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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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44th Annual Convention; San Diego, CA; 2018

Event Details

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Poster Session #481
Monday, May 28, 2018
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Marriott Marquis, Grand Ballroom 1-6
PRA
Chair: Noelle Neault (PENDING)
91. CRISIS OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY AND POWER PLAY: Inhibitory Implications on Competent Practice
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
BOSEDE ASIKHIA (International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis Lagos Nigeria), Usifo Edward Asikhia (International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with developing techniques based on the principles of learning and applying these to change behavior of social significance. Since 1960’s, there has been exponential worldwide growing rate of the profession. This growth and globalization of ABA has thrived on the characteristics or dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis published by Baer, Wolf, and Riley’s 1968 article. Since then, the philosophies of practice have been rooted in the understanding that most behaviors are learned, that behavior serves a function, the environment impacts behavior, skill deficits impact behavior, that team work is critical, and that relationship matters. In pursuant of the latter, the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts made provision for professional delineation and boundaries of Competence while cautioning practitioners to always be sensitive to the potential harmful effects of other contacts on their work and on those persons with whom they deal. With the resurgence of ‘flash card therapy’ and utter disregard for boundaries of competence by competing professionals in the field of ABA therapy, there appears to be conflict with multiple contingencies concept in operation during intervention and resultant drift from the multiple functional areas of client’s development usually in focus of attention. This emerging trend, does not only promote incompetent practice, it makes social validation indices recessive or invisible and ultimately voids the collaborative synergy of the stakeholders (i.e. the interaction of professionals whose inputs when combined produce a total therapeutic outcome that is greater than the simple sum of the individual professional’s contributions). Presenter Co-author Bosede Ehimen Asikhia BCBA Dr. Usifo Edward Asikhia BCBA-D Program Director/Faculty Member Clinical Director/Faculty Member bosedeasikhia@gmail.com asikhia@msn.com International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis MAJEK BALOGUN TOWN [OPPOSITE FARA ESTATE] EPE-LEKKI EXPRESS ROAD, LAGOS NIGERIA Email: itc-aba@itc-aba.org Tel: 08026080864, +12085894026 Web: internationaltrainingcenterabaafrica.com & Home-Link International Inc. 890 E Walnut Rd. Apt. 4 Vineland NJ 08360 USA
 
92. A Comparison of Procedures for Evaluating Generalization Following Matrix Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE PERRY (Beacon ABA Services), Victoria Sadler (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services, Inc.), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Matrix training has been used to promote generalized demonstration of targeted object-action-language routines (Goldstein & Mousetis, 1989; Dauphin, Kinney, & Stromer, 2004). In the context of play, it involves training object-action-language (OAL) routines with a set of figurine-object pairs. Following acquisition of targeted play routines, generalization is then tested by recombining the materials into novel figurine-object pairs. Although this procedure is effective in establishing untrained OAL play routines when figurine-objects are presented in pairs, it is unclear whether generalization is also demonstrated in the context of a more typical play scenario in which all materials are available at once. The goal of this study is to design a method of evaluating generalization effects of matrix training by developing a test that more closely approximates a typical play scenario. The participant, a three year old girl diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was taught three OAL routines using video modeling. Generalization was then tested using two different generalization tests and the degree of recombinative generalization demonstrated in each test was evaluated.
 
93. Use of Descriptive Assessment and Its Correspondence to Functional Analysis: A Systematic Review
Domain: Theory
Bethany P. Contreras Young (University of Missouri ), SAVANNAH TATE (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Mattina Davenport (University of Missouri-Columbia), Aqdas Haider (University of Missouri), Alexander C Schalla (University of Missouri)
Abstract: Functional assessments are used to identify the reinforcers maintaining problem behavior and helps guide treatment development. Two types of direct assessment are often used to identify the function of problem behavior: descriptive assessment (DA) and functional analysis (FA). Some researchers have suggested that DA is not as accurate as FA (Thompson & Iwata, 2007), yet many practitioners continue to use DA as a primary method for identifying variables maintaining problem behavior (Roscoe et al., 2015). We are conducting a systematic literature review to identify the use of and correspondence between results of DA and FA. We conducted a thorough literature search, which included any published studies that reported the methods and results of a DA for problem behavior. For studies that included both a DA and FA, we calculated the correspondence in function between the two assessments for each participant. We found that the results of DA corresponded with results of FA in 59% of cases. In 25% of cases, results of DA yielded completely different results than FA. This preliminary analysis suggests that practitioners may not wish to rely solely on the results of DA when developing treatments for problem behavior.
 
94. Learning Statistical Language: Self-Paced, Learning Modules For Behavior Analysis To Communicate On Interdisciplinary Teams
Domain: Service Delivery
ABBY LEWIS (Teachers College, Columbia ), Tom Buqo (Hofstra University)
Abstract: Behavior analysts frequently work on interdisciplinary teams with other service professionals. These professionals consume research outside of the behavior analytic realm that utilize different methods of data collection and analysis. These methods often utilize group-design statistical analysis that behavior analysts have little to no training in. While single-subject design and visual analysis remain the preferred research methodology for behavior analysis, a knowledge of what statistical terms mean and their use is crucial to effectively interpret results from other fields and communicate with other members of service delivery teams. The current poster provides information on upcoming training modules designed by behavior analysts to provide self-paced, personalized instruction to professionals and students seeking to effectively master the language of statistics for the purpose of communication and interpretation of the results of other fields relevant to the interdisciplinary service delivery for individuals and their support networks. Preliminary data will also be presented on the outcomes of the modules.
 
95. An Evaluation of Problem Behavior during the Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment
Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA SIMMONS (Rowan University), Jessica Akers (Baylor University), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The paired stimulus preference assessment (Fisher, et al., 1992) is a common method of identifying preferred items that may function as reinforcers. Despite its utility, the methodology of presenting and removing preferred items following brief periods of access may evoke problem behavior, particularly for those with a tangible function. In this study, we conducted a record review of the last 30 consecutive patients seen for assessment and treatment of problem behavior. We evaluated whether problem behavior (a) was more likely to occur during the preference assessment for those for whom we identified a tangible function in a subsequent functional analysis, (b) was more likely to occur as the number of trials without the top preferred item increased, and (c) decreased over the course of the preference assessment. Results indicate that problem behavior was more likely to occur for those with a tangible function (68.42%) versus those without (9.09%). As trials without the top preferred item increased, the likelihood of problem behavior increased. There was not a significant difference between quartiles in which problem behavior occurred. The majority of participants had an identified tangible function (63.33%), followed by escape (40.00%), attention (36.67%), and other functions (e.g., automatic, social control; 3.33% each).
 
96. Treating Aggression in a School Setting: Embedding an Individualized Levels System into a Tolerance Training Treatment Evaluation
Domain: Service Delivery
SAVANNAH TATE (University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University), Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Both tolerance training and individualized levels systems have separately demonstrated reductions in high rates of problem behavior, such as aggression. However, when aggression is severe and confounding variables within the natural setting are challenging to control, fidelity to programmed procedures is likely to be low and treatment effects may not be observed. In this study, we used an individualized levels system embedded within tolerance training with a contingency-based progressive delay for a 6-year old female diagnosed with ADHD. A functional analysis indicated aggression and property destruction were maintained by access to tangible items and possibly escape from demands. After observing consistent rates of problem behavior during tolerance training in an analog setting, therapists implemented an individualized levels system in her classroom. Data were collected on intensity of aggression by her teachers throughout the study. Data indicate an individualized levels system within tolerance training could be used to treat severe aggression in the school setting.
 
97. Evaluating a Treatment Package to Teach Parents to Implement Pediatric Feeding Interventions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY ANDERSEN (California State University, Northridge), Beverly Nichols (California State University, Northridge), Megan D. Aclan (Aclan Behavioral Services), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are highly selective in the variety of foods they eat, which can result in poor nutrition and inappropriate mealtime behavior (Penrod et al., 2012). Behavioral interventions, implemented by clinicians and parents, have been successful in improving children’s food acceptance (Bachmeyer, 2009; Najdowski et al., 2010). Researchers have called for component analyses of treatment packages (e.g., Behavioral Skills Training; BST) to evaluate the efficiency of training others to implement feeding interventions (Penrod, 2010). Recently, Aclan & Taylor (2017) investigated the effectiveness of written instructions and feedback to teach parents to implement feeding procedures. The current study extends this research by systematically introducing the components of BST with one additional component, a flow chart, to caregivers of children with food selectivity. The flow chart, a hybrid of both visual prompts and task analyses (Danforth, 1998), has not been evaluated with pediatric feeding interventions. In this study, we examined the use of flow charts and found encouraging results of their use in parent education.
 
98. Analysis of Graphical Displays Toward Effective Behavior Assessment
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
DANA MARIE SZYMANSKI (Bancroft), Javid Rahaman (Bancroft), Kellie P. Goldberg (Bancroft), Victor Chin (Bancroft)
Abstract: Conducting effective assessment and treatment requires practitioners to continuously evaluate pertinent variables to ensure high internal validity. Additionally, identifying and interpreting the effects of specific variables requires stringent analysis of the collected data. Graphical displays are conservative methods for interpreting and communicating meaningful information (Parsonson & Baer, 1986). With this, visual inspection is a crucial skill to interpret results and make clinically sound decisions toward further assessment and treatment (Roane, Fisher, Kelley, Mevers, & Bouxsein, 2013). However, visual inspection of results may be directly impacted based on the dependent variables being measured, types of graphs being used, or when variability in data becomes more complex (Furlong & Wampold, 1982; Vanselow, Thompson, & Karsin, 2011). For effective communication of results, further graphical interpretations and displays may need to be developed and presented (Onwuegbuzie & Dickinson, 2008). Furthermore, this may become increasingly beneficial with aggregation of results, which may detract from a richer analysis of assessment results (Fahmie & Hanley, 2008). The present study explores the use of multiple graphical formats to display relevant assessment information of two adults who exhibit intense aggressive and disruptive behavior while discussing implications toward treatment.
 
99. The Effects of Antecedents and Consequences on Accurate Identification of Function of Problem Behavior by Direct Service Staff with Less than One Year of ABA Experience.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUE A. RAPOZA-HOULE RAPOZA (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services, Inc.), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The function of behavior is determined by consequences it produces. Antecedent stimuli signal the consequence availability for the behavior. Practitioners sometimes identify function based on irrelevant antecedent information. The goal was to identify whether irrelevant antecedent information affect the accurate identification of escape and attention functions by observers with limited experience in Applied Behavior Analysis. Six participants were presented with video segments representing antecedent, behavior, and one of two consequences: attention (hand-over-hand task completion) or escape (task removal). While the antecedent and behavior actions shown in the videos did not vary (task presented and pushed away), subtitles added to each segment in the antecedent and behavior varied, suggesting attention or escape. This created 4 conditions in which antecedent and consequences were consistent (conditions AA and EE) or inconsistent (conditions AE or EA). Participants were asked to identify escape or attention functions at the conclusion of each of the 16 videos presented. Results indicate that when antecedent and consequence combinations depicted in the video segments are consistent, accuracy in identifying function is high. When the combinations are inconsistent, accuracy rates greatly decreased, suggesting that the decrement may be based upon irrelevant information associated with the antecedent rather than relevant consequences.
 
100. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the PECS Protocol with Children Under the Age of Three
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALICEN CUTTING (Beacon ABA Services), Scott Thomas (Beacon ABA Services), Brooke Hyland Littleton (Speech-Language Pathologist), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication system frequently used to promote functional communication in individuals with autism (Bondy and Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). While most research on PECS has found it to be an effective communication system, little research on its use with children under age thee has been conducted. The present study evaluated the sue of the PECS protocol on children between the ages of 18 and 36 months of age. Three children under the age of 30 months participated. All had received ABA services for less than 4 weeks, and had no previous exposure to the PECS protocol or AAC. All trainers followed the PECS protocol, starting with Phase 1. Children were taught to remove a single icon from the front cover of an empty communication book and exchange the icon with a communicative partner in order to receive the target item. Data were collected on the trials to mastery of Phase 1, average service hours per week, and number of different spoken words. All three participants demonstrated mastery within Phase I of PECS and maintained this skill.
 
101. Comparison of Therapist-fed versus Caregiver-fed Functional Analysis Outcomes in Children with a Pediatric Feeding Disorder
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JASON R. ZELENY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Vivian F Ibanez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Caitlin A. Kirkwood (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Trained therapists have served as the feeder in most research on functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior even though inappropriate mealtime behavior typically occurs in the natural environment when the caregiver feeds the child. The extent to which the results of a therapist-fed functional analysis identifies the reinforcers for inappropriate mealtime behavior when the caregivers feeds the child is unknown. Ringdahl and Sellers (2000) compared the outcomes of a therapist versus a caregiver functional analysis of problem behavior (e.g., self-injury). Levels of problem behavior were higher when a caregiver conducted the functional analysis relative to a trained therapist. The functional analysis identified different functions for one participant. Results of Ringdahl and Sellers suggest that treatment prescription might differ, depending on the individual who conducts the functional analysis. We do not know, however, whether results would be similar for functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior. In the current investigation, we compared outcomes of therapist- versus caregiver-fed functional analyses of inappropriate mealtime behavior, and results were identical for 6 of 8 participants. We discuss the implications of these results for function-based treatment of inappropriate mealtime behavior and considerations for future research on pediatric feeding disorders.
 
102. Tolerance Training with Contingency-Based Progressive Delay as Treatment for Aggression
Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA LEE PARANCZAK (Vanderbilt University ), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a common intervention used to teach appropriate communication as an alternative to problem behavior, however, in order to maintain treatment effects in the natural environment, training tolerance to denied or delayed reinforcers can be a critical addition to FCT. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a multi-phase intervention for a 4-year old female with Cerebral Palsy and developmental delays. A functional analysis indicated her aggression was maintained by access to tangibles and attention along with escape from demands. Tolerance training occurred in two synthesized conditions that required the participant to discriminate the onset of different but relevant establishing operations in order to emit the correct, contextually prescribed, mand. Afterward, she was taught to tolerate delays and denials to reinforcement that were enforced by the participant’s mother in home settings.
 
103. A Comparison of Self versus Caregiver Feeding in the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Domain: Applied Research
KAYLA DIANE BRACHBILL (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Erica Jowett Hirst (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Rachel Minkel (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Megan Tolan (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Samantha Lee Smock (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: Several interventions such as escape extinction and differential reinforcement have been shown to be effective in the treatment of food refusal, food selectivity, and problem behaviors associated with feeding; however, most interventions are implemented using caregiver feeding (i.e., adult presentation of bolus). Therefore, little is known about the effects of self feeding on bite acceptance and problem behavior. The current study compared self feeding and caregiver feeding with four children. There was no difference in bite acceptance for three out of four participants; however, caregiver feeding was more effective for one participant. In addition, all four participants exhibited fewer problem behaviors during the self-feeding sessions. These data suggest that using self feeding during treatment might be beneficial for children, especially for children of parents who have difficulty tolerating problem behavior.
 
104. Effects of self-management class and exercise class on improving impulsivity among college students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SEUNG-AH LEE (Yonsei University), Sunghyun Cho (Yonsei University)
Abstract: Former research has suggested that behavioral modification delivered as college class helps students to reduce impulsivity and regular exercise itself also has positive effect by improving regulatory strength. In this regard, this study compares the effects of behavioral modification and exercise in a college setting. The self-management class (n=34) required students to implement an individual improvement plan applying behavioral principles and skills than they learned while the exercise class (n=24) consisted of regular exercise once a week. As a control group, the psychology class (n=33) consisted of lectures on the major psychology theories. The delay discounting task, the Barratt impulsiveness scale, the self-report habit index, and self-regulatory behavior questionnaire were administered at the beginning and end of the class. The results of repeated measures of analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant group differences in impulsivity measured by delay discounting. However, the self-management group showed significantly larger improvement in habit strength and self-reported impulsivity compared to exercise and control group. Additional changes in regulatory behaviors including alcohol consumption and time management were also reported. This study implied that self-management class has positive effect in improving impulsivity of college students. Limitations and recommendations were also discussed in detail.
 
105. Using Precision Teaching to Increase Rate of Speech in a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HANNAH LAVIANA (ABC Group Hawaii), Kyle Machos (Autism Behavior Consulting Group)
Abstract: Abnormal speech patterns are a hallmark symptom of autism. Initiating conversations and developing meaningful social connections are often a deficit for children with Autism. In addition, attempts at maintaining conversation with same-age peers can be unsuccessful due to the prolonged latency between words and phrases. This case study evaluates the effectiveness of rate-building exercises on increasing the speed of intraverbal exchanges in the natural environment to that of same-age peers. The participant is a 10-year old boy diagnosed with Autism. Precision teaching sessions were conducted in an Autism clinic. The frequency of words named per minute and words spoken in conversational speech were collected. Generalization probes were collected during a free-operant condition. The dissemination of this information may help ensure that people with similar deficits can access methods that result in more effective communication and the elimination of symptoms of Autism. Precision teaching timings were conducted during Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) sessions. IOA was evaluated during baseline and was at 97%, and will be evaluated for 33% of future sessions.
 
106. Parent on Board Training Model : Front Loading Parent Training
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
KAT BUCHANAN-MILLER (Sacramento Autism Services; ABA without Borders, Addiction Recovery Institute)
Abstract: Parent on Board Training Model: Front Loading Parent Training This model is based on the premise that Parents want to help their children. Applied Behavior Analysis is a complex science, and we must stay mindful that the majority of our parents are not educated in the practice of Applied Behavior Analysis. The Parent on Board Training Model: Front Loading Parent Training, combines education models equal to those that teach English as a second language with Applied Behavior Analysis principles to deliver the complex language, procedures and practice delivery in a comprehensive, understandable method that parents and caretakers can engage in. When parents first seek service they are highly motivated. They often find themselves facing wait lists and searching to secure help for their child. These scenarios often create a setting event, increasing the likelihood of parent engagement in the process. Given the premise that parents want to help their children we can conclude that they need some front load teaching prior to the beginning of Applied Behavior Analysis treatment to increase results. Using the Parent on Board Training Model measurable improvement can occur in parent participation, cooperation, and collaboration as part of the Applied Behavior Analysis team.
 
107. The Effects of a 40-hour Registered Behavior Technician Training Program on the Implementation of Behavior Reduction Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Taylor Seidler (University of Nevada, Reno), Kristen Green (University of Nevada, Reno), DERRICK GRIME (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Behavior Analysts have a professional and ethical responsibility to ensure that clients have access to high quality services delivered by skilled and competent service providers. A goal of credentialing service providers is to establish standards of competency and standards in training. The Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) is the current credential for frontline staff providing direct implementation of behavior analytic services. Among the requirements for the RBT Credential is the completion of a 40-hour training program, which can be conducted in person or online. Despite the importance of this credential, relatively little research has been conducted examining the relationship between the 40-hour training program and the implementation of behavior analytic services. The present study examined how completing an online, 40-hour RBT training program impacted a trainee’s ability to conduct behavior reduction procedures in role-play scenarios. Specifically, implementation of an extinction procedure was analyzed pre- and post- the 40-hour online RBT training program. Following the RBT training program, behavioral skills training was implemented and the participants’ ability to implement behavior reduction procedures was assessed. Implications for clinical practice and a discussion of future research will be provided.
 
108. The Effects of Mastery Criteria on Skill Maintenance
Domain: Applied Research
MONIQUE BARNETT (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Erica Jowett Hirst (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: Skill acquisition in discrete trial teaching is often determined when an individual responds with 80% or 90% accuracy across 3 consecutive days; however, little is known about the influence of mastery criteria on skill maintenance. The current study compared skill retention at 1 month post mastery when the criteria for mastery was 1 versus 3 days. Data for the first two participants show no difference in skill maintenance. If no differences result from 1- versus 3-day mastery criteria, 1-day mastery criteria should be used in order to allow for faster introduction of more teaching targets in order to increase teaching efficiency. However, more data are required in order to make conclusions regarding best practice for determining mastery criteria for skill acquisition in discrete trial teaching.
 
109. The Effects of an Online 40-hour RBT Training Program on the Acquisition of Discrete Trial Teaching.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kristen Green (University of Nevada, Reno), Taylor Seidler (University of Nevada, Reno), MATTHEW CHRISTOPHER PETERSON (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The purpose of the credentialing program offered by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board is two-fold 1) to ensure quality control of services thereby 2) increasing the likelihood that consumers will have access to effective treatments. The Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) is a credential for providers who are responsible for the direct implementation of behavior-analytic services. Various requirements must be met to achieve the RBT credential, the most intensive of which is a 40-hour training program based on the RBT task list. The task list is intended to cover core tasks that are likely to be performed by behavior technicians. There has been no empirical investigations of how a 40-hour online RBT training impacts an RBT’s ability to implement behavior-analytic services. This study examined the effects of an online, 40-hour RBT training program on the implementation of discrete trials teaching. Specifically, participants were newly employed in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention training program. Videos were taken of each participant running discrete trials pre- and post- a 40 hour online RBT training and post- behavioral skills training. A task analysis for discrete trial teaching was used to score the videos. Implications for clinical practice and future research will be provided.
 
110. A Case Study of Toilet Training a Child With Autism and Abnormal Genitalia
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KYLE MACHOS (behavior autism consulting group), Hannah Laviana (ABC Group Hawaii)
Abstract: Toilet training is often a difficulty in children diagnosed with Autism, and incontinence in older children can be a paramount barrier in all aspects of quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a customized version of toilet training to teach toilet skills to a 10-year-old boy with abnormal genitalia and Autism This case study was conducted with one child diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder at an Applied Behavior Analysis clinic and the child’s home. Urinary complication arose following 12 surgeries to address multiple medical issues performed on the participant between the ages of 18 months and 3 years of age. These surgeries addressed ambiguous genitalia, rectal prolapse, urinary restriction, hernias, and hypospadias. It was reported following surgical complications that the ability for continence in the future was unlikely. Toilet training was unsuccessfully attempted multiple times in multiple settings, leaving the sight of public and novel restroom extremely aversive. Graphical analysis was used to determine effectiveness of toilet training. Results of this case study indicate that the training method was effective in teaching dryness, initiation, and urinating into the toilet at acquisition level to Autistic child with urinary complication following multiple surgeries.
 
111. The Effectiveness Of Using A Visual Board And Reinforcement During Feeding Therapy
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
KATARZYNA M BABIK (University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Abstract: Children with the feeding difficulties are likely to engaged in inappropriate mealtime behaviors (IMB) which may interfere with the developmental of age-typical feeding skills and may require intervention to increase appropriate eating. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a visual board involving delivery of tokens and a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) paired with verbal praise as a procedure to increase solid intake and decrease inappropriate behaviors during mealtimes for a child with food refusal. A tangible preference assessment was run to identify a reinforcer. Non-preferred food was identified via an interview with the child’s parents and used across all sessions. Initially each instance of acceptance resulted in access to a preferred activity, verbal praise and removal of the token from the visual board. Following an increase in acceptance the tokens on the visual board required for exchange to a preferred activity were increased. Results demonstrated that the DRA, visual board and verbal praise increased levels of acceptance and decreased levels of inappropriate behaviors from baseline.
 

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