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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #77
Saturday, May 26, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
 
69. Group-Based Behavioral Skills Training to Promote Parents' Use of Effective Instructions With Struggling Learners
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ZACHARY CHARLES LABROT (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sara S. Kupzyk (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Whitney Strong-Bak (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Jamie Pasqua (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jake John Mahon (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often exhibit behavioral difficulties, which can impact academic functioning. As a result, parents of children with IDD may struggle with helping their children improve academic performance due to difficult behaviors. Behavioral skills training (BST) is an effective strategy for training evidence-based behavior management techniques. The purpose of this study was to utilize group-based behavioral skills training to improve parents' use of effective instructions to promote compliance in children with IDDs in the context of an academic evaluation and intervention clinic. Participants in this study included four children with an IDD: a 6-year-old female with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a 17-year-old female with ASD and Intellectual Disability, a 10-year-old male with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, an 11-year-old male with ASD, and each childfs mother. Using a multiple baseline design, parents were trained to provide effective instructions via group-based BST (i.e., two or more parents) to promote child compliance in an academic context. Results indicated parents increased integrity of effective instructions following group-based BST, with concomitant improvement in children's compliance. These results are important as they demonstrate group-based BST is an effective method for improving parents' use of effective instructions, resulting in improved child outcomes.
 
70. Evaluating Teacher and Student Reactivity to Observers in Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY WEAVER (Vanderbilt University), Blair Lloyd (Vanderbilt University), Johanna Staubitz (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: Reactivity, or changes in behavior resulting from observation procedures, is a potential threat to internal validity for studies involving observational measures of socially significant behavior. Researchers have recommended several strategies to minimize reactivity, including exposing participants to data collection procedures before beginning observations and discarding data from the first segment of observation sessions. However, results of studies examining reactivity have been mixed, with several studies suggesting these procedures are unnecessary (Gardner, 2000). In this study, we observed 20 students referred for functional behavior assessment and their teachers in regular education classrooms (Kindergarten–6th Grade). We completed three consecutive 10-min observations across five days. Using continuous timed-event data collection, we measured frequencies of student problem behavior and academic responses and teacher instructional behaviors (i.e., opportunities to respond, praise, reprimands). We evaluated trends in frequencies of these behaviors across time within each session, and across all five daily observations. We found little evidence of reactivity effects across daily observations, but for a subset of behaviors and participants, we identified within-session trends over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
 
71. Children Involvement in Academic Activity According to Teacher Training in Behavioral Management
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARCELA ROSAS PEÑA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Fernanda De los Santos Chapa (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Sandra Ferrer (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Lissette Ramos Navarro (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: In order to prevent the progress of disruptive behavior from childhood to adolescence, programs have been developed to manage children's behavior in the school setting. It has been found that through programas that involve stimulus control, monitoring, modeling, response cost, alternative behaviors and contingency management, the occurrence of the target behavior increases and disruptive behaviors are reduced. The present study has the objective of reduce disruptive behavior in children through increased involvement in academic activities as a function of teacher training in a contingency management program. Participated 8 elementary school class of two public schools in Mexico City (n = 200 children) and their teachers. A plachek direct observation record was applied. A single case design was used. The results showed an increase in the involvement in the task superior to 50% and a decrease of almost 10% in disruptive behavior with respect to the baseline. Teacher training in behavioral management is useful for children to stay involved in academic activity and therefore to reduce disruptive behavior within the classroom.
 
72. The Effectiveness of an Intervention Designed to Increase the Positive to Negative Ratio of Instructor Interactions During After-School Programming
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Shonna Hemmis (Utah State University; Public & School Partnership), RIKKI KAE WHEATLEY (Utah State University; Public & School Partnership), Me'lanin Hogan-Cephas (Utah State University; Public & School Partnership), Elisa Martinez (Utah State University; Public & School Partnership)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to assess the effectiveness of two interventions used to train after-school instructors to increase Positive to Negative (PN) interaction ratios. The first intervention (workshop training) followed a didactic workshop-training model. The second intervention (coaching) included the components of the didactic workshop model with the addition of modeling, role-play, and performance feedback. In this study four instructors in an after-school program were randomly assigned to one of two groups to participate in training programs. These programs were designed to help them increase PN ratios when interacting with students during homework time in the after-school program. Instructor behaviors were recorded during 15-minute observation sessions, and PN ratios were calculated for each instructor. All observation sessions took place in the context of homework time during regularly scheduled after-school programming. The study used AB/ABC design to assess the success of the two training models. Results are discussed in terms of increases and decreases in the daily frequency of positive and negative interactions as well as the overall increases in PN ratio.
 
73. Training Rural In-Service Teachers to Use a Structured Self-Questioning Strategy When Teaching Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GLEIDES LOPES RIZZI (State University of New York at New Paltz), Man Fung Lam (State University of New York at New Paltz), Jennifer Bell (WCSDNY)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of training in-service elementary school teachers on using a Structured Self-questioning Strategy (SSS) package to support the reading comprehension of students with mild to moderate reading disabilities within a rural school setting. The SSS package consisted of a combination of reading strategies suggested by the National Reading Panel Report (2000), which included pre-reading strategies (i.e., examining illustration, title, engaging prior knowledge), during-reading strategies (i.e., self-monitoring, questioning), and after-reading strategies (i.e., summarizing). This study sought to answer the following research questions: (a) Can rural teachers be engaged in the development of the SSS reading package? (b) To what extent will teachers’ implement the SSS package with fidelity throughout the duration of the study? (c) What are participants’ (i.e., teachers and students) attitudes towards the SSS package? (d) What were students' reading outcomes when using the SSS reading package? Quiz scores were used to measure students' reading outcomes, surveys were used to gather social validity, and procedural checklists were used to measure treatment fidelity. Preliminary results indicate that teachers who reported enjoyment using the strategy implemented the strategy with higher fidelity. Students' reading outcomes were text dependent. Implications for professional development, research, and practice are provided.
 
74. Comparing Accuracy of Descriptive Assessment Methods Following a Group Training and Feedback
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA PALMIER (Auburn University ), Odessa Luna (Auburn University), Jess Petri (Auburn University ), John T. Rapp (Auburn University)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: As one component of a functional behavioral assessment, a descriptive assessment (DA) can help determine the maintaining variable of a student's problem behavior in school. School districts often employ board certified behavior analysts as consultants to conduct descriptive assessments by observing a student and recording the environmental variables surrounding problem behavior. However, consultants may have to rely on school personnel to conduct descriptive assessments due to environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which 18 school staff accurately collected descriptive assessment data with two types of recording formats, narrative and structured, prior to and after receiving a group training that consisted of verbal review, modeling, and group feedback. Results based on visual analysis indicate that (a) 4 participants engaged in high levels of accurate, narrative descriptive assessment recording in baseline; (b) 10 of 14 participants reached mastery criteria after training for both narrative and structured descriptive assessment recording formats; and (c) 4 participants did not reach mastery criteria after training for either recording format. Despite sub-mastery performance by some participants, supplemental statistical analyses indicate that the group training improved all participants' accuracy from baseline. These findings have important implications for training school staff members to collect descriptive assessment data.
 
75. The Effect of Public Performance Feedback in Positive Behavior Intervention Support Meetings on Teacher Implementation of Behavior Support Plans
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GENA PACITTO (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) is a three-tiered, research-based intervention used nation-wide. Recent literature has focused on the importance of treatment integrity in the effectiveness of this intervention. The current study sought to examine a specific type of performance feedback, public performance feedback, and its effect on teacher implementation of Tier 2 behavior support plans. Three general education teachers were provided with a behavior support plan and their percentage of steps completed was calculated prior to and following the delivery of public performance feedback in a PBIS team meeting. The dependent variable was calculating using permanent products. Two of the three participants’ percentage of steps increased following introduction of the feedback, but there were notable limitations to this study due to time constraints and other variables that commonly arise in the school setting. This is the first study involving public performance feedback in PBIS team meetings and future studies are warranted.
 
77. Critical Transition Skills: Can Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports Teach Skills Needed for Postsecondary Success?
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TRACY EILEEN SINCLAIR (The University of Oklahoma)
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: Teaching transition skills to students with disabilities (SWD) is critical to facilitate and promote positive postsecondary outcomes in a competitive job market (Mazzotti et al., 2016). Positive postsecondary outcomes reach beyond academics learned, and many behaviors influence a student's probability of success as an adult, and in some cases, non-academic behaviors may influence postsecondary success more than academics alone (McConnell et al., 2015). Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (SWPBIS) continues to grow as an evidence-based, effective strategy to provide behavioral supports at all levels of education (Flannery et al., 2009). Current research has yet to explore the potential relationship between implementation of SWPBIS in a high school setting and student acquisition of transition skills. This study explores the potential influence of SWPBIS on transition skill attainment for SWD. This quasi-experimental study involved approximately 60 SWD from two high schools (one having implemented SWPBIS with fidelity over 3 years, and one using traditional approaches to discipline), matched on general demographics, geographic location, and number of students. Students at both high schools were scored using the Transition Assessment Goal Generator (TAGG) assessment--a research validated assessment of identified predictors of positive postsecondary outcomes (Martin et al., 2015). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test variation accounted for by independent variables over multiple dependent variables with post hoc tests (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). Results on the teacher version of the TAGG demonstrate statistical significance, accompanied by medium-large effect sizes for 4 of the 8 constructs associated with positive postsecondary success. Results suggest promoting a positive school climate through effective SWPBIS implementation may influence the teaching of critical transition skills for SWD in a high school setting. This study adds to the growing body of research on SWPBIS in the high school setting, and raises further research questions regarding transition skill instruction for SWD. Studies have shown getting along with others and appropriate social behaviors are critical transition behaviors (Lemaire & Mallik, 2008). SWPBIS provides schools a cost-effective, time efficient and evidence-based manner in which to increase critical nonacademic skills needed for postschool success.
 
78. Critical Incidents in the Implementation of a Multi-Tiered System of Supports
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Cade Charlton (Brigham Young University), CHRISTIAN SABEY (Brigham Young University )
Discussant: Judith Sylva (California State University, San Bernardino)
Abstract: School leaders are increasingly interested in finding efficient, effective methods to establish and sustain a Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS). Research on tiered systems has revealed clear benefits to students and teachers in schools using tiered systems of support (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010; Ross & Horner, 2007). This paper will describe a systematic study of statewide MTSS projects using a qualitative research technique called the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). In this presentation, we will discuss the results of this CIT study conducted with leaders from 27 states directly responsible for MTSS implementation at the state level. These individuals were identified based on having multiple years of experience working to support at least 20 districts or schools implementing MTSS. Furthermore, we only interviewed projects that were actively working to integrate academic and social behavior support systems within a shared, universal tiered framework. The results from our study identified themes from these interviews ranging from strategies to enhance teaming, increase consistency in critical practices, establish a common language, engage stakeholders in general education, and integrate existing infrastructure across initiatives.
 
79. A Comparison Between a Paper-Based and Digital Application to Increase Performance in Simple and Complex Computation
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH KANEER JENKINS (University of North Carolina Wilmington), James Stocker (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Computational and Procedural Fluency are key components in mathematics achievement. To meet fluency recommendations set forth by the Core Content Curriculum Mathematics Standards, teachers often rely on technology as a primary practice tool. By applying an alternating treatments design, the researchers compared performance outcomes with four students experience mathematics difficulties using a free popular online application versus a self-managed paper-and-pencil intervention designed to build math fact fluency. Pre-baseline activities included the creation of two distinct sets of math facts using a latency measure and a one-minute timed probe. Students also completed curriculum based measures for complex computation. After five consecutive days of baseline to ensure stability, the students entered intervention. The paper-and-pencil intervention consists of three, one minute timings with feedback provided after each timed trial. The digital application provides feedback directly after each timed problem. Students continue to complete a curriculum based measurement every Friday. Performance outcomes are entered on a standard celeration chart. Generalization to complex computation will be evaluated at the end of the study.
 
80. An Evaluation of and Preference for Two Flashcard Interventions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSEY LOFLIN (Sam Houston State University), Kristina Vargo (Sam Houston State University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Many elementary students struggle with the acquisition of sight words which can hinder development of complex reading skills. Additionally, students who lack fluency with computation of basic math facts may struggle with higher-order math concepts. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two flashcard interventions for teaching sight words and math facts to 4 elementary students using an A-B-A-B reversal design. The results showed that Strategic Incremental Rehearsal (SIR) was superior to Incremental Rehearsal (IR) with 2 of the 4 participants in that more targets were acquired. For the other 2 participants, similar rates of acquisition were observed with both flashcard interventions. For the 2 participants with similar acquisition rates, we assessed student preference for the flashcard interventions using a modified concurrent-chains arrangement. Both participants preferred the SIR intervention exclusively to the IR intervention. In addition, we assessed social validity of the 2 flashcard methods with 6 teachers from the participants’ school. All rated both interventions favorably.
 
81. Programming for Stimulus Generalization Using Cover-Copy-Compare for Basic Division Fluency, Generalization, and Maintenance
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
RACHEL LEE (University of Detroit Mercy), Laurice Joseph (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: It is important for educators to use efficient methods and ensure skill generalization. The current study was designed to extend prior studies examining the effects of the Cover-Copy-Compare method (CCC) by programming for stimulus generalization. Specifically, differential effects of CCC only, CCC+repetition, and CCC+programming for generalization were examined on six, fourth grade students' fluency, maintenance, and generalization of basic division math facts. An alternating treatment design with a baseline condition was used to measure the effects of the CCC intervention conditions. Findings revealed that across all CCC conditions, all participants improved their performance on division fact fluency and were able to generalize their skills while solving story problems at levels greater than in baseline; however, there was overlap in student performance on fluency measures among all CCC conditions. Results of this study can provide educators with strategies to modify a traditional CCC intervention procedure based upon their needs. Limitations, implications for educators, and additional resources will be provided.
 
82. Effects of Social Skill Instruction and an Interdependent Group Contingency on Social Skill Use and Disruptive Behaviors in a Classroom Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JAYNE MEREDITH MURPHY (University of Cincinnati), Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati), Cara Dillon (University of Cincinnati), Carla Luevano (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Research indicates that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) emit severe disruptions and off-task behaviors in the classroom setting that adversely impact the learning environment (Conklin, Kamps & Wills, 2017). Classroom teachers report disruptive behaviors and conduct problems as a major barrier to teaching their students (Harrison, Vannest, Davis, & Reynolds, 2012). An ABC multiple baseline across classrooms design (Kennedy, 2005) was used in an alternative school setting to evaluate the effects of explicit social skills training combined with a group contingency on engagement, social skill use, and disruptive behavior. In a meta-analysis of social skill training programs for students with EBD (Gresham et al., 2004), it was found that most social skill training programs are erroneously based on the assumption that all participant have acquisition deficits. Through the class-wide intervention examined in the current study, social skill acquisition deficits are targeted through social skill instruction and social skill performance deficits are targeted from reinforcement programs. Complete results are pending, but current results indicate an increase in engagement and a decrease in disruptive behavior in classrooms that have started the intervention.
 
83. The Use of a Token Economy to Increase Academic Learning Time
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ZAHIDA CHEBCHOUB (United Arab Emirates University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Several factors impact the learning of students. Some of these factors such as learners being off-task, learners displaying undesirable behavior such as the use of mobile phones for non-academic purposes during class may have a negative effect on the learning process being successful. The present classroom research aims at applying practical solutions to overcome these obstacles. One of these solutions is the use of a token economy that will encourage learners to make more advantage of academic learning time and decrease undesirable behavior that may impede their learning. A group of 8 students has been selected for the study. A preference reinforcement analysis was done prior to the implementation of the token economy. Preliminary results showed that a token economy can have psotive results in decreasing undesirable behavior, namely the use of mobile phones for non-academic purposes in class. Data collection will span over a period of 5 weeks.
 
84. A Preliminary Study in Applying the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model in Consultation to Increase Treatment Integrity
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CANDACE GANN (Oklahoma State University), S. Shanun Kunnavatana (Independent Researcher)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This preliminary study investigated the use of the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model (Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, & Lane, 2007) to improve teacher treatment integrity for a function-based classroom management plan. The participants were a special education teacher and three elementary-age students receiving special education services for emotional disturbance who engaged in disruptive, off-task behavior. This study was conducted in two parts: (a) a comprehensive functional assessment-based classroom management plan was systematically designed for a self-contained classroom of students with emotional disturbance using the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model, and (b) a functional assessment-based consultation plan was systematically constructed using the Function-Based Intervention Decision Model and implemented with the teacher participant to evaluate its effect on treatment integrity using a single-case modified changing criterion design. Results of this study showed improvement in treatment integrity following the implementation of functional assessment-based consultation plan, as well as improvement in student on-task behavior.
 
85. Evaluating the Good Behavior Game in Two Classrooms: An Extension of Past Research
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA CAMPBELL (St. Lawrence College), Kim Trudeau-Craig (St. Lawrence College)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Recent estimates indicate that one in five children in Ontario under the age of 19 experiences a mental, emotional or behavioral disorder which significantly impacts their daily functioning (Children's Mental Health Ontario, 2016). Many of these children are placed in mainstream classrooms without appropriate supports. Empirical research demonstrates that the Good Behavior Game increases on-task behaviors and decreases interfering behaviors in students of all ages (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Medland & Stachnik, 1972; Harris & Sherman, 1973). In the present study, a multiple baseline design was used to further the research by evaluating the effects of the game on the percentage of student non-compliance and the frequency of teacher behavior specific praise in two Ontario classrooms. Inter-observer agreement was calculated for 30% of the sessions, and treatment integrity and social validity were also measured. Results indicated a 108% increase in teacher behavior specific praise and a 37% decrease in student non-compliance in classroom one, and a 60% increase in teacher behavior specific praise and a 67% decrease in student non-compliance in classroom two. This research contributes to the literature on effective and efficient ways to address interfering behaviors in general education classrooms.
 
86. Behavioral Training for Teachers to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in Elementary School Children
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Maria Fernanda de los Santos (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Marcela Rosas Peña (National Autonomous University of Mexico), SILVIA MORALES CHAINE (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: School behavioral problems correlate with a low academic performance in students, and more occupational wear on teachers. The present study aims to reduce disruptive behavior in children through increased involvement in homework as a function of teacher training in behavioral management. Four First Grade children participated in a public elementary school in Mexico City and their teacher. All children had a low involvement in homework and behavioral problems such as hitting, disrupting, etc. in the classroom. A partial-interval direct observation record was applied with event-occurrence measurement during 8 sessions of 40-minute session, before and after teacher training and contingency implementation. The results showed an increase in the involvement in the task above 50% and a decrease of almost 10% in disruptive behavior with respect to baseline. The implementation of behavioral strategies allows involvement in homework and progress in school planning as well as reducing behavioral problems in the classroom.
 
87. Dependent Group Contingencies: A Brief Review of Recent Research (2010–2017)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT PAGE (Utah State University)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The use of group contingencies has demonsFtrated efficacious to manage a variety of behaviors on a class-wide scale for varying populations. Little, Akin-Little, & O'Neill's (2015) meta-analysis of group contingencies from 1980-2010 identified 11 studies specifically investigating dependent group contingencies. The current state of dependent group contingency research after Little and colleague's (2015) meta-analysis, however, is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to investigate the current research using dependent group contingencies from 2010-2017. Results from the current review returned a total of six studies investigating dependent group contingencies published since Little et al.'s meta-analysis, with half of those studies targeting increasing physical activity and the remainder focusing on academic-related behaviors. The current review describes recent applications and successes, limitations of previous research, and provides directions for future research employing dependent group contingencies in educational settings. Lastly, suggestions for procedural modifications that may increase the overall acceptability and effectiveness of this procedure with teachers or other stakeholders will be discussed.
 
88. Using ClassDojo® to Enhance School Age Students' Prosocial Behavior in a Classroom Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
VALERIE FORTE (Florida Institute of Technology ), Victoria Ryan (Florida Institute of Technology ), Ada C. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Previous literature supports the use of a variety of classroom behavioral management programs to increase prosocial behaviors and decrease problem behaviors. For example, token economies, placement of classroom rules and guidelines, and providing the opportunity for students to choose the activity or subject to work on, have proven to be effective for many students; however, they can be expensive and cumbersome to manage. ClassDojo®, a classroom management system, is a type of digital token economy system that includes technology to track digital points for teacher-directed behavior. The program is free to download, simple to use, and is easily transferable between teachers and families. The present study evaluated the effects of ClassDojo® for 3 children in a classroom setting that included one participant diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and two neurotypical participants. Goals of the current study included: (1) increasing prosocial behavior, and (2) reducing disruptive behaviors. Results were evaluated within a reversal design, and showed ClassDojo® was an effective system for classroom management across three students. All participants demonstrated improvements in prosocial behavior relative to baseline; however, disruptive behavior persisted, at near-baseline levels. Disruptive behavior decreased to near-zero levels with implementation of a response-cost, while prosocial behavior also showed improvements. Further research should test this finding with a larger number of participants that would represent a typical classroom size.
 
89. The Effects of a Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior as an Interdependent Group Contingency for Children Diagnosed With Developmental Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TYLER RE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Chrystal Jansz Rieken (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior procedure with an interdependent group contingency on the rate of vocal disruptions for children with a developmental disabilities diagnosis in a classroom setting. Participants were male, 7-14-years old and an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis; two participants had additional diagnoses. Results indicated that the treatment package was effective in reducing the number of vocal disruptions for all participants. Mean-count per interval interobserver agreement was collected for 32% of all sessions via video recording, resulting in 86.17% agreement. Implications for applied practice and future research in the areas of DD, ASD, and classroom management will be discussed.
 
90. Fading Out of Preferred Events on Self-Controlled Responses in Children With Attention Deficit Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
FERNANDA CASTANHO CALIXTO (Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil), Thayse Loyana Martins Albano (Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil), Nassim Chamel Elias (Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: The reasons why we make decisions have been the focus of scientific interest and popular curiosity. Previous studies demonstrated that the presence of preferred events during consequence delay increase self-controlled responses. The present aimed to investigate the effect of choice opportunity and fading out of preferred events on self-controlled responses in children with Attention Deficit Disorder. The studies were carried out with five children aged 5. The experimental task consisted in the choice between two competing stimuli, presented in a monitor, followed by immediate consequences of smaller quantity and delayed ones of greater quantity. Potentially reinforcing events were manipulated along the delay of the consequence. Participants were exposed to the following conditions: a) Baseline, b) Choice between High Preference Events (C-HP), c) No Choice between High Preference Events (N-HP) and d) Fading out of Preferred Event (FO). The results indicated that self-controlled choices increased with the presence of preferred events. Until now, in FO condition, results showed that self-control responses were maintained, in at least 50%.
 
91. Improving Transition Time Using a High-Probability Request Sequence With Typically Developing Preschoolers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JACLYN MCGRATH (St. Cloud State University), Michele R. Traub (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Compliance during transitions is a difficult task for preschoolers causing for valuable time to be lost during the school day. A high-probability (high-p) request sequence with an embedded fading component was used to decrease off task time and off task behaviors of preschoolers at a Child Care Center. Three typically developing preschoolers participated in this study. The high-p request sequence consisted of using three verbal and/or physical requests from the preschooler followed by the low-probability request of going to the bathroom, the targeted transition. The fading component consisted of the preschooler getting 4 out of 5 data points of a transition = 10 s without aggression. Once that was obtained the number of high-p requests systematically decreased. The results indicated that the intervention for all three participants was immediately effective by decreasing both the off-task time and off-task behaviors. Overall, the high-p request sequence is an effective approach to increasing compliance in preschoolers allowing for them to gain school readiness skills.
 
92. An Evaluation of the Efficacy and Preference of Different Choice Arrangements
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HOLLY BRUSKI (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology and Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Mackenzie Schroeder (Western New England University)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Providing choice opportunities has been successful for increasing appropriate behavior and decreasing inappropriate behavior; however, the arrangement of how choices are provided varies. In some cases, the choice is provided before the session begins, and in other cases, the choices are provided within the session (e.g., Smith, Iwata, & Shore, 1995; Graff & Libby, 1999). There may be benefits to both arrangements. For example, choices within the session may provide access to high preferred items based on momentary changes in preferences. In this case, a within-session choice arrangement would be a more effective arrangement than a pre-session choice arrangement. In the current study, we replicated and extended previous research by (a) determining the efficacy of different choice arrangements on skill acquisition. Results were that the majority of participants acquired skill across multiple conditions; however, for two of the four participants, the most skills were acquired during the pre-session choice condition. Possible limitations and implications of these results will also be discussed.
 
93. An Investigation of Proximity Control in a Large-Group Unstructured Educational Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MARK D. SHRIVER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Phil Scherer (University of Nebraska Omaha), Adam Weaver (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Using decreased physical distance to influence another's behavior is referred to as proximity control. Proximity control has been reported to be an effective behavior management strategy for general education students, students demonstrating disruptive behaviors, students with developmental disabilities, to increase on-task behavior, improve transitions, and decrease problem behaviors. Despite its efficacy and seemingly low effort requirement, proximity control is not commonly used by school staff, particularly in unstructured settings with large groups of students. Previous research has examined proximity control in structured classrooms, with small number of students, or in conjunction with other procedures. The current study addresses several gaps in the research literature and in practice. Using an ABAB design, we attempted to isolate proximity from other treatment variables typically implemented in conjunction with proximity, such as pre-correction and increased levels of praise. Also, the study was conducted in a large-group (approximately 100 students) unstructured setting; a school playground. Results show that problem student behavior decreased with implementation of adult proximity on the playground. It was also observed that adult reprimands increased. Finally, the adults did not rate the intervention acceptable relative to their typical practice. Implications of these findings for future research and practice are presented.
 
94. A Comparison of Response Cost and Token Delivery to Reduce Callouts in Two First Grade Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE MCARDLE (University of Georgia), Joshua Mellott (University of Georgia), Scott P. Ardoin (University of Georgia Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two teacher-implemented interdependent group contingencies in reducing callouts in two first grade classrooms. Using an alternating treatments design, teachers either removed tokens contingent upon callouts (response cost) or delivered tokens contingent upon appropriate behaviors (token delivery). Both interventions were effective in reducing callouts, but a more immediate decrease was initially observed in the response cost condition for both classrooms. A replication was performed in one classroom, during which similar reductions were observed in both conditions. Following the intervention, teachers reported a preference for response cost and student preference varied. Implications for educational practices and future research are discussed.
 
95. The Effects of Video Modeling on On-Task Behavior for Students With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders During Independent Writing
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH KENT (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of video-modeling on the duration of on-task behaviors during the independent writing portion of the writing block. Students were ages 9-11 of varying backgrounds and all were identified with emotional/behavioral disorders. The students were served in the same self-contained classroom, five days a week. The study utilized a multiple-baseline across subjects design with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Data were collected as whole-interval recordings where each interval was 30 seconds for a total of 15 minutes for each session. After baseline data was taken, implementation of the intervention began for each student by random selection after baseline data were stable. The effect of the video modeling on the duration was analyzed using visual data analysis. Along with a video model that used a script, intervention involved Video Feedback and elements of self-monitoring. Initial data collection has started, data collection is ongoing.
 
96. Effects of Specific Feedback and Programmed Instruction on Performance in Online Courses
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
REBECA MATEOS MORFIN (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara), Diana de León (Universidad de Guadalajara), Mario Serrano (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Feedback is a relevant variable to promote learning, some studies have reported that the effect on learning depends on the content of feedback in programmed instruction. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of specific content of feedback on learning in online courses under an programmed instruction task in postgraduate students. Two groups of participants were formed, the groups were distinguished by the application of the programmed instruction task with specific feedback. During the final evaluation the percentage of correct responses was higher for the group with a previous programmed instruction task. The results are discussed in relation to the contribution of programmed instruction with specific content feedback to online education and future directions for research.
 
97. An Evaluation of Single-Response Repetition Error Correction on Spelling Words During Discrete Trial Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
REVAE MARCHELLE BOYKINS (UMBC; The Shafer Center), Joshua Firestone (The Shafer Center)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Several error correction procedures have been shown to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete trial instruction. Worsdell et al. (2005) compared two error correction procedures, single-response repetition and multiple-response repetition to teach sight words to adults with developmental disabilities. Although multiple-response repetition showed to be more effective in acquisition, single-response repetition resulted in the acquisition of sight words for all the participants. Single-response repetition consists of the experimenter modeling the correct response and requiring the participant to repeat the correct response prior to moving onto the next trial. The present study evaluated the effects of single-response repetition on the acquisition of spelling words using a multiple baseline design across three sets of spelling words for one participant. Results showed that the participant acquired all three sets of spelling words and retained the targets in all three sets during maintenance. The results suggest that single-response repetition may not only be effective in the acquisition of targets, but also in the long-term maintenance of those targets.
 
98. To Correct or Not to Correct? A Comparison of Two Teaching Procedures Using PORTL
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ELIZABETH MCKAY SANSING (University of North Texas), Rebecca Durham (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
Abstract: Many teaching procedures use positive reinforcement for correct responses and a correction procedure for incorrect responses. Correction procedures can include verbal instructions, modeled responses, and physical prompts. While correction procedures do help elicit the occurrence of the desired response, they can also have unintended side effects. The purpose of this study was to compare a teaching procedure that used just positive reinforfcement and a teaching procedure that used a combination of positive reinforcement and corrections. College students learned sfeveral tasks using the tabletop game PORTL. We evaluated the participant's affect and number of errors for each procedure, as well as the participant's preference for a particular procedure. Preliminary results showed that the procedure that included corrections was less preferred and resulted in a higher number of errors. Participants also reported feeling "nervous," "confused," and "frustrated." fThe positive reinforcement only procedure was highly preferred and nearly errorless. During this procedure, participants reported feeling "good" and "confident."
 

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