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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #76
Saturday, May 26, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
Chair: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
59. Characteristics of Literature Reviews Published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Area: PCH; Domain: Applied Research
SETH KING (Tennessee Technological University), Argnue Chitiyo (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Literature reviews allow professionals to identify effective interventions and assess developments in research and practice. As in other forms of scientific inquiry, the transparency of literature searches enhances the credibility of findings. This review evaluated the characteristics of search methods employed in literature reviews published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis from 2006 to 2017 (n = 44). Specific aims included determining the frequency of narrative, systematic, and meta-analytic reviews; evaluating author reports of literature search and selection procedures; and identifying methods used to evaluate study quality and results. An additional aim included assessing the influence of the brief review format. Results suggest that evaluated reviews exhibited multiple strengths. Nonetheless, issues involving the reporting and execution of searches may limit the validity and replicability of literature reviews. Reviews infrequently assessed the methodological rigor of included studies or quantified intervention effects. A brief discussion follows an overview of findings.
60. Misleading Measurement? A Review of the Measurement Used in Basic and Applied Research on Extinction
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
ANNE LAU (ABC Group Hawai'i), Ashley Hogan (ABC Group Hawai'i)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Practioners have applied the procedure of extinction to reduce the frequency of a wide range of problem behaviors in a variety of settings such as homes, clinics and schools. Extinction as a procedure occurs when reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued and as a result, the frequency of that behavior decreases in the future. Research has shown that when extinction is implemented, the behavior should gradually decrease or completely stop. Most commonly, extinction effects are measured using percentage of interval data or responses per minute in a specified duration of session time. Measurement tools that do not capture behavior across all opportunities to occur may yield misleading results that either extinction has occurred or misidentification of extinction effects. The importance of using better data collection methods such as trial by trial data or the use of celeration charts that may allow more effective data analysis of extinction effects are discussed.
61. Differential Reinforcement Without Extinction: A Review of the Literature
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
CAROLYN TRUMP (University of Georgia), Kadijah Quinland (University of Georgia), Christopher James Taylor (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Karla Zabala (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: In 1953, Skinner described extinction as the absence of reinforcement in the presence of a target behavior. Researchers have identified undesirable side effects of extinction including response bursts, variability, and treatment implementation feasibility. Despite these side effects, researchers and practitioners use extinction combined with differential reinforcement procedures to reduce problem behavior. The purpose of this review was to examine differential reinforcement treatment packages that excluded the use of an extinction component, which can be conceptualized as a concurrent schedule. The authors reviewed 109 individual experiments contained within 32 published articles. Studies included human participants, a functional analysis of problem behavior, single-case research design, and intervention phases that contained differential reinforcement without extinction. The review indicated potential positive yet idiosyncratic effects in regards to the arrangement of concurrent schedules.
62. A Review of Social Validity Statements in Interventions for Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Area: PCH; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICK RAJKAY BLEVINS (University of New Mexico, College of Education; University of New Mexico, Medical Group)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: The concept of social validly within applied behavior analysis represents a core construct that connects the values, goals, and expectations of direct and indirect adult consumers with the motivations of the researcher or interventionist (Kazdin, 1977; Van Houten, 1979; Wolf, 1978). However, works by Callahan et al. (2017), Carr et al. (1999), Kennedy (1992), and Spear, C. F., Strickland-Cohen, M. K., Romer, N., & Albin, R. W. (2013) have repeatedly reported a lack of prevalence of the use of social validity methodology in published research within behavior analytic journals and national clearinghouses. This review attempts to continue the inquiry into the state and relevancy of social validity assessments. By combining historical dimensions of social validity: focus, time of assessment, consumer type, method, and outcomes/maintenance of behavior change this research evaluates the inclusion of explicit statements of social validity assessments in published experimental studies of behavioral interventions for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities within the last 25 years. Out of 63 identified articles, eleven met inclusion criteria representing a ratio consistent with historical literature reviews on the inclusion of social validity statements. The majority of identified social validity statements consisted of indirect assessments using Likert-type measures of treatment procedures and outcomes. The implications of the results are discussed.
63. A Taxonomy of Evolutionary Ideas Among William James' Principles of Psychology
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
LUIZ HENRIQUE SANTANA (University of São Paulo, Brazil)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: William James is considered a pioneer in bringing evolutionary thinking together with psychological science. He argues that consciousness must have evolved by performing a function upon the behaviour of complex animals. Although vastly influenced by Darwinian ideas, William James paid tribute to the relevance of Herbert Spencer's "Principles of Psychology" to the organization of psychology as a scientific discipline. Spencer's ideas influenced the work of leading experimental psychologists of the late nineteenth century, such as Edward L. Thorndike and his law of effect, and incorporated selective thinking into the causal logic of psychological explanation. We established a taxonomy of evolutionary ideas within James book's "Principles of Psychology". We found that James used the concept of consciousness as 1) a product of the evolutionary process in animals; 2) a cause of psychological phenomena as it selects the best action to perform in a certain context or under a certain environmental challenge. The influence of evolutionary thinking on James cannot be attributed exclusively to his reading of Charles Darwin. James had access to the debate about evolution from multiple thinkers. The works of Herbert Spencer, Thomas Henry Huxley and Ernst Haeckl were important upon the development of jamesian system.The diversity of the matrix of evolutionary influences on James is important to understand the continuity of comparative studies in psychology between the late nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth century since his book was used as a textbook in most of the introductory courses in psychology in the USA for more than half a century. Key-Words: William James, Principles of Psychology, Darwinism, Evolution.
64. Methodological Problems for the Study of Emotions Through Emotion Induction Procedures
Area: PCH; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA ISABEL MUNOZ-BLANCO (Universidad Panamericana)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Emotions have been a problematic area of study for behavior analysts due to their apparent cognitive nature. Lewon & Hayes (2014) suggested that emotions may be understood as motivation operations (MO) due to their observed effect on behavior. Mood induction literature has explored this possibility by manipulating appetitive and aversive stimulation prior to the task. However, the effect of this manipulation is unspecific, and it is difficult to attribute an emotion as the cause of changes of responding in the individual. It is then confusing if the effect observed can be attributed to an emotion or to a different form of MO. The aim of the present paper is to add to the methodology used for researching emotions as MO in behavior analysis. The implications of using traditional procedures for MOs for the understanding of emotions in humans are questioned. Different forms of emotion induction present in the literature both within and outside of behavior analysis are presented as alternatives for the manipulation of emotions related MO.
65. Superstitious Behavior
Area: PCH; Domain: Basic Research
MELIA SHAMBLIN (University of Nevada, Reno), Thouraya Al-Nasser (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is the occurrence of a reinforcer alters the frequency of the responses it follows. Skinner (1948) investigated responses that were maintained independent from the delivery of reinforcers in pigeons which he described as "superstitious" behavior and argued that human behaviors arise similarly. As the case with pigeons, humans may emit a response that is coincidentally followed by a reinforcer. Superstitious behavior is defined as responses that emerge in the absence of actual environmental contingencies. Two other kinds of superstitious behavior were experimentally examined post Skinner's (1948) study, in which two or more spatially distinct responses were maintained by independent schedules and when the availability of response-dependent reinforcement is differentially correlated with selected stimuli organisms frequently respond differentially in the presence of those stimuli. Overall there is not a lot of literature that investigated superstitious behavior. The purpose of this poster is to discuss why some superstitious behaviors maintained within different cultures are resistant to extinction and is superstitious behavior a rule governed behavior.
66. Overweight and Obesity Behavioral Economics: Delay and Effort Discounting Processes
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
GISEL G. ESCOBAR (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales Chaine (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Suzanne H. Mitchell (Oregon Health & Science University)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: Overweight and obesity are a growing public health problem in Mexico; therefore the knowledge about its causes is a need. The World Health Organization points out both the bad eating habits and the sedentary lifestyle as risk factors to develop those problems, and both can be seen as choices in which the individuals allocate their responding among available alternatives. From the behavioral economics view, has been shown that delay discounting is a trans-disease process in a variety of behavioral disorders, such as drug addiction, pathological gambling, obesity and so on. Particularly with overweight and obesity, it seems that not only the decrease in the value of a reinforcer as a function of the delay to its receipt is involved, but also the number of behaviors implicated thru the time (effort) has an impact in the loss of the value of a reinforcer as a function of the increasing effort to get it. Nevertheless, there is limited information regarding the role of effort in the discounting field and its relationship with health problems. It is considering that identify different response patterns of choice base on delays and efforts, can help to guide efficient treatments to prevent and reduce overweight and obesity.
67. The Use of N400 in Studies of Stimulus Equivalence: A Methodological Review
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
MARCELO VITOR SILVEIRA (Universidade Federal do ABC), Guilherme Sbrocco (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Raquel Sarmento (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Mariele Cortez (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: The amplitude of the N400 is sensitive to the semantic relations between stimulus parings that are presented in lexical desicion paradigma (LS). For instance, following the presentation of the pairing "milk-coffee" the amplitude of the N400's will be significantly reduced in comparision to the amplitude of the N400 elicited by the pairing "milk-grease." Analogous N400 effects have been found with arbitrary stimulus-stimulus relations formed by matching-to-sample (MTS) procedures. Thus, smaller N400 effects are elicited by pairings comprised by non-equivalent stimuli and larger amplitudes are elicited by pairings comprised by stimuli that share common class membership. In the current study we reviewed studies on equivalence class formation that used the N400 to determine the semantic status of such stimulus-stimulus relations formed by MTS procedures. Following the analysis of training and testing variables across studies, we observed that MTS procedures and LS paradigm varyed substantially from one study to another. Notwithstanding, the N400 effects were roboust across the studies that we analyzed. This finding lead to inference that N400 effects can be elicited by stimulus-stimulus relations established by the matching-to-sample procedures. Thus, as Sidman (1994) pointed out, stimulus equivalence provide a useful model of semantic relations.
68. A Tale of Two Systems: A Brief Introduction to the Applied Implications of Goldiamond's Nonlinear Constructional Perspective
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
ALEXIS ANN FILATOV (University of Nevada, Reno), Dominique Stedham (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract: The conceptual systems with which a behavior scientist has come into contact will influence how they interact with any given situation whether it is as a basic scientist, a theoretician, or an applied scientist. In the current scientific climate of Behavior Analysis, it is most common for graduate level students to come into contact with the philosophical system of Radical Behaviorism. For many this may be the only system with which they interact and with this limited exposure to other philosophical systems they may find themselves at a standstill when interacting with complex events with which the constructs of Radical Behaviorism have been depleted. Alternative systems, such as Goldaimond's nonlinear constructional approach, may make available different avenues for the practitioner to interact with the complexity of the conditions. This poster will describe Radical Behaviorism's stimulus control as well as Goldaimond's nonlinear constructional perspective and will provide a number of scenarios, of varying complexity, with which an applied practitioner may interact and will exemplify the benefit of a well-rounded philosophical repertoire that allows the scientist to utilize constructs from various systems in various contexts.



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