procedure based on the previous studies to teach young children with autism to answer yes-no preferential questions. Three 4- to 10-year old children with autism who did not meet predetermined criteria during incidental teaching participated in the study. A delayed multiple baseline design across participants was used. Intervention procedure implemented by behaviour interventionists include: (a) use of two or three highly preferred and highly aversive items; (b) use of prompts; (c) access to desired items or withdrawal of aversive items upon correct responses; and (d) removal of preferred items or presentation of aversive items upon incorrect responses. The result documented a clear pattern of improvement in the children's responses to yes-no preferential questions following the intervention.
 
89. Wait, Do That Again!: Increasing Social Skills in Adults With Autism via Observational Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIA BAIRES (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Jessica M. Hinman (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Sebastian Garcia Zambrano (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), India Pauly Hertel (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Social skills are a commonly identified deficit in repertoires of individuals with autism. However, the vast majority of literature on social skills concentrates on strengthening said skills in children with autism. These children eventually proceed through adolescence and adulthood. Thus, it is important to expand upon the research regarding social skills in adolescents and young adults with autism, which is currently limited. Participants of the current study will be taught three different social skills by a peer using observational learning. The model will be trained by experimenters using behavioral skills training until demonstrating mastery of the skill. They will then be taught how to model the skill for the participant. The three social skills chosen for each participant have been identified as deficits in their daily lives and include initiating and ending conversations, using appropriate humor, and making a phone call. Progress regarding mastery of skills will be measured via a multiple-probe across skills design for three participants. Implications regarding results of using observation learning with adults with autism will be further discussed.
 
90. Wisconsin Promise Tele-Behavioral Consultation to Decrease Challenging Behavior in Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE DREW (University of Oregon), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon), Qi Wei (University of Oregon), Ellie C. Hartman (University of Wisconsin-Stout)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities face worsened post-secondary outcomes. In an effort to mitigate barriers, Wisconsin Promise has provided additional services to Social Security recipients, including tele-behavioral consultation where shortages of BCBAs exist in collaboration with University of Oregon. A 17-year-old with autism and her father were referred to address vocal stereotypy (VS) and aggression occasioned by interruption of VS. Consultation procedures were implemented at a distance using telehealth equipment. Following indirect functional behavior assessment, the parent implemented a multielement and alternating treatment functional analysis (FA). Results of the FA suggested that VS was automatically maintained. The effects of matched stimuli (auditory input) was assessed; rate of VS was minimally affected by the addition of matched stimuli. The parent implemented each strategy (response interruption and redirection (RIRD), differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), control condition) with his daughter with coaching from the researcher to evaluate comparative effectiveness of interventions using a multicomponent treatment comparison design. Both RIRD and DRO resulted in decreased VS and other challenging behavior when compared to control condition, with DRO resulting in largest decrease. DRO and subsequent reinforcement fading was used to decrease VS and systematically increase DRO intervals. Implications and directions for future research are presented.
 
91. The Treatment of Vocal Stereotypy and Parental Adherence
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Sabrina Kelly (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.), Melissa Engasser (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center, Inc.), ANA ESCALANTE (BehaviorMe)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Stereotypic behavior, specifically vocal stereotypy, is a common sensory consequence that hinders social communication for many individuals diagnosed with autism. Previous research has found that the use of response interruption and redirection (RIRD) successful decreases vocal stereotypy for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, & Chung, 2007; Schumacher, Rapp, 2011). However, no research has studied the use of RIRD procedure in the home setting with caregivers delivering treatment. A 6-year old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and his parents were used to test the effects of RIRD procedures in the home. Results indicated that parental adherence with RIRD protocol saw an overall reduction in vocal stereotypy in the home.
 
92. Teacher and Parent Choice in Autism Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KARA DURGIN (Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg), Morgan Zymnis (Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg), Mia Daniels (Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg), Emis Hande Hakkoymaz (Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg), Kimberly A. Schreck (Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Private and public schools claiming to specialize in the education of those with Autism Spectrum Disorders offer different types of services for their students. We recruited parents and teachers from approximately 800 schools indicating they specialized in education for children with autism across the nation. Parents (n=200) and teachers (n=180) responded to which types of autism treatments and therapies they preferred for their students and children with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated a variety of both evidence-based and unsupported autism treatments were preferred by teachers and parents alike. Additionally, a variety of factors (e.g., colleague recommendations, media, etc) were reported to influence both autism school teachers and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder for what treatments and educational interventions to use for children with autism. These results have implications for dissemination of evidence based treatments according to the factors related to treatment choice and treatment preference.
 
93. Effects of Peer Mediated Reinforcement on Social Interactions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER HILGER (Play Connections ), Janean Jarvis (Play Connections)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display social deficits and avoid eye contact with peers. This study examined the effects of a typically-developing peer delivering reinforcement on the frequency of social interactions made by a five-year-old boy with autism. Peers were taught to reinforce certain social behaviors of the participant that typically-developing children frequently exhibit. These behaviors were approaching the peer, responding to his name, making eye contact, orienting towards the peer, and accepting items from the peer. Social interactions towards the typically-developing peer trained to deliver reinforcement was measured. In addition, generalization to other peers was assessed. Baseline data revealed that the participant exhibited low rates of all target behaviors. A single subject AB design will be used to evaluate the intervention with this participant and methods will be replicated with another participant using a multiple baseline across behaviors design. Limitations and implications for practice will be discussed. Results data are in progress.
 
94. Using Sufficient Exemplar Training to Facilitate Generalized Responding of Two-Term Labeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINE SAFARYAN (Lovaas Institute), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Children with autism have challenges with generalization and therefore it is critical for clinicians to plan for generalization at the onset of teaching skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate a procedure for sufficient exemplar training that can potentially lead to generalized responding with untrained exemplars. The number of sufficient exemplars to lead to generalized responding was evaluated with one participant; an 8-year-old boy with autism. His principle mode of communication was typing and therefore all responses for this study were typed. This participant was taught subject/action labeling (e.g., "Daddy is drinking"). A matrix was created in order to identify all possible subject/action label exemplars. Generalization was defined as the correct use of subject/action labels for five consecutive untrained exemplars. During baseline, all exemplars were probed to ensure the participant did not demonstrate this skill. Then the first objective was taught systematically using discrete trial training. Untrained objectives were probed after teaching each exemplar. Exemplars were taught until the participant responded correctly for five untrained exemplars. The participant required systematic teaching of 56 exemplars before generalized responding was established. The matrix allowed the researchers to organize the exemplars and to pinpoint when the participant did not require formal training.
 
95. Increasing Direct Care Staff Trial Counts: A Comparison of Group Versus Individual Graphical Feedback
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SABRINA D. DANESHVAR (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Michele Stone (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Amanda Johnstone (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Tiffany Hays (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Providing an appropriate number of trials is an important part of treating children with autism. Low trial counts can be caused by a variety of factors including low motivation to run trials or a lack of skills or understanding of how to run certain trials. If too few trials of a given goal are presented, client progress will be adversely affected (e.g., Smith, 2001, Cummings & Carr, 2009). The present study utilized graphical feedback to increase trial counts in 11 direct care staff working with clients with autism. Graphical feedback has been previously used to improve various behaviors such as increasing social worker's billable hours (Clayton & Hayes, 2014) and improving performance of direct care staff in residential settings (Reedy, Luiselli, & Thibadeau 2001). In this study, during baseline, client programs were reviewed to assess the average number of trials being delivered per hour. During intervention, the participants were split into 2 groups; one group received individualized weekly graphical data depicting only their trial counts, while the second group received weekly graphical data representing the group's average trial counts. Results found that graphical feedback was an effective, non-intrusive way to increase trial counts across all participants. Increased trial counts also generalized to other programs and other clients. Results will be discussed in terms of why graphical feedback is so effective, the differences between individual and group feedback, and the impact on children's learning.
 
96. An Analysis of Parent-Child Interactions in Children With Autism, Children With Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ashley Cameron (Northeastern University), Emanuel Mason (Northeastern University), Karin Lifter (Northeastern University), LAURA L. DUDLEY (Northeastern University)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: The current study investigated parent-child interactions in children with autism, children with Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Thirty-six parent-child dyads were observed during seven-minute play sessions, and the following behaviors were measured using partial interval recording: commands, comments, social engagement, attention bids, requests for assistance, eye contact, andF manipulation of objects. Results suggested that children with autism produced more nonverbal comments than typically developing children and fewer nonverbal comments than children with Down syndrome. Children with autism produced fewer bids for social engagement than typically developing children. Finally, children with autism responded more to parents' commands than children in other groups. Transactional relationships among parents' and children's behaviors were also investigated, and the following patterns were observed: (a) increases in parents' social engagement bids were associated with increases in children's comments and decreases in children's manipulation of objects; (b) as parents' commands increased, children's bids for social engagement decreased; (c) as parents' responses to children's comments increased, children's responses to parents' comments also increased; and (d) higher levels of children manipulating objects were associated with lower parental response to children's comments. Clinical implications of these results are discussed.
 
97. Teaching Children With Autism to Recall Short Stories: A Replication and Extension
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CINDY CAHILL (Florida Autism Center), Daniel E. Conine (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Lisa Guerrero (University of Florida), Erica Jones (Florida Autism Center), Tina Smith-Bonahue (University of Florida)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Reading comprehension is an important early academic skill that may pose challenges for some children with autism. Previous research (Valentino, Conine, Delfs, & Furlow, 2015) has reported effective methods for teaching children with autism to retell short stories that were previously read to them, as a possible first step in establishing a reading comprehension repertoire. We replicated and extended this prior work with three school-aged children with autism using a multiple baseline across stories and a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants. Participants were exposed to an initial baseline, a reading with reinforcement condition (treatment 1), and a backward chaining with textual prompts condition (treatment 2). All three participants emitted mastery-level recall of stories more rapidly and under less complex intervention procedures than in prior research. Improvements in story recall were associated with increases in correct answers to basic comprehension questions, and generalized improvements in recall were observed across multiple stories. We also conducted standardized reading assessments with all participants before and after the study. These data have important implications for behavior analysts and educators providing reading intervention to children with autism, and suggest several possible avenues for future research on reading comprehension and recall.
 
98. Response Interruption and Redirection of Vocal Stereotypy: A Home-Based Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Caitlin Shea Fichtner (ABA of Wisconsin, LLC), Lauren Marie Speckin (ABA of Wisconsin)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: This case study replicated and extended previous research on response interruption and redirection (RIRD) within an in-home service delivery model. These data are an important demonstration of successful implementation of RIRD interventions by parents in a home-based environment. Ivan, a 12-year-old male diagnosed with autism, engaged in high rates of vocal stereotypy across home, school, and community environments. It was determined that vocal stereotypy was automatically maintained and caregivers agreed to the implementation of RIRD. A board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) conducted RIRD sessions in home and community settings until vocal stereotypy reduced to 80% of baseline levels. Parents were trained in RIRD protocols and implemented the intervention in the home for 1 hour sessions with little change in vocal stereotypy. Then, parents increased to 2 hour sessions which lead to a reduction in vocal stereotypy from baseline. Next, the parents implemented RIRD for full days and the results show that parent directed response interruption and redirection sessions maintained near 0 levels of vocal stereotypy. These data demonstrate that caregivers can successfully decrease vocal stereotypy utilizing response interruption and redirection procedures in a home-based setting.
 
99. Caregiver Implemented Toilet Training for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUNYI TSAI (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta; Emory University School of Medicine), Jennifer M. Hodnett (University of South Florida), Clarissa Martin (Marcus Autism Center; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Abstract: Toilet training is a key developmental step and crucial daily living skill for any child. However, children with developmental disabilities are often delayed in achieving or never achieve toileting independence. For example, up to 25% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were reported to suffer from daytime enuresis (Simonoff, Pickles, Charman, Chandler, Loucas, & Baird, 2008; von Gontard, Pirrung, Miemczyk, & Equit, 2015) and more than 50% of a sample of preschool children with severe intellectual disabilities were classified as not toilet trained (Smith, Eikeseth, Klevstrand, Lovaas, 1997). Behavioral treatments for incontinence have been studied and shown to result in successful outcomes (e.g., Chung, 2007; Foxx & Azrin, 1971; Kroger & Sorensen-Burnworth, 2009; Leblanc, Carr, Crossett, Bennett, & Detweiler, 2005; Post & Kirkpatrick, 2004). However, many of the described procedures incorporate extensive therapist or caregiver time until success is achieved. The current study evaluated a caregiver implemented intervention package across six children diagnosed with developmental disabilities. The toilet training protocol incorporated a 2 hour initial meeting, a 6 hour on-site training, and a 1 hour follow-up appointment. Intervention components included: (a) differential reinforcement for continence, (b) use of a progressive sit schedule, (c) communication training, and (d) urine sensor. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across subjects design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention package. Results indicate that the frequency of continent voids increased across all participants Incontinent voids also decreased for half of the participants.
 
100. An Evaluation of Differential Reinforcement Without Extinction to Decrease Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA JEAN CLARK (Elms College), Laura A. Hanratty (Elms College), Miranda Fogg (Elms College), Christopher Tamburrino (Elms College)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a common behavior change procedure used to increase a desirable behavior and simultaneously decrease a problematic behavior. This study expands on previous research by using differential reinforcement without extinction to teach communication responses, while decreasing severe problem behavior. In this study, Joey a four-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was exposed to functional communication and tolerance response conditions. Contingent on communication responses longer, higher-quality reinforcement intervals were delivered, while problem behavior resulted in the delivery of shorter, lower-quality reinforcement intervals. Reinforcement intervals were faded in a response chaining condition in which the number and difficulty of demands were increased. Communication responses, as well as compliance with adult lead instruction resulted in higher quality and longer reinforcement intervals, while problem behavior including noncompliance resulted in shorter, lower quality reinforcement intervals. The results showed that differential reinforcement without extinction was successful in decreasing severe problem behavior of aggression and disruptive behaviors, while increasing communication skills and compliance.
 
101. Parent and Therapist Perceptions of Brief Versus Extended Behavior Assessments for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KENZIE MARIE MILLER (The University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Loukia Tsami (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Lauren Withhart (Marcus Autism Center), Pei Huang (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Research on current behavior analytic practices indicates that functional analyses are not commonly utilized outside of research and clinic contexts (Oliver, Pratt, & Normand, 2015; Roscoe et al., 2015). Rather, most behavior analysts deem descriptive assessments as sufficient for guiding treatment choice. Our research team, consisting of the University of Iowa, Marcus Autism Center, and the University of Houston-Clear Lake, is currently conducting an NIH-funded randomized controlled trial of functional analysis (FA) procedures to investigate whether FA procedures provide more effective or more efficient outcomes over current practice. Young children with autism are randomized to either a brief assessment model, which includes a one-hour antecedent analysis or a standard functional analysis, followed by treatment tailored to the assessment outcomes. As part of this study, we are interested in the social validity of FAs according to the parents of children being assessed and the therapists providing the assessments. This poster will provide data on the perception and acceptability of FA versus brief assessment methods for parents and therapists from our study. Additionally, we will discuss the implications for behavior analytic practice.
 
102. Habit Reversal Training to Treat Skin Picking of an Individual With Autism and Intellectual Disability
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GEORGE MILLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Anna Ryan (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), John M. Huete (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Traditional habit reversal training (HRT) consisting of awareness training, competing response training, social motivational support, and generalization has been used to treat various motor tics and habit behaviors, such as trichotillomania, in typically developing populations (Azrin & Nunn, 1973). Simplified habit reversal (SHR), using fewer HRT components has been used for individuals with autism and intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD) (e.g., Cavalari, DuBard, & Luiselli, 2014; Miltenberger, Fuqua, & Woods, 1998) out of concern that persons with autism or IDD may not respond to some components; most notably awareness training and social motivational support. The current study expands on the limited habit reversal literature in individuals with disabilities by utilizing all four components of HRT in the treatment of severe skin picking for a 17 year old male diagnosed with autism and mild intellectual disability. By modifying the awareness training and social motivational support procedures, in addition to programming treatment generalization across settings, significant reductions in the participant's skin picking were obtained. These reductions were maintained at 1 and 3-month follow-up. Results are discussed in terms of adapting HRT for individuals with autism and IDD.
 
103. A Descriptive Assessment of Functional Analysis Methodology at a Behavior Analytic School for Individuals With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACQUELYN LANPHEAR (New England Center for Children; Western New England University)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: The functional analysis (FA) described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994) defined methodology for experimentally identifying problem behavior response classes. Since the time of that publication, hundreds of research articles on functional analysis have been published and a large variety of methodological variations have been developed. To add to the literature describing current behavior analytic practice with regard to functional analyses, we conducted a descriptive assessment of the functional analysis methods at a large, behavior analytic school for children diagnosed with autism. Out of the 344 functional analyses conducted, the most common behavior topographies examined were self-injurious behavior (27%) and aggression (24%). Examination of these functional analyses will also add to the literature surrounding the common maintaining variable(s) for these response topographies, as was previously summarized by Iwata et al (1994). On average, 4 functional analyses were conducted for each student with 18 sessions per functional analysis. The most common dependent variable was response rate and the most common variables tested were attention and escape from demands.
 
104. Evaluating the Efficacy of Reinforcer Variation and Choice to Teach Academic Skills Without the Use of Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIRANDA FOGG (Elms College), Laura A. Hanratty (Elms College), Alyssa Jean Clark (Elms College), Christopher Tamburrino (Elms College)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: This study evaluated the use of reinforcer variation and choice in teaching academic skills to mastery, without the use of extinction. Participants included three children between the ages of three and 18, all diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and receiving behavior analytic services. Academic skills were identified by each participant's service team. Participants were exposed to four differential reinforcement conditions. In the varied/constant condition, correct responses resulted in the delivery of one of three high-preference reinforcers, while prompted responses resulted in the delivery of the same high-preference reinforcer. In the choice/varied condition, correct responses resulted in the participant choice from three high-preference reinforcers, while prompted responses resulted in the delivery of one of the three high-preference reinforcers. In the choice/constant condition, correct responses resulted in the participant choice from three high-preference reinforcers, while prompted responses resulted in the delivery of one high-preference reinforcer. In the constant/constant condition, correct or prompted responses resulted in the delivery of one high-preference reinforcer. The results showed that two participants reached mastery in fewer sessions in the choice/constant condition, while the other reached mastery in fewer sessions with the constant/constant condition. These results show that skills can be taught utilizing choice and reinforcer variation.
 
105. Assessing Visual Acuity to Determine the Size of Academic and Communication Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JASMEEN KAUR (Kennedy Krieger institute ), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Lindsey Gilbert (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mary Hughes (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Allen Porter (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: A visual acuity test is typically conducted by an ophthalmologist to determine one's ability to discriminate between shapes, details, and objects. These tests are difficult to execute with children with intellectual disabilities, particularly if they lack verbal behavior. There is little research on visual acuity in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The purpose of the current study was to assess the visual acuity of Hunter, a 13-year old male admitted to an inpatient unit for the treatment of severe self-injurious behavior that led to detached retinas in both eyes and partially successful retinal reattachment. The ophthalmologist was unable to provide an exact estimate of Hunter's visual acuity without an intrusive exam, thus making it difficult to prepare academic and communication stimuli. In order to evaluate his visual acuity, Hunter was presented a choice between two high-preferred stimuli represented on picture cards of gradually decreasing size. A correspondence check was used to determine if Hunter made an accurate choice. Results indicated there was no decrement in accuracy as we decreased picture size to 0.5 x 1.5. Additionally, an eye exam under anesthesia was conducted to check Hunter's visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and to test his refraction, which confirmed the results of this assessment.
 
106. Assessment and Treatment of Bruxism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA RILL (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Aaron D. Lesser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Bruxism is defined as forcefully grinding or clenching teeth together and can result in physical damage including, abnormal wear on the teeth, damaged gum and bone structures, facial pain, and tooth sensitivity (Glaros & Rao, 1977). In this study, we compared parent- and therapist-conducted functional analyses (FA) to identify reinforcers for bruxism in a four-year-old boy admitted to an intensive feeding program for food and texture selectivity. We compared an ignore condition during which the therapist or caregiver did not interact with the child while preferred toys were available to a control condition during which preferred items were available and noncontingent social attention was provided approximately every 30 s. Results of the FA were undifferentiated, and suggested that the bruxism was automatically reinforced. A subsequent component analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment packages described by Armstrong, Knapp, and McAdam (2014). We evaluated three treatment conditions with the therapist: (1) Vocal Prompt to open the mouth (i.e., physically incompatible response) contingent on grinding , (2) Physical Prompt (i.e., jaw prompt to slightly open the jaw) and (3) Vocal + Physical Prompts. The Vocal Prompt condition resulted in the largest decrease in the percentage of bruxism per session with the therapist. The intervention was then generalized to the parent and the Vocal Prompt condition remained effective.
 
107. Idiosyncratic Functions of Problem Behavior: Dropping and Elopement Maintained by Access to Pica
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BO KIM (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Usai Bah (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Research on idiosyncratic functions for problem behaviors identified more than 30 idiosyncratic variables that influence responding during functional analyses, including social positive or negative relations and automatic reinforcement relations (Schlichenmeyer, Roscoe, Rooker, Wheeler, & Dube, 2013). In one study with an automatic reinforcement relation, aggressive behaviors were found to be maintained by access to ritualistic behavior (Hausman, Kahng, Farrell, Camille & Mongeon, 2009). In the current study, problem behavior was determined to be maintained by the opportunity to engage in pica. The participant was a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with Cri-du-chat, autism, and severe intellectual disability admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. A functional analysis of pica showed it was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An initial functional analysis was inconclusive for elopement and dropping behaviors. Subsequent functional assessments, in which tests conditions were enhanced with baited pica items, found that dropping and elopement served to gain access to pica items. Treatment consisted of functional communication with signaled availability, response blocking, and redirection for pica. Across all assessments, reliability data were collected for 66.26% of sessions. Reliability data averaged 95.54% for dropping, 98.11% for eloping, and 98.28% for pica.
 
108. Assessing Client Acceptability of Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LINDSEY GILBERT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Molly K. Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa Theodore (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: Bannerman et al. (1990) emphasized the importance of incorporating client input into treatment. Often, social acceptability scales are administered to caregivers; however, it is also important to consider client preferences (Wolf, 1978). The current study focuses on extending previous literature regarding client's social acceptability of treatment components. The study included a 15-year-old female diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and mild Intellectual Disability who was admitted to an inpatient hospital for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. After conducting a functional analysis, a treatment plan was developed to target her severe problem behaviors. The participant independently rated her treatment on a 5-point Likert scale including 11-14 questions (e.g., "I like having treatment everyday") on a weekly basis. Data suggest that the intervention was generally acceptable; however, it is unclear whether acceptability and subsequent changes to treatment based on participant feedback alone resulted in positive treatment outcomes. Regardless, we should determine methods to measure client acceptability and incorporate their feedback, when possible. This was designed as a pilot study to develop and modify acceptability questionnaires for use with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Future research should evaluate acceptability scales with these individuals and more closely evaluate corresponding treatment effects.
 
109. The Effects of Behavior Skills Training on Staff Implementation of a Chaining Procedure to Teach Meal Preparation Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jenna Berenson (Quality Services for the Autism Community), Taisiya Lozanov (Quality Services for the Autism Community), Anya K. Silver (Quality Services for the Autism Community), CLARE PENNY (Quality Services for the Autism Community)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: A behavioral skills training package was utilized to teach a direct support professional working in a day program to implement a chaining procedure to teach meal preparation skills. A case study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training package, which consisted of written and verbal instructions, instructor and video modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Results indicated that the behavior skills training package produced improvements in the direct support professionals implementation of the chaining procedure to teach meal preparation skills to an adult with autism.
 
110. Michigan Medicaid Applied Behavior Analysis Services and Systems: Building Infrastructure and Overcoming Challenges in a Managed Care System
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRIANNA ELSASSER (State of Michigan), Morgan VanDenBerg (State of Michigan)
Discussant: Brittany Ann Juban (May Institute)
Abstract: In 2012, insurance reform legislation was passed in Michigan to cover Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services, and on April 1, 2013, Michigan Medicaid began providing ABA services for eligible children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. On January 1, 2016, a new and expanded Michigan Medicaid policy related to ABA services was implemented which now covers ABA for individuals with an ASD diagnosis from birth until age 21. Michigan continues to be innovative in ABA service delivery including the signing of behavior analyst licensure laws in January 2017, the inclusion of Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts and master's-prepared professionals training to become certified as part of the Medicaid ABA qualified provider network, the addition of telepractice into Michigan Medicaid policy, and the partnerships between the Michigan Medicaid system and ABA university programs across the state. Due in part to the rapid increase over the past two years in both qualified providers and eligible individuals enrolling for services, the Michigan Medicaid system continues to focus strongly on issues related to improving access to quality ABA services for all eligible beneficiaries.
 
111. Use of Curriculum Assessments and Skill Acquisition Programs in Public Schools for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MEAGHEN SHAVER (Centre for Behavioural Studies, St. Lawrence College), Kim Trudeau-Craig (Centre for Behavioural Studies, St. Lawrence College)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: In this project, curriculum assessments were conducted for 20 participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the school setting. The assessments were completed by students of the Autism and Behavioural Science Graduate Certificate Program at St. Lawrence College who were completing a field placement requirement under the supervision of a behaviour analyst. For each participant, a report with recommendations was provided to school staff and parents outlining areas of strength and those for development. Participants also received skills based instruction based on the identified goals resulting from the assessment. Eight participants were reassessed after 6 months. Social validity was also assessed via an open ended questionnaire given to educational staff involved in the project. Results indicated that 6/8 participants who were reassessed showed an increase in their score after 6 months and on average, the percentage change in score was 19%. In addition, 13/16 participants who received skills based instruction were able to learn the targeted skill within the field placement time frame. School staff supported the social validity of the project, and requested it be replicated in future years.
 
112. Decreasing Problem Behavior During Haircuts Using Graduated Exposure and Differential Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARISA E. MCKEE (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Samantha Bergmann (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee ), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Dayna Costello (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Lauren Marie Speckin (ABA of Wisconsin), Miranda May Olsen (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Jessi Reidy (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract: Some individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may engage in problem behavior (e.g., noncompliance, aggression, self-injurious behavior) during hygiene-related tasks, such as haircuts. Refusal to comply can make regular maintenance of the individual?s hair nearly impossible for caregivers and professionals. Components of haircuts that often evoked problem behavior (e.g., negative vocalizations, blocking brush or scissors with hands) for a 6-year old male with ASD were identified, and duration of these components were systematically increased while he had access to an iPad. The steps included brushing dry hair, opening and closing scissors near head, donning a cape, dropping hair trimmings on and near body, and trimming hair. Duration of sessions increased from 10 s to 15 min. Praise and access to preferred items were provided contingent on compliance throughout the session. Graduated exposure and differential reinforcement reduced problem behavior and increased compliance with the introduction of more intrusive activities and longer duration of sessions with the client?s therapists and parents. Considerations for implementation and additional steps to prepare for a haircut by a professional stylist will be discussed.
 
113. Enhancing Reinforcer Competition: An Analysis of the Effects of Competing Stimuli and Blocking Procedures on Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN A. J. WRIGHT (The Faison Center), Jennifer Graboyes Camblin (The Faison Center), Eli T. Newcomb (The Faison Center)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: A series of assessments were conducted with a 14 year old male, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, who engages in high rates of stereotypy. Swatting at small specks of debris, such as dirt, and repetitive rocking behaviors by the participant directly impacted his access to instruction and appropriate leisure activities during his school day. A functional analysis was conducted to confirm the hypothesis that the behavior was automatically reinforcing. Standard as well as non-standard functional analysis sessions were conducted and data indicated that swatting occurred at the highest rates when the environment was rich with debris and when the behavior was not blocked. Swatting occurred at the lowest rates when the environment was cleared of all debris and the behavior was physically blocked by the teacher. A standard Competing Stimulus Assessments was conducted during which a variety of stimuli were made available to the participant. Subsequent competing stimulus assessment sessions were conducted wherein a redirection procedure and response blocking were implemented when the participant did not engage with the target items or engaged in stereotypy. Three items were identified as possible competing stimuli. These results were validated within the classroom setting through access to the three competing items as well as implementation of blocking and redirection procedures when stereotypy was observed. IOA data were collected across 38% of assessment sessions and agreement was calculated at 91.3%
 
114. Shaping of Complete Eating Behaviors in Children With Autism: Considering the Effect of the "Half-Full Method" in Home and School Facilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUMIKO SASADA (Academy of Behavioral Coaching), Kenji Okuda (Academy of Behavioral Coaching)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: [Study Objective] The child with autism left the table in the middle of the meal. She also during training with therapist wouldn't approach even when using snack as a reinforcer. Therefore "Half-Full Method" was applied to her, which was that the child was served small portion that can be eaten without leaving the seat. After then, she can have another portion upon completion if she requests it. The purpose of this study examined the effect of "Half-Full Method" to shape a behavior of meal completion with errorless. ?Method? Subject: the girl with autism and severe mental retardation, non-speaking, 5 years old at the start of study, in year-round facilities. Setting: home and school facilities Target: To finish all food placed on dish. Intervention: the girl's whole meal is divided into 10 equal parts, of which 2 parts (20%) are placed on her dish. If the girl requests a second helping of food, another 10% is placed on the plate. That is then repeated until the whole meal is completed. When the girl leaves the seat or signals completion, the meal ends. Even if the child returns or asks for food again, no more will be given until the next meal. Success Criterion: If the girl maintains a positive reaction for one month, the initial serving amount is increased by 10%. ?Result? The intervention was started at the girl's home. When during the second meal after the program started the girl left the seat, the meal was ended and she started crying hard. After that, both leaving food uneaten on the plate and getting up from the seat completely ended. Due to those problems continuing to be an issue at the school facility, the intervention moved on to being practiced there as well. The girl responded to the intervention positively at school as well as at home. Also, approaching the therapist during training sessions increased to over 80%. ?Discussion? The food presentation was changed from the previous method of simply placing a whole meal's worth of food on her plate to allotting a small portion and giving a more helpings if the girl finished what was on her plate until meal completion was achieved. In the future we will consider increasing the number of cases using this "Half-Full Method."
 
115. Feasibility and Usability of Brief Telehealth Parent-Directed Treatment Training Package
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA HARDT (University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (University of Texas at San Antonio), Katherine Cantrell (University of Texas at San Antonio), Kyra Hastings (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: The field of telehealth has emerged as a potential means of disseminating applied behavior analytic services to rural communities and underserved areas. The purpose of this project was to provide parent-directed treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder with supervision and training provided by a Board Certified Behavior Analyst—Doctoral Level via telehealth. The two-year project aims to train 550 parents of children with autism in ABA techniques to address a priority problem for their family. The project is now in the second year and initial data collected regarding the feasibility and usability of the program from both parent report and in-service BCBA reports will be be presented. Implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
 
116. The Effects of a Lag 5 Schedule of Reinforcement on Response Variability in Toy Play of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SADIE L. LOVETT (Central Washington University), Holly L. Sutton (Catholic Charities)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often lack response variability in their behavioral repertoires, which can lead to difficulty with problem solving and adaptive skills. A lack of response variability in young children with autism is often observed as rigid toy play behavior. Lag schedules of reinforcement have been used to increase variability in vocal behavior (Susa & Schlinger, 2012) and simple toy play behaviors in children with autism (Napolitano et al., 2010). The maximum schedule criterion in most previous studies is a Lag 3. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a Lag 5 schedule on variability in toy play responses using complex toys that provide the opportunity for greater response variability. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate the Lag 5 schedule in two children with autism, and a prompting procedure was implemented if the criterion was not met for three sessions. One participant met criterion for the Lag 5 schedule, and the second participant met criterion for a Lag 4 schedule before the intervention was discontinued due to services ending. Generalization probes revealed variability in responding with novel toys at slightly lower rates than trained toys.
 
117. Comparing Preference For and Skill Acquisition In Competitive and Cooperative Teaching Conditions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CARISSA BASILE (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge), Elizabeth Hernandez (California State University, Northridge), Sean Vincent Christensen (California State University, Northridge), Allison Rose Bickelman (Autism Behavior Intervention; Endicott College), Roxanna Diaz (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: Group contingencies and behavior skills training are common and successful procedures used to teach social skills to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. However, little research exists on whether competitive or cooperative components of group contingencies effect skill acquisition and if students have a preference for either of these components. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare skill acquisition and preference for competitive and cooperative group teaching arrangements for a small-group of 7-year olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We used a multielement and multiple baseline design to compare acquisition rates and a concurrent chains arrangement to assess preference. In two teaching conditions, experimenters used behavioral skills training embedded in various activities to teach social skills. The conditions differed in that one involved teams competing for a goal while the other involved the entire group participating to reach the goal. Additional collection of data during free play sessions that followed both the competitive and cooperative conditions of our study provided information on unprompted social interactions. Results showed that teaching was effective in both conditions for all children, preference was idiosyncratic across children, and the type of group contingency may have influenced some features of free play.
 
118. Improvement in Communication Skills of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Comparing Communication Versus Social Play Focused Caregiver Training Curricula
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY VOGEL (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Mary Morton (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), A. Pablo Juàrez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD)), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD))
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: This program evaluation study compares results from two communication assessments following the implementation of two different caregiver training curricula. The MacArthur-Bates Short Form Vocabulary Checklist (MCDI) and Communication Skills Behavior Scales Caregiver Questionnaire (CSBS) were administered before and after caregiver training intervention. Currently, 21 families of young children (18-34 months) have completed services and data in this ongoing study. Intervention includes six 60-minute caregiver training sessions and curriculum is selected based on caregiver interview, family early interventionist interview, consultant observation and understanding of family priorities. Previous research has shown increasing play and social skills is a foundational skill for increasing communication skills. Overall, children who received the social play intervention scored higher on the communication assessments and generally showed more emerging communication skills prior to intervention. Preliminary data suggests that they also have increased scores in the number of words used as well as slightly higher increases in the number of words understood according to the MCDI. Children receiving the communication curriculum show slightly higher results on the CSBS, likely due to the emphasis on nonverbal and symbolic communication for children who generally had lower communication skills prior to intervention. Both curricula resulted in increases across all assessments following intervention.
 
119. A Comparison of Group and One-to-One Instructional Arrangements With Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLY VOORDE (Sonya Ansari Center for Autism), Britany Melton (Endicott College; Sonya Ansari Center for Autism)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: This current project is a replication and extension of previous research where group instruction was superior in 5 out of 9 students with Autism (Autism (Melton, Hansen, & McGrale, 2013). Research generally indicates students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) learn best 1:1, with teaching practices based on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis. However, this may not continue to be functional for all students across settings and time. There is a growing body of literature to support group instruction as an effective teaching format; however, research comparing 1:1 and group instructional arrangements is minimal, as well as the guides to properly conduct group instruction. The current project uses an alternating treatments design to compare 1:1 vs. small group instructional formats. The project took place in a center for students with Autism and included 2 male students, ages 10 and 12. The dependent measures are skill acquisition and observational learning and the independent measures include an errorless teaching procedure and individualized reinforcement systems. Inter-observer agreement and procedural fidelity measures will be collected. The results of skill acquisition of materials will be discussed.
 
120. Skill Acquisition and Preference of Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder Across Two Video Modeling Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANLARA MCKENZIE (University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Phillip Orchowitz (University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: Video modeling is a common method to teach skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Video modeling, similar to in-person instruction, uses observational learning to promote response acquisition, but instead uses pre-recorded footage of a model completing the targeted task correctly. Research suggests that video modeling is more efficient in producing acquisition and generalization of various functional skills relative to in-vivo instruction (Charlop-Christy, Le, & Freeman, 2000). However, few studies have directly compared the effects of different methods of video modeling, such as traditional video modeling (i.e., with a model fully in frame filmed as if the person watching was watching in-vivo instruction; TVM) or point-of-view video modeling (i.e., with only the hands of a model in the frame filmed as if the person watching were completing the task themselves; POV). The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous literature by comparing the efficacy of TVM and POV video prompting for teaching a variety of tasks using a combined multielement and multiple baseline design with three participants with ASD. We also assessed preference for POV and TVM using a concurrent-chains procedure. Results indicated that POV produced the fastest skill acquisition and was generally more preferred.
 
121. Teaching Auditory Conditional Discrimination to Children With Autism With Limited Repertoires
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA NIEMEIER (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Amber R. Paden (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: Children with autism may require remedial strategies to develop conditional discrimination repertoires. For example, Slocum, Miller, and Tiger (2012) used a blocked-trials procedure to teach identity matching to a child with autism. Unlike previous studies (Saunders & Spradlin 1989 & 1990, Perez-Gonzalez & Williams, 2002, Williams, Perez-Gonzalez & Queiroz, 2005), Slocum et al. did not require fading of the block size to obtain discriminated performance. We attempted to replicate and extend Slocum et al. to the teaching of auditory conditional discriminations. Our participants included four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with little to no auditory conditional discriminations prior to the start of our study. We began by replicating the sequence of intervention phases used by Slocum et al., including the use of a blocking procedure when a mixed-trial format was ineffective. However, we only replicated the effects of Slocum et al.'s blocking procedure for one participant. Thus, we evaluated a series of supplementary interventions such as removing reinforcement for prompted responses, using partial physical prompts, and incorporating modified blocking procedures (e.g., mass trialing one target until mastery followed by fading the block size). Data collection is ongoing.
 
122. Toilet Training Through Doll Simulation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER JOHNSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Jessica Niemeier (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Buzz, a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with autism was engaging in zero continent voids per day. In order to prepare Buzz for school in the fall, we evaluated procedures outline by Greer et al. (2016) and Azrin and Foxx (1973). We first replicated baseline procedures outlined by Greer et al., which included scheduled sits and isolated reinforcers while wearing a diaper. After 11 visits with no treatment effect, we introduced training outlined by Azrin and Foxx. During the first condition of doll simulation, the therapist manipulated and modeled appropriate toileting behaviors with the doll (i.e., having the doll void in the toilet, flush the toilet, and wash her hands). When no effect was observed, we moved to the second condition, in which we used least-to-most prompting to teach Buzz to independently manipulate the doll to complete the steps of toilet training. Buzz met mastery criteria, but there was no increase in his continent voids. Next, we referenced Azrin and Foxx (1971) and followed their rapid method of toileting procedures. Currently, Buzz attends clinic from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. and has increased his continent voids to two per clinic visit and decreased incontinent voids to one per clinic visit.
 
123. A Comparison of Functional Analyses Used in an Applied Setting in a Young Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY AHLERS (Bierman ABA Autism Center), Christina Gallagher (Bierman ABA Autism Center)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: A functional analysis is an experiment designed to determine the maintaining variables of operant behavior. In applied settings it is crucial to accurately determine the maintaining variables of challenging behavior in order to design and implement effective interventions (Lang, et al. 2009). This study used both an analogue and a trial-based functional analysis with a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Challenging behavior was not evoked in any of the conditions in the analogue functional analysis, while challenging behavior was evoked under both the denied access and demand conditions in the trial-based functional analysis. When conducting a functional analysis in applied practice, it is important to consider the type of functional analysis which will yield the most accurate results with the resources available. Examining the setting in which the behavior of interest occurs and which environmental variables may have the greatest impact on the behavior are crucial components to determining the most appropriate functional analysis format to use.
 
124. Further Comparisons of Synthesized and Individual Reinforcement Contingencies During Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TODD M. OWEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Daniel R. Mitteer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Adam M. Briggs (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Andrew Sodawasser (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Functional-analysis (FA) methodology (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) has become the prominent assessment procedure for determining the function of problem behavior (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013). The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA; Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) is a modification in which indirect and descriptive assessments inform the reinforcement contingency used during a control condition and a single test condition. However, Fisher, Greer, Romani, Zangrillo, and Owen (2016) found that the IISCA included irrelevant contingencies for 80% (4 of 5) of the applications. We replicated the procedures used by Fisher et al. (2016) by comparing the IISCA to a standard FA for 12 participants. We also extended the procedures by including a standard-synthesized contingency analysis (SSCA) which included all of the typical putative reinforcers reported in the literature (i.e., attention, tangible items, and escape). When comparing results to the standard FA, the IISCA included irrelevant contingencies for 83.3% (10 of 12) and excluded relevant contingencies for 8.3% (1 of 12) of applications while the SSCA included irrelevant contingencies, but did not exclude relevant contingencies, for all applications.
 
125. Multiple Schedules and Thinning With One S-Delta Period
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA BETH TUNG (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Multiple schedules are commonly used to thin schedules of reinforcement once functional communication (FC) is in place (Hagopian et al., 2011). The most common way to alternate between periods of SD and S-Delta in the multiple schedule is to alternate between each schedule multiple times in one session (e.g., 45s SD and 15s S-Delta; Hanley, Iwata & Thompson, 2001). An alternative way to schedule thin is to have a single S-delta interval during the middle of the session with longer duration SD intervals at the beginning and end of session. The S-delta interval is then gradually increased over time. This method for introducing schedule thinning could be more effective due to the long duration of SD and short duration of S-delta that minimizes extinction bursts and more gradually introduces the S-delta period. The current study includes at least 1 participant, a 14 year old male diagnosed with Autism. Following the successful introduction of FC, one S-delta period within a multiple schedule was introduced and gradually increased over time until the terminal goal was achieved. With one S-delta period, low rates of problem behavior were observed throughout the schedule thinning process and maintained during generalization to the home environment.
 
126. A Comparison of Trial Arrangement Procedures in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMELIA DRESSEL (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Katie Nicholson (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Sandhya Rajagopal (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Kristin M. Albert (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Ashley Felde (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Michael Passage (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Tamara L. Pawich (Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Improving the rate of acquisition and maintenance of skills taught to children with autism through discrete trial instruction is an important focus for behavior analytic researchers. Mass trialing (i.e., several back-to-back repetitions of acquisition targets) has been shown to be more efficient than task interspersal (i.e., presenting previously mastered skills between acquisition targets). However, little research has been conducted on a commonly recommended procedure known as task variation, sometimes called mixing and varying across the operants. The current study combined and extended these lines of research by comparing the efficiency of two commonly used trial arrangement procedures for skill acquisition. In the single operant arrangement, all targets from a single program (e.g., tacting class) were taught during block 1, then all targets from another program (e.g., listener identification in scenes) were taught in block 2, and finally all targets from a third program (e.g., intraverbal answers to "wh" questions) were taught during block 3. In the multiple operant arrangement, acquisition targets across the 3 programs were interspersed within each of the 3 blocks (e.g., tact, listener, and intraverbal mixed together). A combined adapted alternating treatment and multiple probe design was used with multiple participants with autism to compare these arrangements using percentage of correct responses, duration to criterion, and cumulative number of targets mastered.
 
127. Evaluation of a Self-Initiation Toileting Protocol
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA SUZANNA COLEMAN (Marcus Autism Center), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Urinary incontinence can be a significant obstacle to self-sufficiency for children with autism spectrum disorder. This condition is often accompanied by social stigma and reduced quality of life. The successful training of independent toileting skills increases the child's independence and reduces the burden placed on caregivers. Implementation of behavioral treatment for enuresis, consisting of scheduled sits and reinforcement for continent voids, has been effective in reducing incontinence and increasing self-initiations to go to the bathroom. However, little attention has been paid to how to promote self-initiations for children who depend on a sit schedule. The establishing operation to self-initiate for the bathroom takes time to build, and thus it can be difficult to know when it is at strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a protocol that did not control for the establishing operation and assessed the transfer of stimulus control of self-initiations following the completion of the protocol. Training consisted of progressive time delay, proximity fading, and reinforcement for self-initiations. The protocol was evaluated with four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder following successful enuresis training on a 60-minute sit schedule. The results were inconsistent across participants, warranting further research in this area.
 
128. An Evaluation of Prevalence for Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pediatric Food Refusal
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLYN BROOKE MALONE (University of Maryland Baltimore County; Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have feeding problems, specifically food selectivity. Pediatric feeding disorders have been identified in as high as 90% of children diagnosed with ASD (Kodak & Piazza, 2008). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the prevalence of pediatric food refusal and food selectivity of children with ASD in an intensive pediatric feeding program to assess and treat children with severe food refusal. We reviewed charts from 2016 admissions (N=78) to assess the demographics of each patient with ASD. Nearly 40% of patients admitted to an intensive feeding program were diagnosed with ASD. The review also indicated that of these children, almost all patients met goals to decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior and increase food variety when behavior-analytic procedures were implemented. Finally, for nearly 45% of the children, all admission goals were met, suggesting that an intensive behavior-analytic approach to treat food refusal was successful.
 
129. A Clinical Evaluation of Instructional Efficiency to Guide Programming Decisions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN M. ALBERT (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Sandhya Rajagopal (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Katie Nicholson (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Tanja Ramirez-Schwartz (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Amelia Dressel (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Kayce Nagel (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology), Katherine Haggerty (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Two challenges that applied behavior analysts regularly have to tackle are using efficient teaching procedures and experimentally validating the effectiveness of instructional procedures. The purpose of this study was to provide an example of how these challenges can be addressed in the context of providing clinically appropriate services. The participant was a 3-year-old boy diagnosed with autism who attended a university-based autism treatment center. The first 2 language acquisition programs introduced during discrete trial instruction were tacting parts and features of objects/pictures and listener identification of (pointing to) parts and features of objects/pictures. Implementation of these two programs was carefully arranged to experimentally investigate which instructional arrangements might be most efficient for this learner using a multiple probe with embedded alternating treatments design. The specific areas investigated were transfer across the operants, from tact to listener and listener to tact, and the minimum number of exemplars that needed to be taught to obtain generalized responding. Eighteen items that the participant could tact were selected. For each item, 2, 3, or 4 unknown parts and features were identified as acquisition targets. This yielded 54 targets to be taught. In addition, for each item, 6 exemplars were used. Tacting and pointing to the parts and features of each item, using all 6 exemplars, was tested using pre- and post-training probes. During teaching, 9 items (27 part/feature targets) were taught as tacts and 9 items (27 part/feature targets) were taught as listener responses. In addition, for both tact and listener targets, 3 items were taught using only 1 exemplar (with 5 to test for generalization), 3 items were taught rotating across 2 exemplars (with 4 to test for generalization), and 3 items were taught rotating across 3 exemplars (with 3 to test for generalization). The results of this study were evaluated in terms of their implications for which operant, tact or listener, is more efficient to teach because it is likely to result in transfer to the other and in terms of the minimum number of exemplars necessary to teach in order to obtain generalized responding.
 
130. Adapting a Multiple-Schedule Reinforcer Assessment to Test Effects of Potential Punishers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON HAWKINS (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University ), Catherine Kishel (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University ), Jasmine Grey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University ), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: The introduction of consequences that function as punishers may be necessary to effectively reduce problem behavior to clinically significant levels. However, response to difference consequences may be idiosyncratic. To date there have been no preliminary assessments to determine effects of potential punishers on responding. The purpose of this study was to adapt a multiple-schedule reinforcer assessment (Smaby et al., 2007) in order to assess the function of various consequences. Two learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and who engaged in automatically reinforced problem behavior participated. Data were collected in a multielement design during which reinforcers were applied contingently to strengthen an arbitrary response. Between each reinforcement condition a different consequence (e.g., extinction, blocking, timeout, response cost, vocal demands) was put in a contingent relationship with the same response in order to determine if and how much each reduced the rate of responding. For Participant 2, all consequences reduced behavior compared to the reinforcement condition. For Participant 1, two consequences produced response rates similar to reinforcement and only one (time out) reduced response rates. Future research will examine whether this assessment generalizes to target behaviors by using the most effective consequence as a component in a treatment analysis.
 
131. The Effects of Frequency of Reinforcer Access on Preference for Response-Reinforcer Arrangements
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SMILY KUMAR (Evergreen Center), Erin Conant (Evergreen Center), John Claude Ward-Horner (Evergreen Center), Joseph M. Vedora (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of frequency of reinforcer access on preference for response-reinforcer arrangements. A 14-year-old boy with autism participated in the study. Within each experimental phase, the participant was provided a choice among different response-reinforcer arrangements. The continuous arrangement consisted of completing an entire academic task followed by continuous reinforcer access, the discontinuous arrangement consisted of dividing the academic task and reinforcer access into several smaller units, and the control condition consisted of completing an academic task without accessing reinforcement. The frequency of reinforcer access in the discontinuous arrangement was manipulated across experimental phases, such that reinforcer access occurred after every two instructional trials or following each instructional trial. When reinforcer access occurred after each instructional trial in the discontinuous arrangement, the participant preferred the continuous arrangement. However, when reinforcer access occurred after each set of two instructional trials in the discontinuous arrangement, the participant preferred either the discontinuous arrangement or displayed indifference between the continuous and discontinuous arrangements.
 
133. A Quality Review of Interventions for Vocal Stereotypy of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANNI WANG (Purdue University), Rose A. Mason (Purdue University), Catharine Lory (Purdue University)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in repetitive and stereotyped vocalizations that persist in the absence of social consequences, also known as vocal stereotypy. Persistent vocal stereotypy, due to its physical characteristics, greatly interferes with other people and decreases the chance of inclusion of the individuals with this behavior. Previous reviews (Lanovaz, et al. 2012; DiGennaro Reed, et al. 2012) have synthesized the literature on vocal stereotypy interventions, however, there has been no attempt to evaluate the quality of research. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate the quality of vocal stereotypy intervention for individuals with ASD by using What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Procedures and Standards (2016). There were 61 studies that resulted from an electric search of three databases and a search of ancestry. 5 randomly selected articles out of 61 are planned to be used as code training articles. 85% of agreement is needed before the first and second raters can move into independent inter-rater agreement coding for 100% of the articles. Quality indicators mentioned in the standards will be used as coding criteria. Summary of research findings and implications for future research will be discussed.
 
134. The Effects of Functional Communication Training on Teaching Denial Tolerance for Attention Maintained Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PAOLA ROMERO (Continuum Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The need for alternatives to extinction based treatments is great, but scarce. Extinction procedures often result in various forms of increased problem behavior that may not be ethical or safe to implement in an applied setting. This case looked to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on teaching denial tolerance for attention maintained problem behavior in a 13 year-old, non-vocal, male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FCT involved teaching one mand to access attention in the form of adult interaction, as well as a tolerance response (replacement behavior) for denied access to attention. Communicative responses were taught in the form of modified sign language. A combination of shaping and a variable schedule of reinforcement were used for increasing denial tolerance. Results of this case are on-going, however the current data will contribute to the much needed literature of variables to consider when seeking alternatives to extinction procedures.
 
135. Decreasing Food Selectivity in Children Diagnosed With Autism Using Video Modeling and Role Play
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN MCALLEN (Florida Institute of Technology; B.E.S.T Services Inc.), Chris Krebs (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have patterns of restrictive and repetitive behaviors and interests such as food selectivity. Video modeling can be used to decrease food selectivity in children diagnosed with ASD (Dotson et al., 2017). Effects of video modeling and role-playing on food selectivity (acceptance of non-preferred food) in five different children diagnosed with ASD were evaluated in the current study. Video modeling and role playing decreased food selectivity in all five children and these effects were maintained during a follow-up phase. These results add to a growing body of literature showing conditions under which video modeling can be used to decrease food selectivity in children diagnosed with ASD.
 
136. Utilizing Delayed Response Cost to Decrease Automatic Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRETT JONES (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Mackenzie Boon (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Kathleen Blackburn Franke (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Steven Lindauer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in high rates of stereotypic and repetitive vocalizations. These behaviors may be socially stigmatizing, interfere with opportunities to learn, and impact daily functioning. Consequence-based interventions, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), response interruption and redirection (RIRD), contingent demands, and immediate response cost, have been shown to decrease vocal stereotypy; however, these interventions can be time-consuming and challenging to consistently implement. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a delayed response cost protocol with a paired discriminative stimulus on the frequency of vocal stereotypy in outpatient behavioral therapy sessions for two male children with autism. The response cost procedure was implemented at the conclusion of a toy play session, which ranged from 5-15 minutes, if vocal stereotypy occurred at a threshold level. Results of the multielement study design showed that vocal stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement decreased when the delayed response cost was implemented as compared to toy play without response cost.
 
137. Random Sampling Affects Background Probability Calculations in Descriptive Assessments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RANDI LAYNE MAHONEY (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Vollmer et al. (2001) used random selection to calculate background probabilities for comparison with conditional probabilities of events and behavior. This method of random selection of 50 samples of windows between 5 and 20 s in duration across variable session lengths may result in random error in background probability estimates obtained. In this study, we conducted a Monte Carlo simulation in which we examined the amount of variability in the background probability calculations as a function of the number of samples, the amount of events in the data streams, and the size of the calculation windows. We found that sampling may result in random error that can affect identification of positive or negative contingencies between behavior and subsequent environmental events. These errors in identifying functional relations have the possibility of affecting treatment selection and outcome. Our analysis suggests that researchers should consider the possibility of sampling error when using this sampling method.
 
138. Utilizing Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior and Extinction to Reducing Tantrums and Repetitive Manding in a 3-Year-Old With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BAHIJAH D. SHEIBANEE (Bedrock Clinic & Research Center)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: A 3-year-old male (twin) who is diagnosed with ASD is currently receiving 1:1 ABA intensive and social skills group therapy at bedrock clinic and research center. He is currently engaging in an interfering behavior, which is hindering skill acquisition. The purpose of the project is to conduct a behavior change in an individual. The target behavior is perseverating over dinosaur toy, which is enabling problem behavior. To conduct the behavior change, extinction and DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior) procedures are incorporated both at the clinic and in the home settings. Baseline data on the repetitive mands and how long the tantrum occurs in a day at the clinic is taken for three days before the implementation of the intervention. During the baseline the tantrum lasted between 128 to 130 minutes and 68 and 75 for the repetitive mands for time he is at the clinic in a day and a reduction of zero for tantrums and near zero levels for repetitive manding.
 
139. Developing Self-Evaluation Method for Speech Rate of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOZOMI YOSHIDA (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The present study examined the development of a self-evaluation method of own speech rate by using video with two children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. By editing the speed of the video that shot the conversation scene of the participant, 31 videos of different speeds were created. With the original speed as 100%, videos with speeds (from 50% to 200%) were created every 5%.These videos were presented to the participants in random order and asked to degree of favorable Impression (0 to 100) for each ones. As a result, the participants evaluated that most favorable speed was the extent from 75% to 90%. That is, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder like speech rate a little slower than usual speech rate, and degree of favorable Impression of original speech rate was 75. After conducting the self-evaluation, the mean number of clause per minute of participants in conversation decreased and approached their desired speech rate.
 
140. The Effect of Discrimination Training on Clothes Suitable for Room Temperature in Autism Spectrum Disorder Children With Intellectual Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAKO ITO (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Study objective: The purpose of this study was to allow ASD children with intellectual disabilities to be able to classify their own clothes into thin and thick by discrimination training based on stimulus equivalence. Setting: This experiment was conducted individually in a laboratory of university. Participant: A 13 years old child diagnosed with ASD and intellectual disabilities participated. Procedures: The multipurpose Matching to Sample Task (MMTS) that was an application for PC was used to train the distinction of clothes between "thin" or "thick" (4 different photo pictures). Results: By teaching child the discrimination of the 4 kinds of clothes, the other 4 kinds of clothes were also discriminated. Furthermore, the participant became possible to choose a suitable clothes for room temperature after being trained to choose thin clothes in the case of more than 25 degrees room temperature.
 
141. Quantifying Synchronization During Early Behavioral Intervention Program: Preliminary Study With Inter-Trial Interval and Inter-Response Time
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
SATORU SEKINE (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Recent research suggested that synchronization is important for the early behavioral intervention (Sekine & Yamamoto, 2017; Srinivasan et al., 2016). Though behavior analysts have not interpreted synchronization using their terms, we should incorporate synchronization into the early behavioral intervention to increase the outcome. A child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. The experimental procedure is as follows: The experimenter presented his hand while saying "touch me" after getting the eye contact. Immediately after the child touched, the experimenter presented the model again. The dependent variables and data collection are as follows: We defined one turn as the participant's response that sequentially occurred within 3s after the experimenter presented a model. We defined unit as the turns sequentially occurred within 3s. We measured intervals of each model presented by the experimenter (Inter-Trial-Interval; ITI) and intervals of response of the participant (Inter-Response-Time; IRT). We also measured the duration of each unit. Fig.1 shows ITI and IRT of each turn. The difference between ITI and IRT of the last 30 turns decreased than the first 30 turns. Fig.2 shows the duration of each unit. As IRT and ITI matched, the duration increased. We could define synchronization using behavioral terms.
 
142. Online to Offline Services for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in China
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
FRANK YU (CCABA), Shu-Hwei (Sue) Ke (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Two of the key missions for WeKair Institute of Technology for Autism Rehabilitation are to spread the knowledge of behavior analysis to professionals and parents, and to offer online to offline (O2O) services to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in China. In order to dissimilate the practical use of ABA principles in the education and treatment of children with special needs, WeKair has been working closely with China Association of Persons with Psychiatric Disability and their Relatives (CAPPDR) to provide free ABA training classes in 2017 which included online training videos, seminars for up to 11,000 individuals, and full-day training in five major cities for over 1,300 ASD parents and professionals. As WeKair develops and matures, we offer innovative telehealth solutions such as mobile Apps and a series of ABA training courses in 2018 and beyond to meet the increasing demands on how to systematically apply ABA techniques in training, intervention and inclusive education. In addition, we plan to open our state-of-art intervention center in a brand-new 21,500-squre feet facility in Nanjing in second quarter of 2018. The goal is to empower the parents and teachers with ABA expertise to work more effectively for the long term wellbeing of ASD children.
 
143. Effects of Pressession Tangible Access on Subsequent Tangible Conditions in a Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARY MCDERMOTT (Endicott College), Art Glenn Dowdy (Temple University )
Discussant: Brittany Marie DiSanti (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: We completed a systematic replication of O'Reilly et al. (2007). O'Reilly et al. compared the delivery of attention to the delivery of no attention, to subsequent alone and attention-extinction conditions. Different than O'Reilly et al., our method compared 10-minute presessions, with and without tangible items, that occurred prior to completing the tangible condition in a functional analysis (Iwata et al., 1984/1992). In one presession, highly preferred tangible items were presented and in the second presession, tangible items were absent. The tangible session condition was set at 5-minutes. This research was significant and relevant because O'Reilly et al. (2007) found that presession access to attention influenced responding observed in the immediately following attention conditions, and thus was a direct effect of the MO on the behavior. Our study expanded upon O'Reilly et al. which allows us to further refine functional analyses to avoid Type I or Type II errors.
 

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